The Globalization Of Terrorism (A Case Study Of Nigeria)

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The Globalization Of Terrorism (A Case Study Of Nigeria)


Abstract


This project work titled the globalization of terrorism: A case study of Nigeria of America has been able to examine the meaning of terrorism as a whole, its origin and evolution up till modern times. It has also explained in details how global/collective security started as a result of the increasing terror in the world.

Again, the causes of attack is not left out: hence, the immediate and remote causes. The profile of Osama Bin Laden, the perpetrator of the attack is discussed here; even the names of those who carried out the attack with have been listed in this work.

Finally, this has critically discussed the attempts made by the United State, the United Nations and the rest of world to fight against terrorism. It should be noted however that the purpose of this research work strictly speaking is grounded by its urgency raised by the September 11 event.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Table Of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • Background Of The Study
  • Scope Of The Study
  • Aims And Objectives
  • Conceptual Framework
  • Literature Review
  • Purpose Of The Study
  • Research Methodology
  • Endnote

Chapter Two

  • Origin And The Development Of Global Security
  • Endnotes

Chapter Three

  • The September 11Th Attack On The United States Of America
  • Endnotes

Chapter Four

  • Global Fight Against Terrorism
  • Endnotes

Chapter Five

  • Conclusion And Summary
  • Endnotes
  • Bibliography

Chapter One


Introduction

There is no general agreement among scholars or lawyers on a definition of terrorism. However, it is the use of violence for purpose of political extortion, coercion and publicity for a political causes” whether aimed at persons or property, whether consisting of threatened or actual violence and whether the victims are civil or government officials, terrorism is designed to win political concessions by instilling fear.

Terrorism is also generality unconventional political violence since it is staged with the intent of reading a wide audience through spectacular acts that violate accepted socials mores and earns front page headings. Political international criminal distinguished from international criminal behavior such as narcotics trafficking, privacy or slave trading. Both can involve violence, but international law has generally recognized political causes as a legal defense for certain violent acts that could other wise is considered crimes. The line of distinction can however be hazy in particular cases1.

The first and most immediate problem is one of defining and conceptualizing terrorism as an international crime. The core in the definition of terrorism relates to the actual usage of violence, threats of violence or forms of intimidation to achieve a political objective; definitions from legal and illegal sources tend to affirm these underlying features. The oxford advance learner’s dictionary defines terrorism as the “use of violence and threats of violence especially for political purposes”.

According to the United States departments of defense, terrorism constitutes “the calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear, intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuits of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological”. The use federal Bureau of investigation defines terrorism. As “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or population, or any segment therefore, in furtherance of political or social objectives”2.

Terrorism has most commonly become identified, however, with the individuals or groups attempting to destabilized or overthrow existing political institutions. Terrorism had been used by one or both sides in anti colonial conflicts (Ireland and the United Kingdom, Algeria and France, Vieteman and France – United States). In disputes between different national groups over possession of a contested homeland (Palestinians and Israel) in conflict between different regions, domination (Catholics and protestants in Northern Ireland), and in internal conflicts between revolutionary forces and established government (Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Iran, Nicaragua, El-Salvador and Argentina) 3

Broadly speaking, terrorism is of three categories. First, the category of those whose object of terror is inspired by political fervor. These are usually communist – oriented and include some fascist movements.

The second category of terrorists comprises those inspired by nationalism or ethnic grievance while the third category comprises those with religious grievance, particularly of the Islamic fault. Most prominent amongst them are found within the fold of the Palestinian liberation organization (PLO) which was formed in 1964 as Al fatah 4.

Terrorists use violence in an attempt to achieve political goals. Their intents are to bring about political change by creating a climate of fear within the society they oppose. The targeting of innocent victims and symbolic locations for a high profile attack has long been the preferred method of terrorist organizations. For centuries, terrorism has been an instrument of repression by government as well as tool of revolutionaries trying to overthrow government. Beginning in the late 1960s, the occurrence of terrorism increased dramatically throughout the world. 5


Background Of The Study

Terrorism has a very long history several religious and political ideologies and the wars conducted to advance them show the deep historical origin of terrorism. In modern times, terrorism was associated with the Jacobin “Reign of Terror” in France in the 1790s, which involved several thousand executions and disappearances. World war1 (1914 – 1918) was triggered by the “terrorist” assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria – Hungary. All sides in World War 11 performed many acts of terrorism. The cold war, too promoted overt and covert violence that many observers characterized as terrorism.

