Fungi Associated With Spoilage Of Smoked Dried Fish

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology


Abstract


Fish is highly nutritious with high protein content. However, it is a suitable medium for growth of microorganisms, if poorly processed (Oparaku and Mgbenka, 2012). The growth of microorganisms and other non-microbial activities such as lipid oxidation contribute to the deterioration of fish products (Martin, 2010). An increase in the ambient temperature triggers favourable conditions for microorganisms to thrive, which reduces the quality of fish and its potential keeping time leading to food loss (Abolagba et al., 2011).

Preserving food and other perishable products like fish and meat generally involves processes that impede growth of microorganisms either by the addition of growth inhibiting ingredients or adjusting storage conditions by freezing or drying (Akise et al., 2013). Processing methods affect the microorganisms in fish in different ways, resulting in different types of micro-flora and different risks from spoilage organisms and pathogens.

In dried fish, the micro-flora are prevented from growing by the storage method used and the product may have a long shelf life in the preserved state. However, the microbial load of fish rarely indicates the quality of the fish, but gives an indication of the risk of spoilage induced since each of the organisms has different ways of affecting the health conditions of consumers of such contaminated fish (Gram et al., 2015). As result there is a need to investigate microorganisms such fungi that are associated to fish spoilage. This necessitated this study into investigating fungi associated with smoked dried fish vended in Eke –Awka Market in Anambra state.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Fish is highly nutritious with high protein content. However, it is a suitable medium for growth of microorganisms, if poorly processed (Oparaku and Mgbenka, 2012). The growth of microorganisms and other non-microbial activities such as lipid oxidation contribute to the deterioration of fish products (Martin, 2010). An increase in the ambient temperature triggers favourable conditions for microorganisms to thrive, which reduces the quality of fish and its potential keeping time leading to food loss (Abolagba et al., 2011).

Preserving food and other perishable products like fish and meat generally involves processes that impede growth of microorganisms either by the addition of growth inhibiting ingredients or adjusting storage conditions by freezing or drying (Akise et al., 2013). Processing methods affect the microorganisms in fish in different ways, resulting in different types of micro-flora and different risks from spoilage organisms and pathogens.

In dried fish, the micro-flora are prevented from growing by the storage method used and the product may have a long shelf life in the preserved state. However, the microbial load of fish rarely indicates the quality of the fish, but gives an indication of the risk of spoilage induced since each of the organisms has different ways of affecting the health conditions of consumers of such contaminated fish (Gram et al.,2015). As result there is a need to investigate microorganisms such fungi that are associated to fish spoilage. This necessitated this study into investigating fungi associated with smoked dried fish vended in Eke –Awka Market in Anambra state.


1.2 Aims / Objectives of the study.

The aim of the study is to investigate the fungi associated with spoilage of smoked dried fish. Specifically, the objective of the study is to;

  1. Isolated the fungi’s associated to smoked dried fish vended in Eke-Awka market.
  2. To identify the fungi associated to smoked dried fish.

1.3 Scope of the study

The scope of the study covers the fungi associated with smoked dried fish that are vended in Eke- Awka market. The scope will also cover the isolation and identification of fungi associated to smoked dried fish.


1.4 Justification

  1. Smoked dried fish constitute a major source of animal protein for a vast majority of the population in Nigeria, particularly the rural areas.
  2. It is therefore important from toxicological points of view to investigate the growth and effects of fungi on smoked —dried fish.

Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

Findings of the study indicated that various fungi organism are associated to smoked dried fish samples and this fungi are responsible for the degradation and micro toxin contamination of most food such as fish. Some of this fungi ranges from Fusarium germanium, Aspergilius niger, Fusarium hair, and asprgilius fumigatus. The finding of the study also corroborate with the findings of Such Martin (2011), Olawale et al. (2015), Adesokan et al. (2015), and Abolagba and Igbinevbo (2010) for smoked fish (Clarias spp) Akise et al. (2013) reported that microflora isolation from fish sample high microbial load and unfavourable composition from smoke-dried Lutjanus agennes (Red Snapper), Mugil cephalus (Mullet) and Chrysichthys walkeri (Catfish).

The findings also showed the contamination of this fish samples are due to the method of processing, unhygienic condition and exposure in the market place to contaminated air and materials. The findings also indicate that that the contamination of this samples under favorable condition like temperature and moisture, the fungi causes great reduction in weight of the fish samples due to degradation. This findings agree with the findings of Josphus,(2011) who said fungi play a huge role in the breakdown of plant and animal matter and return it to the soil to be used again.


5.3 Conclusion

Evidence from the study have shown that there are fungi associated with smoked dried fish and those fungi possess mycotoxins that pose danger to human and animal health as they are toxic to vertebrates and other animals in low concentrations. The implication of this is that most consumers might have been consuming these metabolites and their prolonged intake may constitute a health hazard. In other to demonstrate that a disease is a mycotoxicoses, it is necessary to show a dose- response relationship between the mycotoxin and the disease which this study to has evidently shown. Hence, it can be said that most of the smoked dried fish vended in Eke Awka contain some level of fungi contamination


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that proper care should be taken by fish vendor during processing and sell. Fish meant for consumption should be properly washed and boiled in other to kill any presence of fungi and it micro toxin.


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