Gender Issues In Agriculture And Rural Development In Nigeria: The Role Of Women

Project and Seminar Material for Economics

Gender Issues In Agriculture And Rural Development In Nigeria: The Role Of Women


Abstract


This study was carried out on gender issues in agriculture and rural development in Nigeria: the role of women using Kaduna North as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of women resident in Kaduna North Local Government Area Of Kaduna State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 80 respondents and 77 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that women plays a significant role in agricultural and rural development. The study also revealed that the level of women’s participation in agricultural activities Kaduna state is high. And the importance of women’s involvement in agricultural activities include; help achieving food and nutrition security, help in generating income, help in improving rural livelihoods, and they supply part of the labour for planting, weeding and harvesting. Therefore, it is recommended that gender inequalities should be given more attention as it is fundamental for enhancing women’s position, roles, responsibilities and participation in rural development process. This will enable the participation of women to rural and agricultural development to assume a better perception.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The sustainable production of food is the first pillar of food security. 68% of women work as farmers, farm workers and natural resource managers (Onyemobi 2000). In doing so, they contribute to national agricultural output, maintenance of the environment and family food security. In Nigeria the involvement of women in agriculture have attracted greater attention in recent years, the need to develop a suitable extension service that is gender specific and tailored to women farmers cannot be overemphasized (Brown et al., 2001). This is in recognition that women play very significant roles in Nigeria agricultural production, processing and utilization but are constrained under the unified Extension System by socio-cultural barriers, and by the current approach that rely almost exclusively on a network of contact farmers that are over 95% male farmers; little research on products – fruits, vegetables, small livestock which are mainly the responsibility of women farmers (Nnadozie and Ibe 2000). The integration of women in extension is essential for the achievement of some goals such as increased food production, food self-sufficiency and sustained reduction of poverty and malnutrition. In Nigeria, the Agricultural Development Projects (ADP) of the different States of the Federation had made important advances in incorporating gender in agricultural extension, by modifying the ADP system midstream to provide for women farmers through the creation of Women-In-Agriculture (WIA) programmes in the department of Extension Services of the State ADPs with a gender focus (Oyebanji 1998; Onyibe 2001). Agricultural development is a complex process and a challenging one as well. Rural women farmers play a vital role in food production and food security. They account for 70% of agricultural workers, 80% of food producers, 100% of those who process basic foodstuffs and they undertake from 60% to 90% of the marketing (Fresco, 1998). Four of ten agricultural workers in the world are women. (UN 1986) Women take part actively in farming activities and in processing farm products, in addition to their domestic and reproductive responsibilities. According to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development in 2008, women account for 75 percent of the farming population in Nigeria, working as farm managers, and suppliers of labour.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Gender equality has a strong anxiety to the world and their interest was to address differences between man and women in terms of needs and responsibilities. In their effort to achieve this in Nigeria, government established Women in Agricultural extension (WIA) programme by the federal ministry of agriculture and World Bank and put it under agricultural development programme (ADP) so that they will help women in accessing the agricultural information, resources and reduce gender discrepancy level. This approach also called women in Agriculture (WIA). With this, Agricultural development programme is facing a serious challenges of gender inequality and their main problem is poor understanding of what gender means. Gender is a principal organiser and controller of activities between people in Agricultural production, reproduction, distribution and consumption. It also means roles and responsibilities and it depends on the cultural belief of the society giving to man and woman. Inability to understand gender may result to gender blindness and increases gender differences. Though women constitute a large portion of the farming population, women’s possibilities in agriculture are Generally, the extent of gender involvement in agricultural production varies across ethnic groups in Nigeria due to religion, social belief, education exposure etc as stated by Sahel (2014). Although there are lots of literature on gender equality little has focused on gender issues in agriculture and rural development in Nigeria: the role of women.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this is focused on gender issues in agriculture and rural development in Nigeria: the role of women. Other specific objective include:

  1. Determine whether women plays any significant role in agricultural and rural development.
  2. To assess the level of the level of women’s participation in agricultural activities Kaduna state.
  3. To determine the importance of Women’s Involvement in agricultural activities.
  4. To identify the factors influencing women’s involvement in agriculture and rural development.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Does women play any significant role in agricultural and rural development?
  2. What is the level of women’s participation in agricultural activities Kaduna state?
  3. What are the importance of Women’s Involvement in agricultural activities?
  4. What are the factors influencing women’s involvement in agriculture and rural development?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H01: Women plays a significant role in agricultural and rural development.
  • H02: The level of women’s participation in agricultural activities Kaduna state is low.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings of this study will be helpful to policy developers on way to empower women to involve in agriculture production as the importance of their role cannot be over emphasize. Finally the study will contribute empirically to the body of Knowledge and as well serve as a reference material for student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on gender issues in agriculture and rural development in Nigeria: the role of women. The study is however delimited to Kaduna North Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Gender:

Gender refers to the economic, social, political, and cultural attributes and opportunities and constraints associated with being female and male. In other words, gender relates to the socially and culturally constructed roles for men and women.

Gender Equity:

This is the process of being fair to women and men. Usually, equity leads to equality. Gender equity therefore denotes the equivalence in life outcome for women andmen recognizing their different needs and interest (. University of Ibadan Draft Gender policy(2011)


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on gender issues in agriculture and rural development in Nigeria: the role of women using Kaduna North as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on gender issues in agriculture and rural development in Nigeria: the role of women using Kaduna North as a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine whether women plays any significant role in agricultural and rural development, assess the level of the level of women’s participation in agricultural activities Kaduna state, determine the importance of Women’s Involvement in agricultural activities, and identify the factors influencing women’s involvement in agriculture and rural development.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 77 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arewomen resident in Kaduna North Local Government Area Of Kaduna State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Women plays a significant role in agricultural and rural development.
  2. The level of women’s participation in agricultural activities Kaduna state is high.
  3. The importance of women’s involvement in agricultural activities include; help achieving food and nutrition security, help in generating income, help in improving rural livelihoods, and they supply part of the labour for planting, weeding and harvesting.
  4. The factors influencing women’s involvement in agriculture and rural development consist of gender discrimination, cultural values and beliefs, education level and age, and marital status.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Gender inequalities should be given more attention as it is fundamental for enhancing women’s position, roles, responsibilities and participation in rural development process. This will enable the participation of women to rural and agricultural development to assume a better perception. This will also enable the government to formulate gender- responsive policies. Such policies will be gender sensitive and will help in promoting food production and empower women to gain equal access to production and marketing. Such policies will also help to consider gender roles in rural development.
  2. Development planners should therefore believe in the ability of women for leadership capability that could further be developed and harnessed. The beneficiaries (rural people) should also be willing to accept responsibilities or the control of the welfare of the people.
  3. Rural development in Nigeria will be sustainable when Nigerians have access to all basic and essential goods and services required to live a decent life. i. e. potable clean water, inside and outside their houses, well staffed and equipped hospitals and schools, markets, transportation facilities, electricity, communication, balanced nutrition, employment, recreational facilities, efficient sewage system, and all enduring democracy.

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