Girl Child Education And The Threat Of Boko Haram Insulation
The research aimed to investigate the girl child education and the threat of boko haram insulation. In-depth analysis of the terror acts, such as abduction of students, burning and destructions of school structures, killings of staff and students and the resultant psychological pressure on the performance of teachers was studied. In addition, the implications of these activities on student‟s enrollment, attendance to schools and effect of Boko Haram insurgency on school infrastructure was studied and solutions were prospered. Yobe state has 17 local government areas. The sample of the study was (128) 10 teachers, 8 administrators and 40 students from each of the affected school/institution. Data was sourced through the structured questionnaire. Four Research questions guided the study. The study reviewed relevant existing theories and concepts, to get a more systematic view of the phenomenon by specifying possible relationships among the variables. The data eventually gathered from the field was scrutinized and analyzed to answer the questions raised. The outcome of the data analysis led the Researchers into discussions of findings from where conclusions were made. Subsequently, The study recommended that government should provide informal employment opportunities for the citizens and encourage them to be self-reliant. This can only be done through giving them loans and building entrepreneurial skills for different types of businesses. This may have positive affects on the people by preventing them from being easily brainwashed and being involved in any activity that is characterized as insurgency. The assertion is based upon the theory of Frustration-aggression theory which emphasizes the fact that violent response by individuals often results from preventing them from achieving their basic needs. The theory also emphasized that, in the face of frustrated expectations, individuals normally embark upon violent destructive behavior, or be a ready army to be used to cause crisis once their basic needs are not fulfilled. The recommendations are expected to assist the policy makers and other affected stakeholders, on the breakthrough of overcoming the menace with a view to making better progress in the educational development of Yobe State.
Keywords: Insurgency, Boko Haram and Education.
1.1 Background to the Study
Nigeria, the giant of Africa continent has been a relatively peaceful, multicultural, dynamic and progressive nation, blessed with human and natural resources, which paved ways for many opportunities for its citizens and foreigners’ to live in harmony from the colonial era, to the inception of Nigeria independence on October 1, 1960 to year 2000 where the country started experiencing the strange, and global trend of terrorism, insurgency which led to the gruesome killings of innocent Nigerian citizens, carryout by an insurgent group called Boko Haram. Since 2009, they have disrupts educational system in north eastern Nigeria with huge negative effect on girls education. North eastern region of Nigeria comprises of six States namely: Adamawa State, Bauchi State, Borno State, Gombe State, Taraba Sate and Yobe State. The group dislikes girls attending schools, and also committed criminal offences ranging from kidnaping of school girls, killing of teachers, religious leaders both in Christianity and Islamic Faith; they have unleashed fear in the minds of every Nigerians living in the region. There is massive destruction of school activities in north eastern Nigeria. In recent past, they used local girls to carry out mindless bombing of major central market, shopping mall, cinema halls and bus station. They also involved in murdering of traditional rulers and prominent citizen in north eastern Nigeria. Abduction of school girls, the elderly and female teachers were also common in their recent styles of operations.
Certainly, before the current insurgency, Nigeria had witnessed several forms of terrorism which is a systematic use of violence to destroy, kidnap and intimidate the innocent in order to draw national attention to their demands with the Nigerian government. However, some of these past terrorist attacks are politically motivated, even though some may have other strong motives such as socio-economic and regional marginalization issues. Olowoselu (2014) posited that, before the declaration of amnesty for Niger Delta youths by the Nigerian Government in 2008, the Niger Delta region had militant groups such as Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), Niger Delta People Volunteer Force (NDPVF). These militant groups launched agitation against crude oil spillage, poverty and marginalization of the Niger Delta people of the South-South region of Nigeria.
The Oduduwa People’s congress (OPC) is the militating wing and frontier of the Yoruba people in the South western region of Nigeria demanding for their political right. Passionately, the region served as entry point of western education in to Nigeria, they were educationally developed as most of the citizen past through formal education, which posed as a stumbling block that hindered the militia group from having a strong base in south western region of Nigeria (Olowoselu, 2014). In the South Eastern region of Nigeria, the Movement for the Actualizations of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) and the Bakassi Boys were also militia groups fighting for equal rights and security of Igbo federalism, autonomy and political relevance of the Igbo people in Nigeria. Fundamentally, it was used by dominant political group in the region to advance their courses and achieve recognition. In 1981, the “Maitatsine” Jihadist group leader Mohammed Marwa, who came from northern Cameroon via Borno state in Nigeria. Mohammed Marwa proclaimed himself as a prophet of Islam, used violence to killed many citizens in Northern Nigeria to achieve their religious principles. He received negative response from the people, and could not actualize his dream as he was killed during gun battle with the Nigerian forces.
