Gender Considerations And Entrepreneurship Development In Northern Nigeria (A Case Study Of Oju Printing Press, Kaduna)
The purpose of this research is to find out how Gender Consideration and Entrepreneurship Development in Northern Nigeria bring economic development through entrepreneurship in Northern Nigeria. A case study of Oju Printing Press Limited. Gender Consideration in any business decisions help in smooth running of business organization as well as greater productivity. Entrepreneurship as the engine of development play a vital role in the economic development of a nation. Entrepreneurship development enhance the living standard of people. The specific objective of this study is to evaluate some businesses that are more suitable to men than women. To find out if that is the right approach to economic development through entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria with particular reference to Oju Printing Press limited Kaduna South Local Government Area.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Approval Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Statement of Hypothesis
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Historical Background of the Case Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 2.1 Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Development Defined
- 2.2 Basic Prerequisites for Effective Entrepreneurship
- 2.3 Entrepreneurship Development Effort in Nigeria
- 2.4 Entrepreneurship Development in Northern Nigeria
- 2.5 Gender Considerations in Entrepreneurship Development
- 2.6 Socio-cultural Practices, militating against the effective participation of Women in Entrepreneurship Development in Northern Nigeria
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Research Population
- 3.3 Sampling size and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Methods of Gathering Data
- 3.5 Justification for the Method Used
- 3.6 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.7 Justification for the Instrument Used
- 4.0 Introduction
- 4.1 Distribution of the Responses
- 4.2 Test of Hypothesis
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
Individuals go into business for the sake of obtaining regular income, becoming self employed and also help others. Although there are different kinds of business enterprises that female and male can go into, often times, some businesses are regarded as more suitable for one sex and not the other. This means that there are some gender considerations in the choice of business one goes into and, by extension, in entrepreneurship development.
Apparently, gender attitudes and behaviours may have positive or negative effect on entrepreneurship development in a society or economy.
This research work therefore intends to take a critical look at gender considerations as they affect entrepreneurship development with particular reference to Northern Nigeria in general, using Oju Printing Press Limited Kaduna, Kaduna South Local Government area as a case study, and also to suggest the possible solutions to indentified problems and give recommendations where necessary.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Entrepreneurship has generally been recognized as a good medium or strategy for economic development of an individual, a community and a nation. It is also a known fact that some gender considerations are often used in the choice of business or even the decision to go into business. For example, some businesses are regarded as more suitable to men than women. The question here is, is this the right approach to economic development through entrepreneurship? Of what effect is this approach to entrepreneurship development?
These and other questions are what this research work intends to find answers to, and, if possible make recommendations where possible.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the gender and entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria, also to study some of the gender considerations in entrepreneurship development and its impact on economic development effort in Nigeria particularly Northern Nigeria. The study specifically hopes to suggest possible solutions to any gender related impediments to entrepreneurship development.
1.4 Statement of Hypothesis
The following hypothesis has been formulated to serve as a guide for the study.
- H0: That gender considerations have no significant effect on entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria.
- H1: That gender considerations, have significant effect on entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will provide a guide for any me on the establishment of a business in Nigeria. This study will help me ensure a proper approach to gender considerations in the decision and to any individual that want to establish a business (entrepreneur) in order to achieve maximum profit and productivity.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research work will concentrate on gender considerations and entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria. The scope is limited to Oju Printing Press Nigeria Limited, Kaduna South, the management, staff and other employees of the organization.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
In the course of this study many problems were encountered. Collection of relevant data was a problem because what the organization regard to their “secret”.
Other limitations of the research include cost of visiting the organization to see the people necessary to get the relevant information. Sometime the staff concerned may not be on seat.
Time was another limiting factor faced by the researcher. A researcher will have to share the limited time.
1.8 Historical Background of the Case Study
Oju Printing Press Limited is a small-scale organization which employed over Two Hundred and Fifty (250) workers made of different categories like Managers, Supervisors, Intermediate and Junior workers. Oju Printing Press is a sole proprietorship business. It is owned by Chief Gabriel O. Oju, it was established on 20th August, 1969 and was situated at VVI Lagos/Keffi Street, Kaduna.