During the second half of the 20th century states sponsored terrorism was deployed against strivings for self determination by many oppressed people. This terrorism of colonialism often produced a backlash of counter terrorism. The colonizers used terror to assert their hold overseas territories, whereas national liberation movements resorted to terrorism to pursue emancipation and independence.

A new brand of terrorism arose after the completion of decolonization and the end the end of the cold war. This threat has emanated principally from non – state groups such as Al Qaeda, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Abu Nidal organization, and Sipah – El. Sahaba in Pakistan. While condemned and banned by almost all states, these movements nevertheless continued to enjoy support in Many parts of the world. Spirals of violence in places such as Palestine, Iraq, Chechnya and Afghanistan provide breeding grounds for fresh recruits to terrorists’ organizations.

At 10.30am on August 7, two bombs exploded minutes apart at the U.S embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dares Salam, Tanzania killing more than 224 people.

With the investigation carried out by 471 U.S federal agents and law enforcement personnel from 13 nations, authorities quickly identified several men they believed helped to plan, building and deliver the deadly bombs.

But it was one person in particular that Americans were made grimly aware of that day – Saudi Arabian terrorists Osama bin laden, the grinning man with the wiry beard who is that more bombs were coming bombs aimed at America soldiers, diplomats and civilians around the globe.

Bin Laden’s rise to most wanted international terrorist was not an over night sensation. From 1979 to 1989, the Soviet Union fought a disastrous, and an ultimately unsuccessful war to conquer the mountain passes and arid plains of Afghanistan. In the early 1980’s, Bin Laden, like many other young zealous Saudis, joined the ranks of the American – backed Mujahadeen, the “holy warriors” who fought the soviet troops with an estimated $6 million in American weapons. When the fighting ended, bin laden emerged as the leader of an organization of battle hardened veterans and religious fundamentalists’ crusading to oppose non Islamic governments with violence. He called his group al Qaeda, Arabic word form “The Base”.

On May 9, 1978, the crumpled, bullet ridden body of former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Miro was found by Italian police in the truck of a car. This capped weeks of desperate searching for his red brigade kidnappers. The Italian government composed of some moro’s closet friends and former colleagues, refused to deal with the terrorist or considered their demand and ignored moro’ poignant letters pleading for assistance. Aldo moro, one of the most noted history’s terrorist victim was tried and convicted by a “peoples” court and executed by its order to life imprisonment by an Italian court in 1983.

The ancient Greek, historian Xenophon (430 – 349 BC) wrote of the effectiveness of psychological welfare against enemy populations. Roman emperors such as Tiberiv (reigned AD 14 – 37) and Caligula (reined AD 37 – 41) used banishment expropriation of property and execution as means to discourage opposition to their rule. The Spanish inquisition and arbitrary arrest, torture and execution to punish what it views as religious heresy.

The use of terror was openly advocated by Robespierre as a means of encouraging revolutionary virtue during the French revolution, leading to the period of his political dominance called the reign of terror (1793 – 1794). After the American civil war (1861 – 1865) defiant south earners former a terrorist organization called the Kuklux Klan to intimidate supporters of re-construction. In the later half of the 19th century, terrorism was adopted by adherents of anarchism in Western Europe, USSR and the United States. They believed that the best way to effect revolutionary political and social change was to assassinate person in position of power. From 1965 to 1905, a number of kings, presidents, prime ministers and other government officials were killed by anarchists’ guns and bombs.

The 20th century also witness great changes in the use and practice of terrorism. Terrorism became the hallmark a number of political movements’ stretching from the extreme right to the extreme left of the political spectrums.

Technological advances such as automatic weapons and compact, electrically donated explosives gave terrorist a new mobility and lethality. Terrorism was adopted as virtually a state policy though an unacknowledged one by such totalitarian regime as those of Nazi Germany under Adolph Hitler the Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin and Nigeria under Sani Abacha and Uganda under Idi Amin. In those states arrest, imprisonment, torture and execution were applied without legal guidance or restraints to create a climate of fear and to encourage adherence to the national ideology and the declare economics, social and political goals of the state. 7


Scope Of The Study

This research work as its title suggests covers the period when there was a terrorist attack on the United States of America on September 11, 2001.
This period was however chosen as the scope because it marked a historical landmark in the United States of America when the world trade center (WTC) was bombed by the Arabian terrorist.


