Gender And Political Participation In Nigeria Politics (A Case Study Of The 4th Republic)
The Gender participation in Nigeria politics is to be dominated by the male counterparts, although, the 4th republic (1999 – 2013) has more women in politics while compare with the previous Republics. Although there is still gap and level to which women are allowed. This work is bent on bringing out the cause, consequences and solution to gender equality in Nigeria polices.
According to the BBC report on the topic analyzing poverty in Africa, Is said “that poverty in Africa has the face of a women“. This is because women are denied relevant pertinent participation in monetary and economic activities. The sustenance of Nigeria’s fledging democracy and development rest squarely on equal representation and participation of gender in the Nigeria political area. Evidence has shown that if men are left alone, politics in national development will continue to bring barrier and more than half of the population will ultimately suffer.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Research Questions
- 1.4 Purpose of Study
- 1.5 Research Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
Review Of Related Literature
- 2.1 Theoretical Framework
- 2.2 Brief History of Gender and Political Participation
- 2.3 Unequal Access to Political Representation
- 2.4 Intimidation, Abuse and Neglect
- 2.5 Illiteracy
- 2.6 Poverty
- 2.7 Women’s Role in Nigeria Politics
- 2.8 Steps to the Improvement of Gender Equality
- 2.9 Level Playing Ground
- 2.10 Economics Empowerment
- 2.11 Government and NGOs Participation
- 2.12 Consequences
- 3.1 Approach of Gender and Political Participation in Nigeria 4th republic
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Area of Study
- 3.4 Study Population
- 3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques
- 3.6 Source of Date
- 3.7 Definition of Terms 4
Chapter Four: Data
Presentation And Interpretation
- 4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Recommendations
- 5.3 Conclusion
1.1 Background Of Study
The issue of gender has attracted a lot of attention and interest in national and international circle. This is at it affects nation development and misconceptions concerning gender roles in polices and decision making. The situations is worse in developing countries of Africa and gradually become worrisome in recent years, especially with the current democratic trend sweeping the global democracy as a system of government demanding the popular will of the people and ensure that available resources are equitable share regardless of sex difference.
These and any condition that stands an obstacle towards the fulfillment of these demands in a democratic system deserves to be re-examined. Thus, the marginalization and subjugation of women observed in all societies, especially Nigeria threatens this realization and have led the United Nation (UN) Human Right Organization (HRO) to engage in concerned action to ensure that women all over are accorded their due right, privilege and opportunities in all countries.
In effect, Nigeria has remained a male dominated society, whose chauvinistic orientation and domineering tendencies have resulted in increase political participation and apathy. This position is rather pathetic history and can never be ignored. It could be recalled that before the advent of western civilization, men and women had complimentary roles to play in the political structure of the country.
Although woman did not have equal access to power and authority with men, because of their child bearing and rearing responsibilities. History shows that the gender structure cum roles in all parts of Nigeria prior to colonialism ensure that the popular will of the people was what subsist in all decision making processes. The implication is that Nigeria traditional perception of leadership or rulership was actually in line with the principles of democracy and authoritarianism.
Unfortunately, the trend of socio-political events since independence has defied all democratic women from the political mainstream. In effect officials of government have lost touch with the public politics in Nigeria are not good oriented and cannot positively contribute to national development. Women are not adequately represented at policy making levels and there is little chance that their interest and needs are given due consideration in the formulation of public policies.
The politics and government are affaire requiring qualities such as intelligence, emotional stability, courage etc and this attributes are God-given and not restricted to any gender, hence in a democratic government. It is expected that all citizens, irrespective of sex should contribute their quota to national development. However, it is still in controvertible that the last half of the (4th) Republic same great improvement in the absolute status of women and in gender equality in most development countries, though gaps still exist in areas of politics and economy.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The problem which necessitated this study could be viewed from the points that the gender and political participation will be attributing positively to the economy of the country, if harnessed. Thus, gender equality and political participation has always persistently clamored for fairness in what they have termed exploitation without commensurate compensation in the political platform and this prolong the stability of crisis in entire economy as a whole.
Hence, from the foregoing, it is appropriate for political parties to consider gender equality and political participation policy to the fullest capacity in other to promote stable environment so as to meet up with their objectives. Thus, the problem arises. What role could the gender equality and political participation policy as a strategy towards combating the problem of crises in the political participation
Worse still previewed trends in the current political terrain in Nigeria have brought to force for society to begin to involve more women in policies. Thuggery, murder, intimidation, oppression, colossal lies, money politics, fraud etc, there is the wisdom in reasoning that these vices will be involved in support of this view, odili (2003) writes that women have legislators made valuable contributions and it is a cinch that they hatd not been there, the sometimes high drama might have macabre.
