Government Strategies And Management Of Security Challenges In Nigeria
This study was carried out on government strategies and management of security challenges in Nigeria. Following a careful review of existing literature, in spite of the growing security issues in Nigeria, there are limited academic works thus limiting in-depth insight into key areas of security concerns. This study used a mixed research design which combines the collective use of qualitative and quantitative data methodology. From these findings, the study identifies evidence linking different group causes of the security issues and also loophole in the available policies. Such awareness can help the Nigerian Government, NGOs, International Organisations and other interested bodies improve policies for security challenges especially in developing diverse nationals. Although, previous studies restrict findings to, identifying one cause of security challenges. The study showed that corruption especially in public offices is to a large extent a problem in the security system, the government needs to implement more rigid laws that allow the persecution of public office holders during their term in office, this will allow for the better management of greed and an improved execution of duties while in office. The judiciary and the executive tier of government should also rule out any form of double standards regarding mitigating and enforcing of corruption based offences.
1.1 Background of the Study
The freedom from danger, care intimidation, apprehension, the feeling or assurance of safety, peace of mind or absence of fear, and the certainty or assurance of the good life or welfare – constitutes one of the fundamental objectives and indeed the foremost responsibility of every government and the state. In Nigeria, the constitution unequivocally spelt out as a fundamental objective and directive principle of state policy that “the security and welfare of the people (of Nigeria) shall be the primary purpose of government” (Section 14 (2) (b) Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999). Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. No wonder national security has become an issue for government, prompting huge allocation of the national budget to security. According to Azazi (2011), in order to check the crime rate in Nigeria, the federal government has embarked on criminalization of terrorism by passing the anti-terrorism Act in 2011, installation of computer-based Closed Circuit Television cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, enhancement of surveillance as well as investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at determining or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in mass media. Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in Nigeria is still high and the country has been consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), signifying poor state of insecurity in the country as indicated.
The term security has been used to mean protection against or safety from a future risk of severe deprivation, injury or death and requires rules, order and impartial adjudication and application. Security according to Achumba, Ighomereho & Akpo-Robaro (2013) refers to a situation that exists as a result of the establishment of measure for the protecting of persons, information and property against hostile persons, influences and actions. It is the existence of conditions within which people in a society can go about their normal daily activities without any threat to their lives or properties. It embraces all measures designed to protect and safeguard the citizenry and the resources of individuals, groups, businesses and the nation against sabotage or violent occurrence (Achumbo et al, 2013). Security is the protection against all forms of harm whether physical, economic or psychological. It is however argued that security may not be absence of threats or security issues but the ability to rise to the challenges posed by threats with expediency and expertise. Security cannot therefore exist without provision for national security. Aggressive and repressive states can be major sources of human insecurity and a greater source of human suffering.
National security is concerned about those governmental institutions that seek to ensure the physical protection and safety of their citizens, their equal access to the law and protection of from abuse. There are two sets of government systems and institutions concerned with national security. The first component consists of the traditional instruments of national security, namely: the criminal justice system (police, justice and correctional services/prisons) the military and the intelligence community. The second and more important, relates to the nature of governance, its institutions and rules, norms and values that underpin it – as well as the efficacy thereof (Thamos, 2008).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Fulani herdsmen attack and farmers clashes has brought a lot of problems to our society including Nigeria. These include death, tears, destruction and so on. The way it is it seems our government has not acted significantly to put this security challenges to an end. Ese Otite of Nigerian National News asked “is the government waiting for all her citizens to fizzle out, before they can take a decisive step to curb the activities of this extremist group? What are the security agencies doing? Or do we say maybe those in power have not been affected either because they and their families move about with convoys filled with security personnel?”
Nigeria is going down a path never seen in her history. It’s a pretty dangerous path, one that the whole world is watching. People are afraid of their safety. At a time, we taught our problem was corruption and power failure, but now security has taken over. With what is happening the President should come out strong and call the shots, he has to face the security challenges. It is very clear that not enough is being done to address their security menaces of the Fulani herdsmen. All they now do is to promote their own religion instead of protecting Nigeria. This government should as a matter of national urgency overhaul our security system. Nigeria occupies an enviable position in the world with abundant natural and human resources. The government should look deeper in order to find a lasting solution to this carnage. Moreover, the truth must be told, we lack the sophisticated weapons to suppress the crisis in the custody of the extremists/criminals. Also, there is inadequate manpower; the number of the extremists/criminals is insignificant.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the level of government Strategies and the management of security challenges in Nigeria: a case study of Fulani Herdsmen. While the specific objectives were:
- To examine the effect of adoption of close circuit television on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
- To examine the effect of community security watch on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
- To examine the effect of surveillance on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered:
- What is the effect of adoption of close circuit television on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?
