Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine


Abstract


This research work was arrived as the formulation and production of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) from the fermentation of palm wine. A fresh palm wine was ated which was obtained from Emene in Enugu State. The characteristics that was tested before and after fermentation were; specific gravity, refractive index and PH value of the fermentated palm wine was first determined, after which samples were formulated for fermentation. The yeast that was used in the course of fermentation process was the baker’s yeast (sacchromycess Cerevisae). 10 samples of 400ml each of the palm wine were used for the fermentation process, with variations in their yeast content and days of fermentation. These were done under aerobic condition.

After fermentation, the samples were respectively distilled after fermentation with their corresponding values of; specific gravity, % by volume % by weight concentration and density of the distillates determined and recorded respectively. Further more, the distillates obtained were separated and added together accordingly to be re – distilled. Thus, their corresponding values of % by volume, % by weight, specific gravity of the re – distilled products were determine3de and recorded accordingly. From the result obtained, it shows that the minimum volume of alcohol obtained is 27.52% while the standard volume of alcohol required is 37% minimum. This standard volume of alcohol was gotten from standard organisation of Nigeria (SON).


Table Of Content


  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Objective of the study
  • 1.2 Scope of the work
  • 1.3 Significance

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Source of palm wine
  • 2.1 Nature or composition of palm wine
  • 2.2 Micro – organism in palm wine and its effect on alcohol production.
  • 2.3 Fermentation process
  • 2.3.1 Biological theory of fermentation
  • 2.3.2 Fermentation of carbohydrate to produce ethanol
  • 2.3.3 Factors that affect fermentation of palm oil
  • 2.4 Properties and uses of ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
  • 2.4.1 Physical properties of ethyl alcohol
  • 2.4.2 Chemical properties of ethanol
  • 2.4.3 Uses of ethanol
  • 2.5.0 Distillation: A separation process
  • 2.5.1 Batch distillation
  • 2.5.2 Flash distillation
  • 2.5.3 Continuous/Rectification distillation
  • 2.5.3.1 Fractionating operation
  • 2.5.3.2 Rectification and stipping combination
  • 2.6.0 Multi component distillation
  • 2.6.1 Two forms of multi component distillation
  • 2.6.1.1 Azeotropic distillation
  • 2.6.1.2 Extractive distillation
  • 2.6.2 Companion of Azeotropic and extractive distillation
  • 2.7.0 Low – pressure distillation
  • 2.8.0 Factors to consider in selecting a solvent during distillation operation

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Experimental Analysis
  • 3.1 Collection Of Palm Wine Sample
  • 3.2 Experimental determination of variables during fermentation
  • 3.3 Experimental method
  • 3.4 Experimental result

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion

Chapter Six

  • 6.0 Recommendation

Chapter Seven

  • 7.0 REFERENCES
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II
  • Appendix III
  • Appendix IV
  • Appendix V

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

The manufacture of alcohol by fermentation has bee3n known since amtignity, the4 main purpose being the preparation of alcoholic beverages like beer, wine etc, the raw material is palm wine and any feed stuffy rich in carbohydrates, e.g wheat, barley, cassava, grapes, yams, apple, corn, rich, potates, banana and plantains. Palm wine is made from the gap at the raffia palm or the oil palm which contain fermentable carbohydrate in solution. It owes its white appearance to a suspension of yeast. It’s fermentation therefore does not require the addition of yeast from an outside source. Fermentation is in fact very rapid at ordinary te4mperaturein tropical countries with the production of alcohol and acids, especially ethanoic (i.e acetic) acid and large quantities of carbon dioxide.

Because of the large volume of carbon dioxide released during fermentation, fresh palm wine cannot be kept nor transported in sealed containers. Fresh palm wine is sweet, because of the high content of in fermented sugar, It is consequently low in alcoholic content and hence only very neatly intoxicating. On standing, however, fermentation proceeds rapidly, as a result of which the wine rapidly loses its’ sweet taste due to a fall in the sugar content, it also becomes more sour and more intoxicating owing to a rise in the alcoholic. Content. When fully fermented, it is very sour and strongly alcoholic. The alcohol produced here is of course mainly ethanol.

However, the strides of fermentation using the production and characterization of alcohol from fermentated palm wine are necessary to form an understanding of any fermentation process. In the beginning the only source for ethanol was from fermented starch or sugar, but later it was discovered that ethanol could be produced from the crude oil. In the 20th century the production of ethanol from fermentation nearly disappeared when the crude oil became relatively cheaper. But now it seems that this development has stopped and clock is now again moving backwards, faster and faster to the original source of ethanol which is from fermented starch or sugar. Many fermentation processes are in direct competition with strictly chemical synthesis.

Alcohol, acetones, butyl alcohol and acetic acid produced by fermentation have largely been superceded by their synthetic counterparts . Almost all major anti – biotic are obtained from fermentation process. Dextrin is another fermentation product. The micro biological production of vitamins has also becomes economically important. Thus, alcohol being the major product of fermentation has contributed a lot in technological advancement. The use of alcohol in motor vehicles is not a new technology.

When the first “otto motor” was produced, it was designed and constructed to use ethanol as fuel. In countries like Brazil, the ethanol served as fuel. In fact it has been used continuously since the twenties, though in some years in many small amount. But even in the United States of America ethanol plants were operated during the second word war to produce motor fuel and explosive for the Army. Now the crude oil prices are increasing with an unknown speed this more or less for gotten technology is awakening.


1.1 Objective Of The Study

The aim of this research work is to produce ethyl alcohol of high quality from fermentation of palm wine. Both natural and industrial yeast6s will be used for the fermentation process. It is believer that a pure and high quality of ethyl alcohol will be produced having its same physical, chemical and characteristics properties. This research work will be of help in knowing the days of fermentation and quantity of ye4ast to be added using palm wine as a source of material. Unemployment can be reduced by being creative, more espe3cially in making use of this research work.


1.2 Scope Of The Project

The production of ethyl alcohol involves the use of palm wine, raphia wine and oil palm. The wine to be used is palm wine. The yeast to be used is industrial saccharomyces cerevisae (baker’s yeast), which helps to facilitate fermentation process. The characteristics to be tested before and after fermentation includes, PH, specific gravity, temperature, volatility etc.

This work will not cover some areas due to material, time and financial constraints. Areas t6hat would not be covered include; blending of alcohol by the use of additive, colour ants and flavou4r; bottling of the product, labeling, corking of the product and pasteurization method etc. This research work will be restricted to the use of palm wine only, other and sources of carbohydrate such as cassava, potatoes, sugar cane could not be covered .


1.3 Significance

The significance or important of alcohol cuts acroos many sectors of our economy and it is used industries and domestically in the following ways:

Ethanol is an important solvent used to dissolve resins, varnishes , lacquer, soap, perfumes, dyes, druges and flavouring extract.

Ethyl alcohol is a raw material used in the manufacture of many important compound such as ethanol, ethyl ester, halides, ettoxy – ettane and trichoroethanol (chloral).

Ethyl alcohol is used as a fuel, either by itself mixed with petrol in racing cars and in rockets. Because of its low freeze in automobile radiators.

Finally, ethanol alcohol is present in many alcoholic beverages such as beers, wines, and spirits.


Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine


Disclaimer

This research material “Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Formulation And Production Of Alcohol From Palm Wine” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.