Assessment Of Green Human Resources And Employees’ Behavior In Hotel Industry (A Case Study Selected Hotels In Owerri, Imo State)
This study was carried out on the assessment of green human resources and employees’ behavior in hotel industry using three selected hotels in Owerri, Imo State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of the staff of the selected hotels in Owerri, Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that the green human resources management have a positive impact on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental sustainability. The study also revealed that green human resources management have a positive impact on employees’ environmentally friendly behaviour. Furthermore, the study showed that green human resources management have a positive impact on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental culture. Therefore, it is recommended that hotel top management and HR managers should establish green human resource management policies. And hotels in Imo state should entrench practicing green human resources so as to improve it cooperate social responsibility.
1.1 Background of the Study
The green management philosophy has gained popularity among industry and scholars for reducing the impact of industrial waste and the harms generated by conventional organizations and products. (Li et al., 2020). Stakeholders and scholars have pressured business organizations to devise policy strategies to achieve social, economic, and environmental outcomes. (Y. J. Kim et al., 2019). In line with business organizations’ efforts to reduce waste and industrial hazards. Environmental issues have forced companies to adopt environmentally friendly practices and focus on their overall environmental performance. (Ahmed et al., 2021). Tourism, including the hospitality industry, has become one of the most valued commercial activities worldwide because it spurs economic growth (Bhutto et al., 2021; World Travel & Tourism Council, 2020). In the last 60 years, the tourism industry has moved 1.5 billion international travel with a growth of 3.8% year-on-year. This amount grew global tourism spending by 1.5 trillion USD from a position of 495 billion and contributed 7% to the export of goods and services (UNWTO, 2019, 2020). The hotel industry is becoming an integral part of global tourism growth. Hospitality has explicitly been recognized as one of the highest energy-intensive sectors. Due to the nature of its operations, the hotel consumes large amounts of resources and produces excessive amounts of waste, leading to an unwanted carbon footprint (Farooq et al., 2021). The growth of the hospitality industry as a global giant industry has also harmed the environment, parallel to the enormous benefits that this industry has provided (Ahmed et al., 2021). The breadth of the global hospitality industry’s operating scope, value chain, and business size presents awareness to reduce the industry’s negative impact on the natural, economic and social environment (Nisar et al., 2021) using the concept of green hotel management. Like other service industries, the hospitality industry is becoming a business entity that relies heavily on its human resources, in some literature focusing on frontline workers whose role is pivotal for the viability of the hotel business (Amaral et al., 2018; Cheng & Chen, 2017). The role of these workers, especially in service delivery, customization of hotel services, customer retention that is entirely closely related to the quality of service provided, has attracted various researchers to conduct scientific studies (Karatepe, 2013). In line with the pressure to produce an environmentally friendly business, the global hospitality industry has sought to implement green human resources management (GHRM) in its business activities. GHRM is used as an abbreviation for green human resource management. GHRM includes efforts to hire and retain environmentally friendly employees, providing environmental training; measurement of employee performance by involving the assessment of contributions to environmentally friendly actions (Guest, 1997). GHRM practices are required to predict environmentally friendly performance and affect the overall supply chain, production, waste management, culture, values, strategies, and employee behaviour (Benevene & Buonomo, 2020). Green human resources management practices in the hospitality industry have attracted many researchers, including the commitment to the organization, environmentally friendly behaviour, and hotel environmental performance. (Y. J. Kim et al., 2019; Shafaei et al., 2020), corporate social responsibility (CSR) (Bohdanowicz et al., 2011; Úbeda-García et al., 2021), Ability Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) theory (Pham, Vo Thanh, et al., 2020), and enforcement of an environmentally friendly culture for hotel industry workers (Stalcup et al., 2014). Some of these studies provide findings that the application of GHRM has a strong relationship not only with individual workers but related to the strategic policies of business organizations towards other stakeholders, the environment, and their customers. Achievement of aspects of personal competence of hotel workers in the form of cognitive, motivational, and conative as social cognitive theory (Farooq et al., 2021) related to green work behaviour reflects the organization’s success in implementing sustainable tourism business. From some of the findings above, it can also be known that CSR allocation that focuses on the sustainability of the natural and social environment becomes the primary consideration for employees in looking at their company’s alignment with a more holistic green management system. Despite