Gender Inequality And The Status Of Widows In Nigeria; Implications For Counselling

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Gender Inequality And The Status Of Widows In Nigeria; Implications For Counselling


Abstract


This study is on gender inequality and the status of widows in Nigeria: implication of counseling. The total population for the study is 200 residents from Ikono LGA, Akwa Ibom. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made married men, married women, widows and widowers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms
  • 1.8 Organization of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review


Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 sources of data collection
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
  • 3.5 Validation of research instrument
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Presentation,  Analysis And Interpretation

  • 4.1 Introductions
  • 4.2 Data analysis

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Women constitute about half of the population of the Nigerian State and are known to play vital roles as mothers, producers, managers, community developers/organizers etc. Their contribution to the social and economic development of societies is also more than half as compared to that of men by virtue of their dual roles in the productive and reproductive spheres. Yet their participation in formal and informal structures and processes, where decisions regarding the use of societal resources generated by both men and women are made, remains insignificant. Gender inequality in our society today, is among the most prevalent forms of social inequality which exists all over the world. These differences are primarily due to cultural legacies, historical development, geographical location and religious norms which pre-dominate the society. Nmah (2003) is of the view that the resultant weakness of gender inequality has deprived women of the strength to rise up and insist on a change in their environment for the sake of their families and children. Women fear the difficulties of living without a male companion in a man’s world. The socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-religious and socio-political aspects of the underdevelopment of women will be discussed with possible remedies to them.

A widow refers to a woman whose husband has died and who has not married again. One would have thought that the pains of losing a husband or a bread winner and the head of a family should be enough pain to a woman, and as such one would expect no more additional pain for someone who has been bereaved. Widowhood is widely regarded as a women’s issue. In all developed and nearly all developing nations, women are more likely than men to survive the death of their spouse, reflecting men’s higher rates of mortality and the tendency of women to marry men slightly older than themselves. Women also are more likely than men to remain unmarried after their spouse dies, due both to a highly skewed sex ratio among older adults and men’s greater desire to remarry after losing a spouse. Moreover, widowhood has increasingly become an older women’s issue; as life expectancy has increased steadily over the past century in virtually every nation, spousal loss overwhelmingly befalls older adults. As such, widowhood has important consequences for the living arrangements and physical, economic and psychological well-being of older adults. The distinctive ways that older men and women experience widow-hood are shaped by demographic factors, including the timing of their spouse’s death; the number and gender distribution of their children; the living arrangements, employment patterns and migration patterns of their children; one’s own physical health and functioning in later life; cultural context; and gender-typed socialization processes that occur over the life course


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

In some societies, the death of a husband makes the wife lose some of her pride and glory, especially positions assumed after the husband’s status. She becomes an object of maltreatment. The widow’s status traditionally changes from womanhood to widowhood. The pathetic state of widows is often worsened by some cultural expectations, norms and deprivations. The physical and psychological violence inflicted on widows as part of the traditional burial rituals of cleansing have lots of implications on the health of the widow who is most times traumatized and battered. The children too, who themselves have become less protected share in their mother’s pain, especially if they are still young. In some cases, they are chased out of their father’s house with their mother, after the death of their father. This poses a great problem to the larger society to which these children belong, as some of them may not continue with their education because of the financial constraint. Some may become violent due to harsh experience or take to some other social vices.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the relationship between gender inequality and status of widow in Nigeria
  2. To ascertain the implication of gender inequality among widows in among
  3. To ascertain the economic implications of these widowhood practices on the widows.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

In the course of this study, three main hypotheses are formulated.

Hypothesis One
  • Ho: there is no relationship between gender inequality and status of widow in Nigeria
  • Ha: there is relationship between gender inequality and status of widow in Nigeria
Hypothesis Two
  • Ho: there is no implication of gender inequality among widows in among
  • Ha: there is implication of gender inequality among widows in among

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study is expected to give a clear in insight on the gender inequality and the status of widows in Nigeria: implication of counseling. The study will be significant to students and the general public. It will also serve as reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic


1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

The scope of the study covers gender inequality and the status of widows in Nigeria: implication of counseling. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability Of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Gender Inequality:

Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual’s lived experience. These differences arise from distinctions in biology, psychology, and cultural norms. Some of these distinctions are empirically grounded while others appear to be socially constructed.

Widow:

A woman who has lost her spouse by death and has not married again

Counseling:

Give professional help and advice to (someone) to resolve personal or psychological problems.


1.8 Organization Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain gender inequality and the status of widows in Nigeria: implication of counseling. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of gender inequality and the status of widows in Nigeria: implication of counseling


5.2 Summary

This study was on gender inequality and the status of widows in Nigeria: implication of counseling. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the relationship between gender inequality and status of widow in Nigeria, to ascertain the implication of gender inequality among widows in among, to ascertain the economic implications of these widowhood practices on the widows. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents from Ikono LGA, Akwa Ibom. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made married men, married women, widows and widowers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

Perceived gender inequality implications of widowhood practices in Nigeria include discrimination, regarded as outcasts, oppression and depression, dissociation from social groups, restriction from talking in public gatherings; they are treated as strangers and hardly recognized in family meetings. In line with these findings, Ahousi (1997) made submission that it is an obvious fact that widowhood practices subject woman particularly to discrimination, exploitation and oppression are perceivable problems experience by widows.


5.4 Recommendation

Governments should establish a National Commission for Widow Affairs as a way of fostering widows’ empowerment in the society. And also provide support system for these widows such as scholarship for their children. Forceful levirate marriages against the widow’s wish must be stopped.


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