Forensic Accounting As A Tool For Fraud Detection And Prevention In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Accountancy / Accounting

Forensic Accounting As A Tool For Fraud Detection And Prevention In Nigeria


Abstract


The study examines the effect of forensic accounting as a tool for fraud detection and prevention in an organization. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between fraud detection, prevention and forensic accounting. To achieve this objective, data was collected from primary sources. The primary data were collected with the help of a well-structured questionnaire of two sections administered to staff and management of Enugu South Local Government Area. The collected data were analyzed with tables and simple percentages to analyze the research questions while Chi-square statistical tool was used to test research hypotheses. The study reveals that forensic accountant plays a significant role in an organization. The study concluded with some recommendations that forensic accounting will institute good corporate governance in the public sector which will install public confidence in the government and the entire system.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study

The issue of fraud, money laundering and other corrupt practices in business and government organizations has necessitated the application and practice of forensic or investigative accounting. Forensic or investigative accounting is that branch of accounting that deals with recovering proceeds of fraud, money laundering and other related corrupt practices that may occur in an organization. Once fraud is perceived or detected, a professional set of people-the forensic accountants are called upon to help detect the fraud and furnish management with substantial evidence to be presented in the court of law, when prosecuting the suspects involved in the fraud. ‘Forensic’ which means evidence or material(s) to be used in court has been incorporated into accounting and finance as a result of increase in white collar crimes (Mazunder, 2011). Mazunder also remarked that law enforcement personnels in recent years have become more aware of white collar crimes, but lacked expertise and training in combating such crimes.

According to Zysman (2004), forensic accounting utilizes accounting, auditing and investigative skills. Enyi (2012) also asserted that it takes an accountant to catch a corrupt of fraudulent accountant, as man is expected to know the trick of a monkey in order to catch it. Strict ethical conducts must be applied by an auditor in-order to carry out forensic accounting successfully. An auditor must be fully independent and must be aware of the tricks of management staff and employees in perpetrating fraud in an organization.

Joshi (2003) traced the history of forensic accounting to Kutilya, the first economist to openly recognize the need for the forensic accountants. The first form of forensic accounting can be traced to an 1817 court decision. The phase ‘Forensic Accounting’ was first coined by Puloubet in 1946. Publoubet was the first man to publish in his book the phase ‘Forensic Accounting’.

Since Nigeria gained her independence in 1960, forensic accounting has existed due to increase in fraud, money laundering and other forms of economic and financial crimes in the country (Enyi, 2012). The term ‘forensic accounting’ is not new in Nigeria as auditors, police and intelligence units apply it every day in the discharge of their duties.

The growing demand for forensic accounting is a known characteristic of most companies in the world. Forensic accounting arises from the effect and cause of fraud and technical error made by human. Forensic accounting is quite new in Nigeria as companies have realized that the service of a forensic accountant is needed as fraud cases have substantially increased in number. Forensic accounting is the application of financial skills and investigative mentality to unsettled issues, conducted within the context of the rules of evidence (Arokiasamy and Cristal, 2009).

Bologna and Lindquistn (1987) assert that forensic accounting as a discipline encompasses fraud knowledge, financial expertise, and a sound knowledge and understanding of business reality and the working of the legal system. Forensic accounting may be one of the most effective and efficient way to decrease and check accounting fraud. Presently, forensic accounting is gaining popularity worldwide. It is been taught as a major course in many educational institutions in various countries, Howard, and Sheetz, (2006).

It has been noted that “Government spending has always been a big business, but it has become so massive today that the public through its legislators is demanding to know whether the huge outlays of money are being spent wisely or whether they should be spent at all.” Officials and employees who manage public sector activities are by virtue of that duty, required to render adequate accounts of their activities to the public (Ribadu, 2005).

The incidence of fraud continues to increase across private and public sector organizations and across nations. Fraud is a universal problem as no nations is immuned, although developing countries and their various states suffer the most pain.

