Geology Of Western Aking And Its Environs And Heavy Metal Distribution In Surface Water Stream Sediment, Aking-West, Southeastern Nigeria
Aking-West and its environs is located within latitude 050 221N and 050 261N and longitude 0080 361E and 0080 381E. It covers an estimated area of about 72km2. The area is situated in Cross River State which falls within the Basement Complex of South Eastern Nigeria (Oban Massif).
Geologically, the study area is made up of basement rocks, some of which are weathered. Form field studies, gneiss, granodiorite and pegmatite are the major rock types in the study area. Texturally, the rocks in this area range from medium to coarse grains due to the presence of low temperature minerals such as quartz and biotite. The formational events in the area led to the formation of joints, foliation and folds.
The rock trend in the NE-SW direction indicating the pan-African orogeny. Petrographic analysis revealed the presence of migmatite gneiss, biotite gneiss, granodiorite and pegmatite as the metamorphic and igneous rocks in the study area. Petrogenetically, it is believed that different rocks encountered in the field have different origins which form the nature and place the rocks were derived.
The rocks are either igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. The drainage pattern of streams and rivers of the area is dendritic. The study area is characterized by thick vegetation cover consisting of variety of plants such as tall trees, shrubs, climbers and under growths. The economic potentials can be said to be promising due to the abundance of sand and aggregate materials which if exploited would boost the economy of Cross River State.
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Summary and Conclusion
Aking-West is situated within Oban massif basement complex, South Eastern Nigeria, it is characterized by high relief and a dendritic drainage pattern.
The study area lies within the equatorial belt which is characterized by high temperature and humidity. The wet season is long and relatively short dry season, dense vegetation of thick tropical rain forest with differential weathering and erosional activities.
Migmatitite gneiss &biotite gneiss constitute the basement complex rocks in the study area, granodiorite and pegmatite are the major igneousintrusives in the area. The presence of quartz, bIotite and garnet in the gneisses is an indication of amphibolitefacies
The rocks in the study area have undergone metamorphismand folded at least twice, here the latest deformation episodes is the pan-African event which resulted in the almost N-S to NE-SW trending of the joints in the rocks of the area. Foliation trend of N-S to orogeny (600±150ma) affected the rocks in the study area.Foliation is another major metamorphic structure seen in the study area. Textural and mineralogical characterization of these basement rocks have indicated that metamorphism and deformational episodes that shaped the basement rocks in other parts of the country also impacted on the rocks in the study area.
From petrographic studies, the mineral assemblages indicate amphibolites facies of high grade metamorphism. The gneisses in the study area have mechanical and petrological properties similar to those of Oban quarry and hence could be used for various constructions and engineering works. The hydrological potential of the study area has not been fully exploited and explored in present time. Due to low accessibility of the study area (Aking-West) I suggest that more extensive geological techniques other than transverses through bush paths, streams and rivers, hand type collection of samples etc. be employed to enhance more detailed mapping so as to provide more information as to the understanding of the geologic and metamorphic history of the area as well as better ways of harnessing the abundant construction and other useful materials to man.