The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009 in Borno state, and quickly spread to Yobe State. The group is a rebellious one which started an armed conflict on the government of Nigeria. The North East of the country happens to be the base and the citizens become victims of the dangerous clashes.
Educationally, the state remains one of the less developed in the Federation as its performance in national examinations leaves much to be desired. In the latest 2018 WAEC results, the state came last, as number 37thout of the 36 States and Abuja FCT. The current Research is therefore desirable, especially now that the indices in education present a gloomy picture. The insurgency is not helping the situation and so the researchers deem it fit to carry out a field assessment to view the situation and proper possible recommendations.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Education in the North Eastern part of Nigeria Yobe State has been under disturbance since 2012 by a group called Boko Haram. This group of insurgents has become a threat to many homes and specifically on school going age children. The immediate effect of violent attacks includes the loss of, injury to, or abduction of students, teachers, personnel and burning of schools and properties by Boko Haram. The officials of education system closed 85 schools in Yobe State affecting nearly 120,000 students, after a spate of attacks by Islamic militants in an area that has the country’s worst literacy rate (The Guardian, 2014). More than 270 school girls kidnapped on the night of 14th April, 2014 from a school dormitory in Chibok, a town also in the Nigeria’s troubled North East remain missing with only 163 having been either released, escaped or rescued and have been forced into marriage with members of Boko Haram (BBC, 2017).
Girls education is depend largely on encouragement from families in the society, provision of school instructional materials and safety of girls to school. Insurgent has become a threat to many families and girls in north eastern States. There are frequent cases of kidnaping and abduction of girls of school age in the region. The researchers tend to study the effect of this insurgency on girls education in north eastern states of Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine girl child education and the threat of boko haram insulation. While, the specific objectives are:
- To determine the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on girl child school enrolment.
- To determine the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on girl child school attendance.
- To examine the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on school infrastructure.
- To infer from the findings, the implications of the insurgency on the education system of Yobe State.
1.4 Research Question
The study aims to provide answers to the following research questions
- Does the Boko Haram insurgency affect girl child school enrolment?
- What is the impact of the insurgency on girl child school attendance?
- What is the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on school infrastructure?
- What are the implications of the insurgency on the Yobe state school system?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study helped in understanding that insurgency is a weapon that is used to destroy not only the physical settings of a society, but the plan of investment a society made on its self, in order to achieve better standard of living in the future.
The study would help a Local Government to understand that their aims and objectives can be achieved by their dedication, hard work and determination. Among the objective of any people of Local Government is attainment of better education. As such, development of Local Government depends on the attainment of better education which can only be achieved, if Local Government is not distracted or affected by any forms of violence, such as insurgency. Therefore, Local Government by them self will involve infighting against anything that can distract them in achieving their aims and objectives.
The study also helped the Yobe State government to understand that, for education to serve as an engine of growth and development, it needs proper protection and priority. Similarly, the entire State has to be protected against any destructive elements, such as Boko Haram insurgency, corruption, embezzlement of public funds etc. Furthermore, the study is of assistance to policy makers in terms of making policies that can ensure peace and stability.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study was conducted in Yobe State, North Eastern-Nigeria and specifically on YOSUBEB (which comprise mainly primary schools and junior secondary schools) were selected as a case study due to the brutality of Boko Haram insurgents on Basic Schools Education.
1.7 Limitation of study
Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.
