Government And The Management Of Security Challenges In Nigeria
Security concerns have existed since time immemorial. But, the challenges have never been as readily manifested as they are presently. This is rather disconcerting. Moreso, because some of the security challenges and problems we encounter daily in the contemporary society are almost entirely unpredictable. Indeed, rapid growth and use of mechanical arts, applied science, and revolutionary dynamics of society apparently blend well with the desperate nature of the criminally minded to increase the spate of threats to life and property, a state which has assumed omnipresent and digital dimensions of crime in our society.
1.1 Background of the Study
After the Nigeria civil war in 1970, security situation in Nigeria has been relatively stable. People had peace and can move freely from one part of the country to another without harassment or molestation. Live was easy going. No problems among different ethnic groups living together. Everybody struggled to make two ends meet. Lives and properties of people were secured because of the alert of security agents like the police, the soldiers and different societal vigilante groups. People feared causing problems because of the wrath of the law. Security in the country was highly maintained. However, the case of insecurity was noticed in Nigeria as far back as the year 2000 in some local governments‟ areas in the country but the negligence of this evil act by the constituted authority then made it spread to different part of the country. May be the governments then were unable to realize its adverse effect at long run. Recently, their actions have constituted a lot of threat to the entire population and seem to have worsened with high security agents in the country. The question is with the existence of this ugly trend, what then is security in the country? Security according to Nwagboso, (2012) is the act of being safe from harm or danger, the defense, protection and preservation of values, and the absence of threats to acquired values. Security is about survival and the condition of human existence. Security also exists when people live together in a certain environment without disturbance or violent. The freedom from danger, care intimidation, apprehension, the feeling or assurance of safety, peace of mind or absence of fear, and the certainty or assurance of the good life or welfare constitutes one of the fundamental objectives and indeed the foremost responsibility of every government and the state. In Nigeria, the constitution unequivocally spelt out as a fundamental objective and directive principle of state policy that “the security and welfare of the people (of Nigeria) shall be the primary purpose of government” (Section 14 (2) (b) Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999). Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. No wonder national security has become an issue for government, prompting huge allocation of the national budget to security. According to Azazi (2011), in order to check the crime rate in Nigeria, the federal government has embarked on criminalization of terrorism by passing the anti-terrorism Act in 2011, installation of computer-based Closed Circuit Television cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, enhancement of surveillance as well as investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at determining or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in mass media. National security is concerned about those governmental institutions that seek to ensure the physical protection and safety of their citizens, their equal access to the law and protection of from abuse. There are two sets of government systems and institutions concerned with national security. The first component consists of the traditional instruments of national security, namely: the criminal justice system (police, justice and correctional services/prisons) the military and the intelligence community. The second and more important, relates to the nature of governance, its institutions and rules, norms and values that underpin it as well as the efficacy thereof (Thamos, 2008). Human security according to Pam Sha (2005) defines security in terms of an integrated idea of positive peace, human rights and sustainable development. It is related to the enhancement of livelihoods of all people at risk; the values of the respect of human rights, the dignity of the individual, respect for diversity, community empowerment, decentralized forms of government, peace and co-existence and the accountability and transparency of actions aimed at the betterment of livelihood (Human Security Report, 2003). These values aspire towards the creation of an enabling environment for development of people at risk, a minimum social security net for those in need, clear vision and approach to participation and empowerment and milestones for the achievement of those aspirations (Thamos, 2008). The promotion of Human Security is realized through freedom from want and fear. In general terms, security is the act of seeing the survival of all and sundry in the society. It is the search to avoid, prevent, reduce, or resolve violence and conflict in any society. Usually, general peace and security in any society is associated with lack of violence, absence of civil disorder and insurgency to mention but a few. However, this study attempts to discuss government and the management of security challenges in Nigeria
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian nation has suffered security challenges of various dimensions since its independence in 1960 (Phenson, 2014:5). These include poverty, proliferation and availability of small arms and light weapons, weak intelligence, weak database democratic culture and insecurity dilemma (Akpan, 2012:34 – 64). Hence, the nation has not achieved the desired peace and perfect security needed for the country. On this background the researcher wants to investigate government and the management of security challenges in Nigeria
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To examine the level of insecurity in Nigeria
- To ascertain the step taken by government in managing security challenges in Nigeria
- To ascertain if there is any security challenges in Nigeria
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no level of insecurity in Nigeria
H1: there is level of insecurity in Nigeria
- H02: there are no any security challenges in Nigeria
H2: there are any security challenges in Nigeria
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will give a clear insight on government and the management of security challenges in Nigeria. This study will be of benefits to students, security agencies, government of Nigeria and the general public. It will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers government and the management of security challenges in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources.
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm from external forces. Beneficiaries (technically referents) of security may be persons and social
Uncertainty or anxiety about oneself; lack of confidence.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain government and the management of security challenges in Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the government and the management of security challenges in Nigeria
This study was on government and the management of security challenges in Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included: To examine the level of insecurity in Nigeria, to ascertain the step taken by government in managing security challenges in Nigeria, to ascertain if there is any security challenges in Nigeria. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of defence, Abuja. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made security officers, administrative staff, senior staff and junior officers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
In this present state of insecurity, Nigeria needs good governance to achieve its desired objective. Usually, Good governance exists when people who are put in positions of authority are allowed and are committed to discharge their duties without fear or favour. This is when they are prepared to serve with zeal and patriotism. In all, since Nigeria is made of thirty six states and federal capital territory, with each state having its Governor, each state should also be able to control its Security agents while the federal government controls the machinery of their operation. This if properly coordinated and controlled will definitely enhance proper security in the country and give room for advancement and development in the country.
Firstly, political system of government that gives more power to the federating units rather than concentrating power to the centre should be embraced in the country. This is because the system of government which we call federation and claim to practice in the country is diluted and adulterated. Corruption seems to over shadow federalism which if not properly handled may result to more disorder in the country. Secondly, our judiciary system in the country needs to be strengthened to ensure that justices are dispensed no matter the persons involved. Nepotism and culture of impunity which characterize Nigeria government should be jettisoned in our political history. Nigerians should be ruled as egalitarian society instead of two set of rules i.e. one for the rich and the other for the poor. Anybody who commits an offense must face the wrath of the law no matter the hierarchy or position in the society. This if properly entrenched into Nigeria politics will ensure proper accountability in governance. Thirdly, Political praise singers must be abolished in the culture of our politics. This will accord the political office holder the opportunity of facing the work they were elected to do instead individual aggrandizement. In this case, any political office holder who involved him or herself in this practice should be impeached or prosecuted in the court of law. This if applied in our political system will make the political office holders to seat up and face the target of which they elected for. Political praise sings are very dangerous to the political system because they often divert the attentions of people from dubious acts of governance. Fourthly, concerted efforts should be made toward eliminating corruption and corrupt practices in the country. Accountability should be the watch dog of Nigeria government. Likewise, the Economic and Financial Crime commission EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) should be made autonomous and should be devoured of interference or intervention by any high ranking officer or money bags or god fathers in the Federation. Anybody who commits an offense should be prosecuted according to the law
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