Orji (1997) also in supports “the existing quo where leadership and decision making roles are mostly in the hands of men who are the traditional leaders seem to have failed us. Leading to the suggestion in some quarters that the female gender should assume a more prominent role in the men political order”. Situation where people have negative attitude towards women in public life cannot possibly permit that government makes adequate use of communication sector to impact the necessary change of attitude towards gender equality role. The art of policies on governance are, emotional, stability, courage etc and these attributes are God given and not restricted to any order. If there is any role, how could it be applied and to what extend ensuring reduction of ignorance and promotion of equal access to political representation.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions were considered necessary to enable us realize the main objective of this research work.
- How can gender equality and political participation in Nigeria be guaranteed?
- What are the major problems which hinder gender equality and political participation in Nigeria?
- Can you suggest the consequences of the negligence of gender and political participation towards development?
1.4 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this research work is to prevent the benefit of community relation among the organizations and its lost community; and also
- To examine the gender equality and political participation and consequence of it negligence in the 4th Republic.
- This research is been carried out purposely to help institutionase mechanism for effective implementation with particular reference to gender equality and political participation in the country.
- This research will help us to understand the benefit of gender equality and political participation and how it promote conducive atmosphere for socio-political life of the society
- Finally, this research will grant us the knowledge how gender equality and political participation can be used to project good economic empowerment.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
To be able to make the researcher achieve the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses were put forward. Gender equality and political participation in Nigeria can be guaranteed, if women will be given equal rights and opportunities among their opposite sex and to reduce the instigating factors of conflict on gender and political participation in Nigeria will not be guaranteed if women will be given rights and opportunities among their opposite sex.
The major problems which hinder gender equality and political participation in Nigeria result from poor gender and political participation programmes. Also thuggery, murder, intimidation, oppression, money political and polities, fraud, etc were the vices which hinder gender equality and political participation in Nigeria. The hindrance of gender equality and political participation in Nigeria were not result from poor gender and political participation programme.
The consequence of gender and political participation negligence’s towards economic empowerment will be disastrous.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The relevance of this research work lies contributions to gender equality and political participation because it is a vital managerial tool that is indispensable towards maintaining a cordial relationship development. This work will be useful to political parties, politicians and women of civil society in Nigeria.
5.1 Summary Of Findings
Gender and political participation is a vital managerial tool that is indispensable towards maintaining a cordial relationship between economic empowerment and socio-political development.
The gender participation in Nigeria politics can be said to be dominated by the male counterpart, although the 4th republic (1999 – 2008) has more women in politics which compel with the previous Republic but there is till gap and level to which women are allowed. However, we have brought to the force the need for society to begin to involve more women in politics. Thuggery, murder, intimidation, oppression, colossal lies, fraud (etc) are vices which characterize the terrain and there is the wisdom in reasoning that these vices will be a thing of the past when more women begin to be involved in politics and decision making in Nigeria.
The Following recommendations are made based on the findings to prove that gender equality in Nigeria economic empowerment of women is a core strategy for establishing gender equality politics. NGOs should provide training programmes on leadership self esteem, public speaking self assertion, as well in political campaigning to assist women and girls to take assumed decision making position in Nigerian politics. It is appropriate for political parties to observer their gender and political participation policy to the fullest capacity in order to promote tranquil environment so as to meet up with their objectives.
However, human rights organization should show more determination to harness the status of women and ensure that they begin to enjoy fundamental rights and freedoms on equal basis with men. Another critical element in promoting gender equality in the area of politics is the establishment of a level institutional playing ground for women and men.
The substance of Nigeria fledging democracy and development, rest squarely on equal representation and participation of gender in Nigeria policies area. Evidence has been shown that if men are left to constitute more positions in politics half of the population will ultimately suffer.
In respect to the Word Bank Report (2001), street that greater women’s right are more equal participation in public life by men women are associated with cleaner business and government and better governance this is greater and the level of corruption is lower. Consequently, to engender development and establish a safer and corrupt free society, women equality in politics should be enthroned while gender inequality dethroned completely from the echelon of Nigeria politics, it has proved that gender inequality determines the effectiveness of all developmental effort for hence and women in fundamental ways. Therefore gender gaps and inequality should treated by policy not by advocacy to maximize result and effect.
Gender And Political Participation In Nigeria Politics (A Case Study Of The 4th Republic)
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