Foreign Direct Investment And Poverty Reduction In Nigeria
The study examined the Foreign Direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria and to examine if foreign direct investment has significant run impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria and to evaluate if there is any significant casualty between foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Foreign direct investment (FDI) granger cause per capital income but PCI does not granger cause FDI. Thus, there was uni-directional causality lt the result depicted the spread of adjustment to the long-run equilibrium. My policy recommendation on the part of (FDI) policy makers should pay increased attention to the overall role of FDl on poverty reduc1ion in light Of this, there should be provision of enabling environment that would provide a better incentive to attract FDI in flows. Foreign direct investment influence poverty reduction to really feel the impact of FDI, the government should ensure there is FDl in flow to real sector.
1.1 Background of the Study
The importance of foreign capital to developing countries is well known. It supplements their domestic savings and it is often accompanied with technology and managerial skills which are indispensable in economic development. Foreign direct investment can contribute in significant ways to breaking of the growth poverty vicious circle, and there lies Nigerians hope. The Nigerian government hopes that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) can make up for domestic capital shortfalls, provide technology, managerial skills, facilitate access to foreign market and generate both technological and efficient spillovers to local firms. By providing access to external markets, transferring technology and building capacity in the local firms generally, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is expected to improve the integration of the continent global economy, spur economic growth and alleviate poverty. Direct foreign investment has been characterized as the best form of foreign finance. The packages of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) come with finance, technology and highly skilled personnel (Lall and Streeton 1977). Indeed in the case of Nigeria as in 3rd world countries Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was the main channel through which their import-substitution industrialization strategies were prosecuted. It is widely believed that given the appropriate host-country policies and a basic level of development, benefits that might accrue from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) include employment creation, the acquisition of new technology and knowledge, increased tax revenue from cooperate profits generated by Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). All of these form of benefits are expected to contributed to higher economic and employment growth, which is the most important and effective tool for achieving improvements in human well-being for alleviating poverty in Nigeria. Although, the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on poverty alleviation depend principally on many factors such as host country policies and institutions. The most efficient way Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) help in alleviating poverty is the widening access to employment opportunities. The ability of Nigeria to alleviate poverty depends on adequate inflow of foreign investment resources. The country has been experiencing difficulties in her effort to alleviate poverty for decades now. At present, majority of Nigerians are living below the poverty level. Consequently given the low level of per capital income characterizing the less developed economies, the traditional model of economics assumes that average and marginal consumption propensities are high, savings are low and that the formation of new productive capital is restricted.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poverty incidence in Nigeria despite the enormous Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows into the country aimed at improving the economy and consequently reducing poverty (Ogunniyi and Igberi, 2014; Oni, 2014). FDI inflows have been rosy and increasing at a modest rate. Presently, the country is the most favoured destination of foreign capital in Africa, gulping more than 15% of total FDI flows into the continent (UNCTAD, 2012). However, as a missing gap in the literature, which this study intends to fill, an answer has not been given to the poverty FDI inflows nexus in Nigeria particularly the influence of some selected macroeconomic variables or indicators like Foreign direct investment, External earnings, Trade openness, Market size, Exchange rate, External debt, Foreign aids and technology on poverty reduction in Nigeria. This literature gap thus warrants an empirical probing to ascertain the influence of these selected macroeconomic indicators on poverty reduction in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the relationship between foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria
- Ascertain the influence of some selected macroeconomic variables or indicators like Foreign direct investment, External earnings, Trade openness, Market size, Exchange rate, External debt, Foreign aids and Technology on poverty reduction in Nigeria
- To ascertain the benefits of Foreign Direct Investment for Poverty Reduction
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no relationship between foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria
H1: there is relationship between foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria
H02: there are no benefits of Foreign Direct Investment for Poverty Reduction
H2: there are benefits of Foreign Direct Investment for Poverty Reduction
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will be significant to Nigeria government, students and the general public. The ability of Nigeria to alleviate poverty depends on adequate inflow of foreign investment resources and the security free of the country for investment. The study will also serve as reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Foreign Direct Investment:
A foreign direct investment is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country. It is thus distinguished from a foreign portfolio investment by a notion of direct control.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements.
Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria
This study was on foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the relationship between foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in Nigeria, ascertain the influence of some selected macroeconomic variables or indicators like Foreign direct investment, External earnings, Trade openness, Market size, Exchange rate, External debt, Foreign aids and Technology on poverty reduction in Nigeria, to ascertain the benefits of Foreign Direct Investment for Poverty Reduction. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Nigeria bureau of statistics. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made economists, statisticians, administrative staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
This study concludes that the inflow of foreign private investment and foreign loan reduced poverty in Nigeria. This finding is collaborated by Ayashagba and Abachi (2002: 123) that “direct foreign investment can contribute better in the development aspirations of their host country if they can sacrifice some level of their profits for projects that can enhance the standard of living of their host countries”. The study further showed that government poverty alleviation policy had not reached the majority of Nigerians. Majority of them have no access to infrastructural facilities such as pipe- borne water, hospitals, good roads and even the current policy of National Poverty Alleviation Programme NAPEP has not been felt by them
The study recommends that government should intensify effort to encourage inflow of foreign resources such as foreign private investment. Foreign loan should be highly discouraged but if loans must be sought, it should be done in such a way that it does not have subsequent negative impact on the country. Also, government policy on expenditure and petroleum profit tax should be revised. Government should direct her efforts in providing infrastructural facilities to the majority of Nigerians most especially in the rural areas. Government should reduce petroleum profit tax. This is because a continuous increase of it would scare away foreign investors and many Nigerians would be unemployed
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