Forensic accounting is said to bring significant improvement in the quality of fraud detection and prevention. This study meant to help and remind the public sector organization of Kogi State, in the affected ministries to design an integrated approach to preventing and controlling fraud and corruption within the workplace through an establish service of Professional Forensic Accountants.


1.2. Statement of the Problem

Recently, series of fraud have been committed both in the public sector and private sector of the economy. These in no doubt are perpetrated under the supervision of the internal auditors of the organization. It suffices to say that the independent of the internal auditor is not guaranteed because he works as an employee of the government or organization. Then come the idea of external auditors, yet frauds are still being committed on a daily basis.

The above scenario indicated that as more and more development both in the information Communication Technology (ICT) world and other fields, so fraudsters continue to groom their own tactics towards fraudulent practices.

It now become pertinent that forensic accounting be introduced and practices since the external auditors do not or may not have the required training to be able to tackle modern frauds like white collar crimes such as security fraud, embezzlement, bankruptcies, contract disputes and possibly criminal financial transaction; including money laundering by organized criminals, also is the ability of the forensic accountant to provide litigation support and investigative accounting. These areas have become a complex area of concern for the accounting profession.


1.3. Objectives of the Study

The objective of the study is to find out the following:

  1. To examine the role of Forensic Accountant in an organization.
  2. To examine the possibility of reducing the occurrence of fraud cases using Forensic Accounting.
  3. To find out whether Forensic Accountant can help in detecting and preventing fraud in the Public Sector
  4. To examine if there is significance difference between Forensic Accountants and External Auditors.

1.4. Research Questions

  1. What is the role of Forensic Accountant play in an organization?
  2. Is there any possibility of reducing the occurrence of fraud cases using Forensic Accounting?
  3. Can Forensic Accountant help in detecting and preventing fraud in the Public Sector?
  4. Is there any significance difference between Forensic Accountants and External Auditors?

1.5. Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1
  • H0: Forensic Accountant does not play role in an organization.
  • H1: Forensic Accountant plays a significant role in an organization
Hypothesis 11
  • H0: The uses of Forensic Accounting do not significantly reduce the occurrence of Fraud cases in the public sector.
  • H1: The uses of Forensic Accounting do significantly reduce the occurrence of fraud cases in the public sector.
Hypothesis 111
  • H0: There is no significant difference between Professional Forensic Accountants and Traditional External Auditor.
  • H1: There is a significant difference between Professional Forensic Accountants and Traditional External Auditor.

1.6. Significance of the Study

The study will aid in laying a solid framework for the design and implementation of forensic accounting practices in Nigeria. Since forensic accounting is still new in developing countries such as Nigeria, this study will aid policy makers and other stake holders to draft adequate policies to guide the practice of forensic accounting in Nigeria.

The study will also serve as a guide to student and independent researchers who may have interest in the subject matter. Findings and recommendations from this study will serve as a guide in carrying out other research studies in forensic accounting and fraud detection in organizations.


1.7. Scope of the Study

The study concerns about forensic accounting as a tool for fraud detection and prevention in Nigeria with a particular reference to Eti Osa local government council, Lagos State.


1.8. Limitation of the Study

The study limitation was inability of management to divulge certain information which they consider sensitive and fear of publication which might be detrimental to their operation.

Distance and its attendant cost of travel in order to obtain information which to write this study was also a major limitation. Another limitation to the study is short time factor which did not give time for thorough research work, hence gathering adequate information becomes very difficult.

Finally, lack of materials on the topic. This is new in the area of forensic accounting for detection and preventive of fraud in Nigeria. Therefore, the researcher resolved to seek friendly approach in order to obtain the needed materials or information from the organization under study through the administration of questionnaire.


1.9. Definition of Terms and Acronyms

Forensic Accounting:

According to Manning (2002) defined forensic accounting as the application of financial accounting and investigative skills at a standard acceptable by the courts, to address issues in dispute in the context of civil and criminal litigation.

Accounting:

This is defined as the process of identifying, measuring, and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of the information (Frank Wood & A. Sangster, 2005).