Oju Printing Press was setup with the objective of providing the best quality printing services to customers at affordable prices and at the appropriate time. At the early life of the press, it started with letterpress and binding machine. Namely: letter press Heidelberg and cutting machines.
In the course of expression, the press relocated to Nc3 Oshogbo road, Kaduna in 1979. The press increased its machines by purchasing Rita prints, Plate Maker, Camera and Kond. During this period of the press ahs increased its area of specialization from letter press to offset printing.
In 1986, they moved to J11 Main Street, Badarawa Road, Kaduna in June 1993 and finally moved to VV15 Nassarawa Road, Kaduna in June 1998 as its permanent site up till date. Between 1993 till date it has acquired additional machines such as Multilith 1850, stitching machine, computers and ruling machine.
This organization is engaged in the publishing of companies annual reports, textbooks, invoice, receipts, calendars, invitation cards, business cards etc. Oju Printing Press is an organization worthy to be emulated, judging by its achievement.
Within the period of its existence, the organization has rendered a lot of services to prominent companies of government parastatals within the country among are: NITEL Headquarters – Lagos, National Electric Power Authority Kaduna, Kaduna State Water Board, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Kaduna, Bayero University Kano etc.
Below is a sample of what Oju printing press organizational chart should look like.
Oju Printing Press Organizational Chart
Source: Oju Printing Press, 2012.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Refers to female or male
Consideration means involvement, regarding and concluding
Development means to improvement, gradual improvement in future.
A person who engage in business and take the risk involve in that business.
Enterprise is a name of firm.
It is the aspect of promotion, which try to convince people about the virtues of a production by using mass media.
Is the activities of securing editorial space as divorce from paid staff from all media read, viewed by company for the specific purpose of assisting in the meeting of sale.
viii) Public Relation:
This is the process of fostering goal with outsider, so that people will desire to do business with your company.
ix) Personal Selling:
Process of information and persuading in order to buy their production and services from which benefit are derived.
x) Sale Promotion:
It is a techniques which company adopted to capture target customers by attaching small gifts to their product so as to generate sales.
Is a special or ad-hoc promotion, it might involve a special arrangement of the shop at a particular season or the use of contests such as the one for may come up at a particular period of the year.
xii) Store Demonstration:
It is where a group of customers or users may be called into the shop or demonstrate a new product.
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
From chapter four, the followings are findings that are related to the hypothesis of the research work.
From the table V it was found that gender considerations ensure efficiency and productivity in Oju Printing Press representing 50% of the staff. Also, table IV reaffirmed that there are other businesses which are more suitable to men than women representing 66.7% of the staff.
The respondents in table 12 indicate that Oju Printing Press ensures gender considerations during its establishment based on gender suitability representing 66.8% of the staff.
In table six, the respondent accounting for about 66.7% felt that gender consideration is the right approach to economic development through entrepreneurship in Northern Nigeria.
Finally in table Seven (7), the respondents appear to all agree that gender considerations has positive effect to entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria in reference to Kaduna South Local Government area. The respondents presenting 50% felt there is positive effect to economic growth.
Based on the findings of this research work and hypothesis tested earlier in chapter four. The research proves that gender consideration is the right approach to entrepreneurship development in Northern Nigeria with part of Oju Printing Press Kaduna South Local Government area.
This aspect of project deals with the problematic areas highlighted and brought to focus during this study. It is anticipated that areas of weakness will be improved upon if the recommendations listed below are fully implemented.
- It is recommended that any entrepreneur should endeavour to ensure gender consideration when establishing the business in order to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in his/her business.
- Since some businesses are more suitable to men than women any investor should know the type of job that fit women as well as place them at the suitable positions they can perform very well.
- It is recommended hat it is through gender consideration that will ensure economy development in Northern Nigeria through entrepreneurship. Therefore, gender issue should be a major focus in business affair.
- Entrepreneurship development should be given a priority in the Northern Nigerian in order to enhance a good standard of living and increase of per capita income.
- Gender considerations is the avenue of successful business. Therefore a holistic approach should be made when plan for staring up the business especially in the area of recruitment, selection and placement of human resources in the organization.
- Finally, women should not be forced to embark on business that is not suitable to other interest rather they should be allowed to choose the suitable business for their own wish this will help in speedy spread of entrepreneurs in Northern Nigeria.
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