Aims And Objectives

This research work seeks to critically examine the globalization of terrorism with the case study of September 11 attack on the United States of America in 2001. The central objectives of the research works specifically include:

  1. To present the historical background of globalization and global; security.
  2. To critically examine the causes of September 11, terrorist attacks on the United States of America in 2001 terrorism.
  3. To study the strategies employed by the United States of America to fight against terrorism.
  4. To highlight the impacts/effects of global terrorism

Conceptual Frame Work

Terrorism: This is a weapon of the weak against the strong. It is a special form of political violence. As a political activity, it is undertaken not to inflict violence or destruction but to communicate political message.

This is why Bailey defined it as an activity which “main purpose is usually to threaten or harm the innocent as a means of exerting pressure on the strong” there are different types of terrorism; namely political, revolutionary subevolutionary terrorism and state terrorism.

Conflict:

This describes a situation in which two or more parties perceive difference between or among themselves and seek to resolve those differences to their own satisfaction. It is the product of communication and contact: interaction is bounded to generate disagreement or conflict. Conflict should however not be regarded as abnormal because it has own contribution towards systematic growth and maintenance.

Conflict could also be said to be an interests and inevitable part of human existence. However, violent conflict is not inevitable and as such as namely. It is defined as the pursuit of incompatible interest and goals by difference groups.

Violence:

This is a behavior involving physical force intended to hurt, damage or kill. It is usually of two types direct violence is usually expressed in physical psychological and counter value violence against an opponent while structural; violence does not immediately come across as violence. It arises from particular form of social organization and possesses. It is expressed in such conditioned as exclusions, deprivation and poverty.9

War:

Simply put, war is the absence of peace. Most authorities however, still define war in a relatively narrow sense. According to the new English dictionary, it is a hostile contention by means of armed forces, carried on between parties in the same nation or state; the employment of armed forces against a foreign power, or against an opposing party in the state.

Hoffman Nickerson, in the encyclopedia Britannica, states that war is the use of organized force between two human groups pursuing contraction policies, each group seeking to impose its policy upon the other.
To the Marxist, wars are the products of the strains and stresses of monopolistic capitalism. Capitalism gives rise internally to two classes – the bourgeoisie and the proletariat–who are locked in bitter antagonistic struggle. 11.

Again, war is the deliberate application of violence occasioned by the incompatibility in human interactions and should take place as a last resort in defense of vital interest. War cannot be wished away nor decreed or legislated out of extended because rights are more precious than peace, and at times to preserves these rights war ensues. Be that as it may, war should and must be kept under control.


Literature Review

This aspect of the research work will focus on a proper review of some of the material that made the researcher to make this work a successful one. Below is a review of these materials.

Anthony U. Obingene and Emma Chukwuemeka in their book international politics” A contemporary perspective cited Asogwa and Omemmu (2001) that terrorism is the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics or individual to attain a political organizations with both rights and leftist objectives. They said that tactics available to terrorist include hijacking of anything (of anything from a jumbo jet to an elevator) assassinations, skyjacking, kidnappings, bombings (indiscriminately in publics places or well targeted letter or car bombs): shootings and injections or spreads of deadly substances (such as the 1978 murder of a Bulgarian journalist who was stabbed on a London subway with an umbrella treated with a toxin derivative of castor beans) 13.
According to Brigadier General Sam Momoh in his book “Global Disorders and the new world order” citing the Jonathan Netanyahu institutes in Israel which specializes in terrorism defines terrorism as the “the deliberate ands systematic murder, maiming and menacing of the innocent in order to instill fear for political ends. He also said that terrorism is the use or the threat of the use of violence to intimidate the innocent population for political ends. 14

Compton’s by Britannica volume 23 has it that terrorism is the use of violence in an attempt to achieve political goals. It went further to state that the intent is to bring about political change by creating a climate of fear within the society they oppose 15.

In the encyclopedia of the social science, Hardman defines it as: the method or the theory behind the methods whereby an organized group or party seeks to achieve its allowed aims chiefly through the use of violence. 16
In a related manner, Nwolise in his work organized terrorism and national security defined it as the threat or use of violence and terror for the achievement of political, socio-economic a other expedient purpose against an individual or group of individual , a thing or group of thing, a state or group of states. 17. From the foregoing, suffice it to say that terrorism is a special form of political violence. It is not a philosophy or a weapon or method which has been used through out history by both state and sub-state organizations for a whole variety of political purposes. 18
Terrorism could be internal or international in outlook though it is often problematic to separate or out a divide between then. International terrorism occurs when the citizens of more than one country are involved in an attack while internal is when it is confined within national boarders. Paul Wilkinson has said that “it is difficult to find any protracted and intense terrorist camping that remains purely internal, as most invariably the terrorist will look across their boarders.

