Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap


The production of the soap was carried out using all the necessary equipments like the reactor, mould, stirrer, hygrometer guage etc. and all the required reagents for soap production in correct proportion.

In the production, palm kernel oil (P.K.O) was used instead of tallow or grease. This was because soap produced from grease or tallow tends to dissolve slowly at room temperature, whereas, soap of palm kernel oil product gives a quicker lather which is relatively suitable.

Different formulation were developed, but the most appropriate was the ratio 2:1 of P.K.O to caustic soda solution. This ratio gave a very quality soap. The other formulation are 3:1 and 1:1 of good quality and physically, they were observed to be brittle.

The test and analysis carried out on the P.K.O and the soap produced proved that the saponification value of the P.K.O was 248.24; refractive index was 1.451, free fatty value of 1.58; acid value of 4.43; moisture content of 26.78%; free alkali of 0.214%, alcohol insoluble matter of 1.43% and PH value of 9.98 at a temperature reading 2980c. The soap was moderately soft and very soluble in water.

The quality of soap produced conformed to all the requirements for toilet soap from Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON). It was found out that the soap has no inferiors effect on the skin; does not contain any visible foreign matter which means that the soap was properly mixed, does not encourage microbial growth and lathers effectively.

It was also found that the cost of producing the herbal/medicated or antiseptic soap was N63.00k compared to that sold in the market for N100.00k per tablet. Thus, the production based on the research work was profitable and more economical.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Aims Of The Study
  • 1.3 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.4 Scope Of Study
  • 1.5 Limitation Of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Methods Of Soap Making
  • 2.3 Different Types Of Soap:
  • 2.4 Different Types Of Soap Making Oils

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Method

  • 3.1 Raw Material
  • 3.2 Soap Making Process

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Soap is defined as the sodium salt of fatty acid. It is a saponification products of fat and oil.

The washing industry, usually known as the soap industry, has root over 2000 years in the past, a soap factory being found in the Pompeii excavation. However, among the many chemical process industries, none has experience such a fundamental change in chemical raw materials as have the washing industries. It has been generally accepted that the per capital use of toilet soap is a reliable guide to the standard of living for any country.

Moreover, the process of soap making has progressed from batch-wise saponification process to continous saponification process, which was first installed in 1937 by procter and gamble.

In otherwords, soap is the earliest detergent known to man and apparently was first made by the Roman from animal’s fats and wood ashes (which contains the alkali potassium carbonate) about 2500 years ago. In colonial America and until the 1940s, most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called saponification.
Since the production of soap is cheap and can be produced anywhere, it will be possible to easily achieve a sufficiently high economy of scale. The production of toilet soap is also a distinct possibility as it is merely an exiting of levera soap whereby the water content is reduced from about 28% to 10% and perfume is added. Once the levera soap market is established, then a whole spectrum, of soap products is available though it will require additional and different machinery (Robinson, 1904).

1.2 Aims Of The Study

The sole aim of this research work is to produce a high quality of levera soaps. The major aspects of this project deals with quality control processes in the production of a high quality levera soaps.

In soap production, cold process was used and this was found out to be the most effective means of production considering several factors. In the production of levera soaps, palm kernel oil was used instead of fallow or grease. This is because palm kernel has a low titre value and gives a quicker lather and the fallow or grease gives a high titre value which produce soap that is slow to dissolve at low temperature. Different formulations were made and it was found out that the best ratio for high quality soap is 2:1 of palm kernel to caustic soda respectively. Carrying out test on soap produced were saponification value of P.K.O to be 248.24 refractive index 1.45, free fatty acid value of 1.56, acid value of 3.5, moisture content of soap 35.29%, percentage free alkaline 0.4% alcohol insoluble matter of 1.43% and PH value of 8.80 at a temperature reading of 30.00.

The synthetic detergent which was developed to replace the soapy detergent has a better quality. It was prepared by a sulphonation reaction when this reaction is carried out, a detergent paste is formed which when builders and other additives were added, it then form detergent which was size reduced and seized.

The sieved detergent was dried by solar energy. From the project, it was discovered that (STPP) helps the detergent to reduce water hardness sequestering calcium ion and heavy metal ion water, could increase the cleaning action of detergent. And also the hydrogen peroxide acts as stain removal due to its bleaching action, the CMC acts as anti-redeposition agent.

The high quality levera soap was found to contain certain materials which limit the formation of scum in hard water and this ascertained that the synthetic detergent is not more effective than levera soap when washing and moreover levera soap does not change the colour of a material when washing but detergent does by bleaching the colour.

1.3 Significance Of The Study

The study on the production of the levera soap is significant in homes, offices industries etc it is used in the washing off of dirt from our cloths, dishes, equipments etc. to ensure neatness and proper cleansing.

The significant of this study tends to connect the relationship that has to do with cleanliness and health. It tend to provide good health to people by ensuring a well and thorough cleaning of household materials, industrial facilities and equipment as well as cleaning the entire surroundings to ensure good health.

This will provide a basis for researchers who might investigate in this field/subject matter in the future as well as contribute to the existing body of knowledge.

1.4 Scope Of Study

This project is concerned with the production of a high quality soap from local raw materials such as palm kernel oil, hence emphasis shall be placed on soaps rather than on soapless detergents.

The making of soap is one of the oldest of chemical synthesis/whom the German tribeman of Caeser time boiled goat tallow with potash leached from the ashes of wood fire’s they were carrying out the some chemical reactions as the one carried out on a tremendous scale by modern soap manufacturers, hydrolysis of glycerine which yields salt of the carboxylic acids and glycerol.

Soap may vary in composition and method of processing: if made from olive oil, it is enstile soap; alcohol can be added to make it transparent; our can be beaten in to make it float; perfumes, dyes, germicides can be added; if a potassium salt (instead of a sodium salt) is used; it is a soft soap. Chemically however, soap remains pretty much the same and does its job the same way.

The overall objective of this research project is geared towards producing soap of very good quality from palm kernel oil at a very economical way.

1.5 Limitation Of Study

The cost and acquisition of materials were major factors that affected this research project adversely. Also, time constraint poised a significant limitation during the execution of this study.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

This study examined the formulation and production of Levera soap. Soap is one of the oldest chemical produced over two thousand years ago by saponification animal fats with the ashes from plants. Although soap are mainly used as surfactant for washing, bathing cleaning, but they are also being used in textile spinning and as important constituent of lubricating grease. Now soap and detergent have become integral part of our society. The soap produced in this study can be used domestically and also industrially for machines and equipment. Soap was prepared using all varieties of oils including that of all the various blends of oils. The soap was tested for various properties. One soap making oil in itself does not have all the properties.

Therefore, blends of oils are prepared taking 2 oils together because it would be easier for analysis. TFM value was found to be 76.8% which lies in the range of toilet soaps. It had the maximum yield out of all soaps with 89.46%. It had excellent lathering as well as cleansing power. As coconut oil is a nut oil, therefore soap prepared with this blend was very hard. Analysis of this blend confirms to that given in the literature and the results of the above analysis. Saponification number of this blend of oil was found to be 230.4 and the iodine number was found to be 40. Both high saponification number and iodine number indicates this blend to be highly preferred for soap making. The soap prepared is not affected by high iodine number as the soap prepared is very hard. The acid value found that is 1.3, was also acceptable according to the literature. The unsaponifiable matter is also within the limits and oil blend can be used without being refined.

5.2 Recommendation

Soap production can be regarded as one area of business that is lucrative and needs only little capital to start with, and considering the vast available resources in Nigeria there is need to design and develop strategy on war footing in order to explore and utilize full benefits of these raw materials using the available indigenous technology.

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