A Framework For Rural Roads Accessibility Planning
The concept of public participation and how it can be incorporated in transport planning was studied. Current planning methods and steps were reviewed, and a tool which incorporates public participation in planning (questionnaire) was developed. This study was carried out using questionnaires that incorporate socioeconomic factors that affect transportation in the rural areas of Kaduna State. Data were collected and processed via the following: questionnaires, discussions, and interviews with the local communities. Community Masterplans were developed with GIS coordinates in Google Earth maps with precision and accuracy
1.1 Background of the Study
Planning, design and construction of rural roads espeacially in the region of reference in this study is based on traditional methods mainly determined by the client and often dictated by eventualities and circumstances of funding. The appraisal process is normally based on cost-benefit analysis in some cases where international agencies and bodies like the World Bank are involved, while in others it is based on political and social considerations. However, there exist some associated problems with the current methods of planning, design and construction of rural roads, which include public acceptance, prioritization, funding/cash flow issues, resource allocation and maintenance to mention but a few. According to Riverson, et.al. (2001) rural roads investment has generally not received the correct emphasis in overall planning efforts. Resource allocation for instance, has usually been subject to ad-hoc decisions with lack of continuity, and fragmentation through separate projects. Designs often deviate from standards partly due to land availability issues and the level of priority given to such class of roads. On the other hand, construction is faced with poor workmanship by in-experienced contractors, lack of proper supervision and quality assurance programs among many other issues.
Rural roads are the tertiary road system which provides access to villages and farm lands from the main roads and various centers of activities. In developing countries like Nigeria, rural roads are termed as roads passing through rural and agricultural areas, connecting villages to main roads and/or a town/market centre. Traffic on such roads are relatively low, comprising of mixed modes of transportation like bullock carts, bicycle.
Consequently, enhancement in rural accessibility can play a crucial role in alleviating poverty and simultaneously this may give many chances to rural individual to take part in different activities like employment and market trade. This approach directly or indirectly can increase the living standards of rural individuals as they may get more opportunities towards their businesses (Bryceson et al., 2008). The objective of this research study is to a frame work for rural road accessibility planning
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Transportation availabilities assessed with respect to mobility or physical movement. After a considerable time period this was taken with respect to accessibility or the ability of people who are interested in access to goods and services and opportunities towards employment. The broader social and economic problems of rural regions like poverty, health, trade, education, agriculture and markets do exist because of the unavailability of transportation services and infrastructure. On this background the researcher wants to investigate on a frame work for rural road accessibility planning
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the impact of road accessibility to rural community
- To ascertain the factors that make rural road not accessible
- To ascertain the effect of bad road to rural farmers
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: road accessibility in rural community does not have a significant impact on the rate of economic activity in the region
H1: road accessibility in rural community has a significant impact on the rate of economic activity in the region
- H02: bad road does not permit rural farmers transport their farm produce to the urban market
H2: bad road does not permit rural farmers transport their farm produce to the urban market
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will give clear insight on a frame work for rural road accessibility planning. This study will be beneficial to rural communities and government of Nigeria. This study will serve as a reference to other researchers that want to embark on research in a similar topic
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers a frame work for rural road accessibility planning. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 Definition of Terms
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area.
This definition can be used as an analytical tool to analyse the effects of improved accessibility. Seasonality refers to the periods during the year when the movement of certain (optimum mode) or all vehicles on a road, or section thereof, is hindered or even prevented entirely.
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It involves the creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological aspects that require conceptual skills.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a frame work for rural road accessibility planning
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of a frame work for rural road accessibility planning
This study was on a frame work for rural road accessibility planning. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the impact of road accessibility to rural community, to ascertain the factors that make rural road not accessible, to ascertain the effect of bad road to rural farmers. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Kaduna South local government council, Kaduna state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up directors, counselors, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
In contrast, the planning of rural transport services, and to a lesser extent village level infrastructure, is very much at its infancy. These activities have been left, by default, to the local community and the market to deal with. There is a need to find effective ways of working with and strengthening local communities and local institutions and markets, to improve performance. Pilot projects are urgently needed to help identify how best to implement new transport service interventions.
There is a need to find effective ways of working with and strengthening local communities and local institutions and markets, to improve performance. Pilot projects are urgently needed to help identify how best to implement new transport service interventions
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