The September 11, 2001 attack on Washington and New York clearly shows a perfect example of this reality; the Osama Bin Laden led al Qaeda network is know to enjoy support in a minimum of 60 countries across the globe. In contrast, internal terrorism is evidenced by the numerous cases that rocked the Nigerian states, mostly since the early 1990s. For Nwolise, it must be made clear however that what Nigeria faced especially from 1995 to 1998 was the phenomenon of state terrorism effected by the late General Sani Abacha’s Regime, in the bid for self secessions. 19.

With special reference to the (terrorist) attack of September 11 2001, the punch of September 21 2001, blamed the united sates claiming that bin laden, a U.S trained CIA (central intelligence agencies) is merely reacting the oppressive antis of the U.S.A. 20

Be that as it may, one fact is very clear and it remains incontrovertible. As Bailey has rightly admitted that: terrorism is undoubtedly a threat to human rights in the contemporary sense since its main purpose is usually to threaten or harm the “innocent people”. This is worsen by the fact that they generally seem to exhibit less restraint than they did in the past. 21. This is made worse by the sophisticated dimension terrorists and terrorists action have assumed. For Louis R. Mizell, Jr. an expert on terrorism, “we live in an age of unimaginable rage and apocalyptic arsenal; nuclear chemical; and biological” 22.

Today, it is not uncommon to hear of media terrorism, cyber terrorism, bioterrorism (or environmental terrorism); chemical and nuclear terrorism as well as political and economic terrorism. The end product of all these as reports have variously shown is waste. The former president of the U.S George Walker Bush said that;

“These terrorist group nation and regions. They are seeking chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. Given the means, our enemies would be a threat to every nation and eventually to civilization itself” 23.

The above reviews works are some of the relevant materials that the research was able to make use of so that the research / projected work would be a success.


Purpose Of The Study

This research work will attempt to explain the causes of September 11 attack and will also explain in details the origin and development of global security.

The research seeks among others to examine the positive and negative impact/effects of terrorism in the global world.

It should be noted however that the purpose of this research work strictly speaking is grounded in its urgency raised by the September 11 event.


Research Methodology

The researches rely mostly on secondary data/sources. They are derived from standard textbooks; previously some works journals, newspapers, articles as well as some printed materials, from the internet, encyclopedias, magazine etc.


Chapter Five


Summary And Conclusion

There is no general agreement among scholars or lawyers on a definition of terrorism. However, it is the “use of violence for purposes of political extortion, coercion, violence and publicity for a political cause; whether aimed at persons or property, whether consisting of threatened or actual violence and whether the victims are civilians or government official, terrorism is designed to win political concessions by instilling fear.

The first and most immediate problem is one of defining and conceptualizing terrorism as an international crime. The core in the definition of terrorism relates to the actual usage of violence, threats of violence of forms of intimidation to achieve a political objective; definitions from legal and illegal sources tend to affirm this underlying feature. The oxford Advanced learners Dictionary defines terrorism as the use of force, violence and threats of violence especially for political purposes;

Terrorists use violence in an attempt to achieve political goals. Their intent is to bring about political change by creating a climate of fear within the society they oppose. The targeting of innocent victims and symbolic locations for a high profile attack has long been the preferred method of terrorist organizations. For centuries terrorism has been an instrument of repression by government as well as tool of revolutionaries trying to overthrow governments. Beginning in the late 1960s, the occurrence of terrorism increased dramatically throughout the world.

Terrorism has a very long history. Several religious and political ideologies and the wars conducted to advance them show the deep historical original of terrorism. In modern times terrorism was associated with the Jacobin “Reign Of Terror” In France in the 1970s, which involved several thousand executions and disappearances. World war1 (1914-1918) was triggered by the ‘terrorist assassination of Arch duke francs Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. All sides in world war 11 performed many acts of terrorism. The cold war too prompted overt and convert violence that many observers characterized as terrorism.

