Gender Disparity Of The Population Of Students In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria

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Gender Disparity Of The Population Of Students In Tertiary Institutions In Nigeria

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

The world all agree that education is the right of every child. That right should be for every body, both male and female born to the state, but in practice, it is not done that way, female children are often discriminated against in education matters. In most countries where formal education has become the right of every child, there are few female in almost all categories of schools than males, even in countries where education is free and compulsory. There are fewer females than males especially in higher institution of learning. Also disparity is noticed in science and technical courses.

Education is an index of social progress. Thus, inequality of access to education usually put females in a disadvantage and setting contribution to national development.

Lack of equal educational experiences, skills, and qualifications, for women has relegated them to inferior lives as citizens. As a result, it reduces their power to influence government, participate in leadership role, and decision which affect their lives. It is crucial that both females and males see the significant of women getting into leadership and management positions and taking part in decision making if countries are to break the cycle of gender discriminations. (Camduagu 2007:13 Feb).

1.2 Background To The Study

As long as the south see the men taking the top positions, making decisions and earning higher wages, while women tacitly accept their (second fiddle) role, children will be believe what they see and not what the teachers says. They will believe the evidence of heir eyes rather than exhortations that women are equal to men, have equal talent, equal responsibilities and rights.

The education of females has consistently been shown to be positively related to key development indices such as reduced child mortality and mobility, improved family health, higher productivity and consequently economic well-being (Johnston, 1972: UNESCO 1993). There have also been international and national initiative to expand access, following the jointed conference (1990) which translated into the education for all (EFA) and to which Nigeria is also a signatory.

Sectors like education and nursing have higher proportion of women in the work force. Primary and pre-primary education have a disproportionately high number of females employees reduces. There is therefore an inversely proportion of female workers (teachers) to the levels of educational programmes especially the tertiary institutions. In addition, low presentation, there is also the issue of low status of workers in teaching.

Fewer women teach mathematics, science and technical courses. Also women are generally underrepresented in management posts in schools and senior positions in the ministries of education. Women teachers directly and directly are victims of gender discrimination in matters such as development, and welfare benefits like housing allowances.

Both female teachers and student are often victims of sexual harassment by male teachers and students.

1.3 Statement Of The Problem

As earlier mentioned, many factors are considered as causes of gender disparity that exists in the population of students in tertiary institution in Nigeria. For example, in the northern part of Nigeria, it is culturally believed the women are not supposed to go to school. Though some still send their female children to school up to the secondary level of education after which they expected them to marry and settle down with their family. Religion also contributes to this phenomenon as their doctrines (Islam) places women are naturally weak in performing some taxes that need high thinking ability and otherwise.

Socio –political factors are also considered as factors that gave rise to this problem but, low performances in class achievement by male colleagues and is considered the most important which have drown the researcher to this issue to ask some vital question to the topic under investigation.

1.4 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of the study therefore, is to make findings on the factors that contributes to gender disparity in the population of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Thereby proffer lasting solutions to the problems. To enhance this, we are going to look at the causes that inhibits the enrolment of female into tertiary institution of learning and how the problem affect the society in the areas of study and the prospects of human development.

It is hoped that the work will help not only the general public but local government, state and the federal government of Nigeria, demographers, policy makers and those who will have access to the study for further research.

1.5 Scope And Delimitations Of The Study

This research work is to critically look into the manifestation of gender issues in the population of students in tertiary institution of leaning in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

It has been noted that people find it diffident to understand the fact that women are equal to men, therefore have equal talent, equal to men, therefore have equal talent, equal responsibilities and rights. It is in the light of this that their study was conducted and embarked upon to enhance the understanding and participation of females in the enrolment in higher institution of learning. Moreso, this study will help to achieve the desired national objectives as stipulated in the national policy on education by federal ministry of education.

It is expected that, while we highlights our findings, we advocate a change of heart from stake-holders, donor agencies, teachers and students themselves on the issue of gender in our tertiary or higher institution of learning, especially colleges of education. Where teachers who hold the key to our speedy national development are been trained.

1.7 Statement Of Hypothesis And Research Questions

Some of the major questions are listed below:

  1. Are there gender imbalances in terms of enrolment and subject specialization of students in tertiary institutions?
  2. What social and economic factors affect the prospects of female students entering into tertiary institution in Nigeria?
  3. What are the forms and extent of sexual of harassment?
  4. Do religion, cultural social factors affect the number and progress of female students?
  5. Are there imbalances in gender distribution of teachers in managerial posts, executive positions, professional ranks as well as subject areas?
  6. Do male and female lecturers have equal opportunity of professional growth?
  7. Are female student discriminated against in accommodation policies and student unionism?
  8. What are the attitudes of student and staff towards gender stereotyping.

1.8 Definition Of Key Concepts (Or Relevant Terms)


Education is a process of teaching, training and learning with unfair treatment.


Index is a list of names or topics that are referred to in a book.


Inequality simply mean the unfair differences between group of people in society.


Inequality simply put, the fact of been male or female.


Citizen is a person who has the legal right to belong to a particular country.


Fiddle this is something that is difficult to do.


Mortality is the number of death in a particular situation or period of tie.


Mobility is the ability to move or travel around easily.


Token involving very title effort or feeling and intended only as a way of showing other people that you think somebody or something is important. When really you are not sincere.


Population is the total number of people who live in a particular area, city or country. The total number of things that are around there. e.g the population of houses.


Advocate simply means to be realistic in supporting something or someone or somebody or groups.


Religion is the total belief in the existence of a God or goods and activities that are connected with the worship of them.


Culture simply means the customs and beliefs, arts way of life and social organization of a particular country or group.


Prospects simply means the possibility that something will happen.


Administrator is a person who job is to manage and organize the public or business affairs of a company or an institution.


Policy is simply put a plan of action agreed or choosen by a political party, or an organization.


Discrimination is the practice of treating somebody or a particular group in society less family than others.


Welfare is a general care on health, happiness and safety of a person, an animal or a group.


Qualification is a skill or type of experience that you need for a particular job or activity.

1.9 Organization Of The Study

In conclusion, women are discriminated in almost all aspects of life. This has led to the disparity that exist in the population of female students Kogi State University Ayangba as well as other tertiary institutions like Kogi State Polytechnic Lokoja where women are been neglected and deprived of their right in terms of campus politic and other activities like football competition, to mention but a few.

Education on the other hand, suppose to be the right of every citizens, hence it is the backbone of every development. This means that for a society to become developed, education suppose to be a priority for both males females of that particular society and in most countries of the world there are fewer females than males especially in tertiary institution of learning.

Hence education is an index of social progress.

This therefore put female in a disadvantage. This has therefore led to the study called gender disparity against female in tertiary institution of learning.

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