During the course of performing/researching this project work, the researcher encountered a lot of challenges as well as opposition which ranges from financial constraints, time factor. This factors in their own ways, slowed down the speedy progress of this work that resulted to the researcher not being able to finish the research work on time as is required
Also, within the area of study the researcher was faced with some other forms of constrains that contributed to the limitation of this researcher work, like accessibility to data, information and facts concerning the present study due to some reasons or the other, some not willing to give out information that it is to be within the workers.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
In order to ensure clarity of terms and the understanding of the meaning of some important terms used in the study, the following operational definitions are given;
Education can be defined as a tool for building a united, independent, wealthy egalitarian society which is capable of maintaining the traditions and value (Adesina, Fegbongbe & Talabi, 1983).
2. Basic Education:
Basic education can be as the beginning of acquisition of desirable skill, knowledge and attitude in a formal school system.
Universal can be defined as the programme that is meant for all arms of the society such as the poor and the rich, the physically challenged and all the school dropouts people in Borno State.
An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority.
A person who rises in forcible opposition to lawful authority, especially a person who engages in armed resistance to a government or to the execution of its law.
6. Boko Haram:
The term “Boko Haram” come from the Hausa word book meaning “western education” and the Arabic word Haram figuratively meaning sin (literally “forbidden”). The name loosely translated from Hausa means Western Education is Forbidden.
A school can be defined as an institution for the instructions of children or people under college age.
1.9 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the girl child education and the threat of boko haram insulation, Yobe State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
Boko haram has displaced over one millions people in north eastern Nigeria (NEMA, 2015). It also becomes a threat to the entire country. Their activities have crippled the socio-economic activities between Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger Republic and Republic of Chad. Many Nigerian citizens residing in Adamawa state, Borno state and Yobe states were currently internally displaced (NCRM, 2015). The Boko Haram insurgency in north eastern region of Nigeria, have slow down the nation abilities of achieving the Millennium Development Goals project (MDG’S), Education For All (EFA), and as well as Nigeria Vision 2020 programs. The senseless insurgent attacks have negative impact on socio-cultural values of the people of north eastern region and wellbeing of other foreign nationals (Olowoselu, 2014). Presently, economic activity is low in the region, as foreign expatriate are relocating to other regions in Nigeria due to the increasing security crisis. With the mindless bombings perpetrated by the insurgent, the researchers observed that most schools have been closed in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 128 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff and students of secondary schools in Yobe State.
The conclusions are drawn based on the above findings of the study;
Educational output (i.e. human capital investments) is influenced by Boko Haram insurgency. It is concluded that the level of investment in human beings required to be achieved by a society, will be difficult with the present of Boko Haram insurgency. This is because, Boko Haram insurgency lead to high level of students dropout.
Improvements in the level of school enrolment, schools attendance and school infrastructure are significantly determined by the level of educational input into Education by Government. That is, the higher the level of school enrolment, school attendance and schools infrastructure, the higher the level of educational output. This implies that educational output increase with the increase in the level of school enrolment, school attendance and schools infrastructure.
With the presence of Boko Haram insurgency in a society the level of school enrolment, school attendance and school infrastructure are significantly affected, in which the level of educational output is affected. Conclusively, Boko Haram insurgency indirectly and significantly affects human capital investment through school enrolments, school attendance and school infrastructure.
Extreme religious believes, high level of unemployment as well as illiteracy determined the emergence of Boko Haram insurgency. This implies that increase in the level of Boko haram activities is determined by the high level of extreme religious beliefs, unemployment and illiteracy. In conclusion therefore, high level of unemployment and illiteracy make people to be easily brainwashed to get involved in the Boko Haram activities.
The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.
- The study recommended that the non formal learning centers initiated by UKAID, USAID etc should be emulated by Yobe state government in order to reduce illiteracy in the state
- The study also recommended that, since extreme religious beliefs, unemployment and illiteracy are the contributory factors to insurgency as shown by the findings; government should provide employment opportunities for the citizens and encourage them to be self-reliant. This can only be done through giving them loans and training them on different types of businesses. This can also be done through organising seminars on business issues. As such, people will not easily be brainwashed or get involved in any activity that is characterized as insurgency.
- The study also recommended that government should provide free education and make it mandatory to each and every citizen. This will help in limiting the level of illiteracy in the state (Yobe).
- Government should be contacting, interacting as well as consulting religious scholars (Both Muslims and Christians scholars) on any sensitive issues, and any religious scholar that is found preaching against peace should be executed and punished.
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