The 20th century also witnessed great changes in the use and practice of terrorism. Terrorism became the hall mark of a number of political spectrums. Technological advances such as automatic weapons and compact, electrically donated explosives gave terrorists a new mobility and lethality. Terrorism was adopted as virtually a state policy though an unacknowledged one by such totalitarian regime as those of Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler the Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin and Nigeria under Sani Abacha and Uganda under administration. In those states arrests, imprisonment, torture and execution were applied without legal guidance or restraints to create a climate of fear and to encourage adherence to the national ideology and the declared economic, social and political goals of the state.1

Global security was a principle in international relations that developed after world war which has remained pivotal in the management of international conflicts, crises and violence, or check on aggression. Representatives of 32 countries met near Paris (France) in 1919 to draw up a peace settlement they put in the idea of global security, under which governments would settle international disputes through discussions. The governments also would join together to stop the war like actions of any nations, group or organization.

Established security institutions with some notable exceptions have been relatively silent on the changing patterns of Global security. The dominant discourse in main stream security studies still sees armed conflicts as arising from the pursuit of power by sovereign states. With conflict prevention being primarily a function of traditional diplomacy and/or successful military deterrence peace, from this perspective, is best presented by preparing for war.

It should be noted however that the practice of terrorism and Global security during the cold war era to be assessed in brief. The use of terrorism as it is to day was uncommon during the cold war era because of the presence of the two major powers. Therefore, instead of devising terrorism as a means for resistance or achieving a political interest, some nations or faction groups rather chose to joint either of the blocs. To join any of these blocs then was a faster means to achieve political interest.2

The September 11, 2001 attack on the United States was caused by remote and immediate causes such as Unipolarism, which is the rise of a major power. However, domination here implies the ability by which such power influences other nations and orchestrated global politics to gain her interest. The U.S has been a unipolar power since 1991. It should be noted that the following attack was orchestrated before 9/11 2001. the 1993 world trade centre bombings, the August 1998 bombing of U.S embassies in Nairobi Kenya and Tanzania, the October 2000 U.SSS cool bombing, and a few other however they were all linked to the Al-Qaeda.

Many scholars working on 9/11 attack have attributed the causes of the attack to George w. Bush, the then preside of U.S the reason being that on September 11 2001 at 8:35Am the first passenger jet flew into the north tower of the world trade centre. At 9:03A.M, the second jet flew into the south tower of the world trade centre. When George Bush was told about this second jet, he sat quietly reading “My pet goat” to school; children for another 8 minutes
Many people believed that Bush case the attack on 9/11not because of his immediate lack of reaction to the news, which itself is very odd but because of what happened leading up to 9/11and paper 9/11 attack.

All these facts and many more just be incredible coincidences, or three could be a criminal collusion and conspiracy because the bush administration, the Saudis, al Qaeda, and the terrorist. the truth is 9/11 was the perfect excuse the Bush administration need to do what they have been doing: starting a costly long term war in Iraq; running up huge budget deficits as far as be projected, rolling back civil liberties of American citizens and using the war on terror as an excused using for massive increases in military budgets..

The global fight against September 11 attacks and terror networks, was partly intimated and influenced by President George w. bush of the united state. After the attacks president bush built worldwide coalition, military and diplomatically, against terrorism. More than 80 countries suffered losses in the 9/11 attacks, not less than 136 countries had to offer a diverse range of military assistance in the course of global war on terrorism, 46 multinational organizations and cooperation declared their support for the course. As a result, the U.N secretary declared a global war on terrorism. This made the governments of many countries borders against the inflow of aids and grants to terrorist camps in the world.

The United Nations encouraged every genuine security agency to engage in the fight, by tracking down culprits involved in the above states bombings and subsequent plots yet to be executed the central intelligent agency after 9/11and coalition attacked on Afghani the CIA for tracking down al Qaeda member and the terror networks together with the federal bureau of investigation, German security investigator and security agencies of many countries, diplomatically joined forces in discovering terrorist organization and camps invasions countries of which the united nations wants to close, such terrorist organizations which are linking al-Qaeda.

The European services and anti-terror units, after 9/11attck engaged in diplomatic contact to meet to discuss information on global war against terrorism

Other countries include Greece, Belgium, Spain, Saudi; Arabia Russia etc pledge their co-operation with European countries in checking terrorism. They were equipped with their security agents engaging in bio-chemical, explosive devices, anti hijacking training to counter sudden event are act of such terror attacks. Even Nigeria has set up anti – terror sound unit to flight or prevent terror events. Agreements to combat terrorism are enormous the following international conventions and treaties are the particulars importance in the context of the terrorist atrocities, to fighting terrorism.

In conclusion, it should be noted that terrorism which is being associated with violence, force etc has both positive and negative impacts/effects which has political, economical, cultural religious and socials effects/impact.3


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