the importance of well-publicized GHRM from a sustainability perspective, there has not been much research examining GHRM in a hotel context. The development of studies on GHRM in the hotel industry one decade ago provides an opportunity to create a new framework. Publications about green human resources management have increased in the last five years. The condition can be assumed to relate to awareness of the importance of creating a better hospitality industry in times of pandemics. Some of the fundamental reasons why GHRM in the hospitality industry need to be systematically reviewed, namely: First, HRM has an essential role in realizing the policies and practices of environmentally-minded organizations through recruitment, selection, training, development, performance assessment, awards, compensation management, and exit policies, as well as in communicating the values and culture of the company. (Renwick et al., 2013); Second, the change in organizational behaviour to be green starts from the people involved in the organization in the form of mutual commitment and mutual influence between relevant stakeholders (Dubois & Dubois, 2021); Third, GHRM becomes a symbol of business organizations that seek to systematically avoid business behaviour that damages the natural, economic and social environment (Rubel et al., 2021). In view of the above, this study tends to examine green human resources and employees’ behavior in hotel industry.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
GHRM practices are defined as an organization’s commitment to environmental protection, and they include a variety of HRM practices that are all focused on the ecosystem’s instability and the ecological repercussions of an organization’s economic activity (Nisar et al., 2021). Previous researchers have evaded the application of GHRM on green recruitment and selection aspects (Yusoff et al., 2020), green training and development (Nisar et al., 2021), green performance management (Chen et al., 2018), and green reward and remuneration (Arasli et al., 2020). Hiring and selecting individuals with environmental awareness using test instruments to ensure that employees are optimistic about environmental issues and questions relating to environmental views, values, and knowledge are examples of green recruitment and selection (Renwick et al., 2013). The green training program is designed to increase employee awareness, knowledge, and skills in green activities and a climate that encourages all employees to engage in environmental insight initiatives. (Fernández et al., 2003). Referring to (Renwick et al., 2013), green integrated training includes a comprehensive green program and links it to a performance management system, an approach to creating a green climate. The importance of GHRM as a fundamental determinant of employee behaviour stems from the fact that GHRM is a critical component of an environmental insightoriented strategic plan to build, maintain, and strengthen sustainable environmental performance in the tourism and hospitality sectors. (Farooq et al., 2021). Global tourism stakeholders have agreed to realize a sustainable tourism industry as a shared responsibility to the world’s citizens (Hall, 2019). In this aspect, GHRM has a strategic role in controlling worker behaviour in the tourism industry, including hospitality. Hence, upon this backdrop, this study is focused on green human resources and employees’ behavior in hotel industry.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically examine green human resources and employees’ behavior in hotel industry. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Ascertain the impact of GHRM on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental sustainability.
- Ascertain the impact of GHRM on employees environmentally friendly behaviour.
- Ascertain impact of GHRM on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental culture.
1.4 Research Question
The following questions will guide this study;
- Does GHRM have a positive impact on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental sustainability?
- Does GHRM have a positive impact on employees’ environmentally friendly behaviour.
- Does GHRM have a positive impact on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental culture.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be most relevant to key authorities in the hotel industry, including the managers. The study as a matter of fact enlighten them on the importance of GHRM as a fundamental determinant of employee behaviour stems from the fact that GHRM is a critical component of an environmental insightoriented strategic plan to build, maintain, and strengthen sustainable environmental performance in the tourism and hospitality sectors.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to green human resources and employees’ behavior in hotel industry.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is structured to generally examine green human resources and employees’ behavior in hotel industry. However, the study will further ascertain the impact of GHRM on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental sustainability, ascertain the impact of GHRM on employees environmentally friendly behaviour, and ascertain impact of GHRM on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental culture. The study will be delimited to three selected hotels in Owerri, Imo State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Human resource management is a discipline, a professional speciality that has emerged in recent years as a broad spectrum, including and synthesising diverse fields such as people management, organizational behavior, industrial and labor relations, and so on.