- What is the effect of community security watch on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?
- What is the effect of surveillance on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypotheses will be tested:
- There is no significant effect of adoption of close circuit television on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
- There is no significant effect of community security watch on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
- There is no significant the effect of surveillance on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is expected to be of immense help to the government, security personnel and Nigerian Security Council as well as policy makers. It may also be of help to improve upon security management in our society in Akwa Ibom State. The result of this study is expected to provide data for planning, as well as provide additional stock of security data for other researchers, who might find it relevant and useful in their enquiries.
The study will fill the gap of knowledge of what has not been done by the past researchers who conducted almost similar study with regard to security management. The researcher will offer solutions to some practical or theoretical problems. This work also will be of benefit to the tertiary institution students, Ministry of Education and teachers, Parents and Guardians.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study was delimited to government Strategies and the management of security challenges in Nigeria a case study of Fulani Herdsmen. However, the study used Itu Local government as a study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Difficulty in gathering materials especially relevant to the study was a challenge since the study is not common. This caused scarcity of relevant research materials from local papers. Hence, the researcher had to rely greatly on the foreign materials in order to put up this work.
Another challenge faced by the researcher was lack of fund and limited time for the undertaking and submission of this work.
Conclusion and Recommendations
This study examined government strategies and management of security challenges in Nigeria. The results of the research show that Nigeria has a multitude of security challenges with which it must grapple. While the closed ended part of the questionnaire was limited to certain challenges including; Terrorism, Militancy, Lawlessness, Unemployment, Illiteracy, Unstructured systems, Politics, Natural resources, Ethnicity, Religion, Cybercrime and Corruption, there were other challenges that were mentioned to include; robbery, rape, and unexplainable killings. The findings of the study show a high prevalence of security challenges, because, no single crime out of those outlined, was outlined by the participants as being non-prevalent.
Some scholars have classified Nigeria as failed country. This is due to the high rate of insecurity challenges faced by the country, and the prevalence levels of insecurity incidence recorded in the country. According to (Onyishi, 2011), (Eme, 2009), and (Eme, 2004), Nigeria is insecure because there are increased kidnappings, increased political instability and, this has resulted in political-related deaths, increased robberies, poor economic statuses, and extrajudicial killings. (Adegbamibge, 2001) Also stated, that the police are known to engage in crimes, such as robbery. The statements made by these authors are practical to research, and their essence is captured in the results which show high prevalence levels of crime. The police are responsible for extrajudicial killings yet, they are meant to offer security.
The findings in this research also supported by (Okpaga, et al., 2012) who stated that a group such as Boko Haram is known for supporting religious fighting and other forms of violence. Moreover, the group is used to start up violence on the basis of political issues. In fact, (Okpaga, et al., 2012) also stated that the insecurity challenges Nigeria was facing has steadily shifted so that they are assuming the face of terrorism to a greater extent. (Sola, 2007) Also, cited crisis in the Niger Delta region as a source of insecurity. The opinions shared by the participants are, therefore, indicative of overt security challenges that are not only captured in literature but which people can identify with.
Each of the security challenges captured in the literature review was cited by the participants as moderately, highly or extremely prevalent, and this is indicative of the need for comprehensive plans to overcome the stated challenges. Going by the discussion on different security challenges, by scholars and reports such as (OSIWA, 2012), (Sola, 2007), (Junger, 2007), (Agbiboa, 2013), (Treisman, 2000) among other scholars in the literature review including terrorism, poor structures, terrorism, corruption, and ethnicity among others, it is clear that security challenges in Nigeria are not being addressed optimally.
The management of policy and policy implementation is the root solution to security and many other problems in Nigeria. A significant role rests in the hands of three arms of government that is the legislature, executive and the Judiciary as well as other public office holders. The results and findings also show that people have lost hope in the system and, therefore, measures should be made to change the mindset of individuals on the importance of collective security and the role of policies.
Also, on the issue of corruption, since study shows that corruption especially in public offices is to a large extent a problem in the security system, the government needs to implement more rigid laws that allow the persecution of public office holders during their term in office, this will allow for the better management of greed and an improved execution of duties while in office. The judiciary and the executive tier of government should also rule out any form of double standards regarding mitigating and enforcing of corruption based offences.
Furthermore, regarding policy flaws, internal and external professional bodies, specialised in policy formulation can be employed to research on the available policies and then come up with amendment solutions.
Lastly, regarding diversity, the government need to invest on more projects that promote the coexistence of the different ethnic and religious groups.
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