Accounting Fraud:

Accounting fraud is an act of knowingly falsifying accounting records, such as sales or cost records, in order to boost the net income or sales figures; accounting fraud is illegal and subjects the company and the executives involved to civil lawsuits (Arokiasamy and Cristal, 2009).

Fraud:

Fraud is an act or course of deception, deliberately practiced to gain unlawful or unfair advantage; such deception directed to the detriment of another (Anyanwu, 1993).

Detective Controls:

These controls are designed to detect and report the occurrence of an omission, an error or a malicious act (Adeniji, A. 2004).

Preventive Controls:

These are controls that predict potentials problems before they occur and make adjustments (Adeniji, A. 2004).

Cooperate Fraud:

These are the activities undertaken by an individual or company that are done in an dishonest or illegal manner, and are designed to give an advantage to the perpetrating individual or company (Investopedia, 2015.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into forensic accounting as a tool for fraud detention and prevention using Enugu South Local Government Area Of Enugu State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on forensic accounting as a tool for fraud detention and prevention using Enugu South Local Government Area Of Enugu State as case study. The study specifically was aimed at examining the role of Forensic Accountant in an organization, the possibility of reducing the occurrence of fraud cases using Forensic Accounting, find out whether Forensic Accountant can help in detecting and preventing fraud in the Public Sector and examining if there is significance difference between Forensic Accountants and External Auditors.
The study adopted the survey research design and conveniently enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active staff of Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State.

The findings of the study revealed the roles of a forensic accountant which include; to identify illegal activity and discovering and preventing fraud, detect and protect fraud, remedy misappropriation, corruption and false presentation of financial statement and assist the courts, solicitors and clients understand the complex financial and accounting issues and presenting that information in a manner that all users can understand among others.
More so the study discovered that Forensic Accountant can help in detecting and preventing fraud in the Public Sector and there is a possibility of reducing the occurrence of fraud cases using Forensic Accounting.
Further more, the study disclosed that there is a significance difference between Forensic Accountants and External Auditors.


5.3 Conclusions

In conclusion, this study has analyzed why attention has to be given to the question of fraud detection and fraud prevention in public sector and Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State in particular with the aid of Forensic Accounting. It has discussed the Forensic Accounting approach or procedure necessary for detection, prevention of fraud and the type of control to be established in order to control the incidence of fraud in the state. It should be emphasized that whether within the business world or in the public sector, the ultimate responsibility for discouraging and preventing fraud and corrupt practices rests with management.

This study also appreciated some of the reasons why government staff and other public servant engage themselves in fraudulent practices. Also, the role of forensic accountants and the skills they need to possess to be able to contribute their quota meaningfully in achieving the objectives of this study was extensively discussed.
Above all, the study revealed that the use of Forensic Accounting do significantly reduces the occurrence of fraud cases in the public sector, as it equally showed that there is significant difference between Professional Forensic Accountants and Traditional External Auditors in terms of skills and techniques applied in Fraud detection and prevention.


5.4 Recommendations

From the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Forensic Accounting will provide litigation support service with appropriate provision of professional services in the law courts.
  2. Forensic Accounting will institute good corporate governance in the public sector which will install public confidence in the government and the entire system.
  3. The traditional auditing has limitation in detecting fraudulent practices which the forensic accountants will effectively fill. They have the professional ability back up by law to break into the organization system and examine the books, make discoveries and present the documentary evidences in the law courts.
  4. The image of Nigeria in the international community has discouraged foreign direct investment because of economic and financial crime. This has effect on development, employment and the standard of living of the people. Eradication of economic and financial crime through the adoption of forensic accounting in the system will improve the image of firms under review.
  5. Detection and prevention of corruption have given rise to the profession of forensic accounting. Due to this fact, the most important thing companies have to do with regard to fraud is to prevent the crime from being committed.
  6. Government and regulatory authorities should ensure the provision of standards and guidelines to regulate forensic activities and above all Nigerians should embrace integrity, objectivity, fairness and accountability in theirday-to-day activities.

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