Green Human Resource Management; represents various aspects of human resource management (HRM) aimed at developing environmentally minded employees, namely employees who are sensitive about the importance of activities related to environmental protection.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was on the assessment of green human resources and employees’ behavior in hotel industry using three selected hotels in Owerri, Imo State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the impact of GHRM on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental sustainability, ascertain the impact of GHRM on employees environmentally friendly behaviour, and ascertain impact of GHRM on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental culture.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were the staff of the selected hotels in Owerri, Imo State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- Green human resources management have a positive impact on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental sustainability.
- Green human resources management have a positive impact on employees’ environmentally friendly behaviour.
- Green human resources management have a positive impact on employees’ behaviour towards organizational environmental culture.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Hotel top management and HR managers should establish green human resource management policies.
- Hotels in Imo state should entrench practicing green human resources so as to improve it cooperate social responsibility.
- Human resources management professionals should focus more on greening the business considering it is a social responsibility.
- Managers must recruit employees with high environmental values and skills. Potential employees are more sensitive to environmental problems that excel in employee green behavior (EGB) at work.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does green human resource management enhance hotel employees’ eco-friendly behavior?
Green human resource management enhances hotel employees’ eco-friendly behavior. The different patterns on the model of green HRM between hotels with green certificate and those without. A lack of empirical study that links human resource management to environmental issues.
How can the hotel industry Go Green?
In terms of service industries such as hotels, their green efforts include reducing waste, conserving energy and water in their operations, and educating customers and employees ( Bohdanowicz et al., 2011; Rahman et al., 2012 ).
Does organisational environmental culture contribute to Green HRM?
Specifically, at the organisational level, organisational environmental culture is positively related to green HRM, and green HRM management positively associates with organisation’s environmental performance.
What is green Human Resources Management (GHRM)?
To motivate green employees’ behaviors, green human resources management (GHRM) practices are considered as a critical HRM strategy to raise employees’ environmental awareness at the workplace.
Can green human resource management promote a green organisational culture?
Scholars have shown that green human resource management (GHRM) practices enhance a firm’s environmental performance. However, existing studies fail to explain how GHRM initiatives can enable a green organisational culture or how such a culture affects the environmental performance and sustainable development of the firm.
How do Environmental Management and organizational culture affect performance of green organizations?
Also, the environmental management, environmental leadership, environmental innovations, and organizational culture of the green organizations exerted a positive impact on their competitive advantage. In addition, the organizational culture and competitive advantage of the green organizations wielded a positive influence on their performance.
What is green hr and how it affects the environment?
Green HR involves two essential elements environment friendly HR practices and preservation of Knowledge capital. The present scenario of organizational working and its impact on the environment has carry-forwarded the go green concept form just individual to organizations. More organizations are operating in more environment friendly way.
What is green HRM?
KEYWORDS: Green HRM, Sustainable Development, Green Management Practices. Green HRM is the emerging topic in current scenario for corporate. An organizations Human Resource can be influential in facilitating a comprehensive approach for creating a culture of sustainability.
What is green HR management?
So, Green HR can receive different green procedures and practices in various situations for arranging, obtaining of human capital. positive conducts, straightforward frameworks are related to Green HR techniques. But the professionals face various difficulties with respect to Green Human Resources Management. management.
What are the components of green HRM?
Green HR method. The components of HRM (recruitment, determination, preparation, determined by the implementation of green human resource management techniques. the organization. They describe the organization’s insights and estimation methods, and how the method should treat individuals.
What is the purpose of the ghrm?
GHRM is a manifesto which helps to create green workforce that can understand and appreciate green culture in an organization. Such green initiative can maintain its green objectives all throughout the HRM process of recruiting, hiring and training, compensating, developing, and advancing the firm’s human capital.
How can HRM contribute to the sustainability of a company?
Such green initiative can maintain its green objectives all throughout the HRM process of recruiting, hiring and training, compensating, developing, and advancing the firm’s human capital. The Human Resource Department of a company is capable of playing a significant role in the creation of sustainability culture within the company.