Food Security And National Development Implication For Home Economics Education

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Food Security And National Development Implication For Home Economics Education


This research work explored the concept of food security and its relationship to national development studies indicate that food security, which is the availability of adequate meals for man’s consumption as he desires, is an essential ingredient for the development of any nation. Adequate productivity through a reduction in disease and by aiding mental and physical development.

The implications for Home Economics Education on food security and national development were examined and suggestions were then proffered for achieving national food security.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Food is of paramount importance to the survival, and growth of every human being. The relationship between health and food cannot be over emphasized, the consumption of unwholesome food has caused so much havoc globally, it is an indisputable fact that human lives are lost or maimed daily because of intake of contaminated food or food prepared with addictives and chemicals that are injurious to health.

Food security exists when all people at all time have access to safe nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life (F A O 1996).

The main goal of food security is for individual to be able to obtain adequate food needed at all times and to be able to utilize the food multi – faceted.

Uko Aviomoh and salami (2000) stated that food security is the ability of every citizen in a given country to have regular access to enough food to meet up the daily nutritional requirement for healthy and productive life.

Idachaba (2004) also stated that food security exists when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their daily needs for a nation to be food se3cyred, the following evident must be noted.

  1. Suitable Agriculture methods which produce plants and animals food of high nutritive value.
  2. Economic situation which makes it possible to produce the necessary food at a cheaper rate and available to all.
  3. Controlled industrial procedures
  4. The conscientious and informed home – maker to manage.

The world bank (2000) identified three pillars that can be under lined in planning food security. These are:

  1. Food Availability
  2. Food Accessibility and
  3. Food Utilization.

Food is the most primary need that man cannot do without by doing they make do with this food in order to achieve a healthy and progressive living. It primarily that human body requires for the transmission of food borne disease and toxicants, which invariably threatens public health.

Disease caused by contraindicated food constitutes one of the most wide, spread and worrisome health problems of the contemporary world. It has personal, national and global socio – economic consequence. As the saying goes a healthy nation is a prosperous nation.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

Food security in a nation is expected to contribute in our small way to transformation the nations economy and induce rapid development.

Baid (1999), commented that lack of food security in any nation will not only slow down the nations development, but will seriously disrupt a carefully, planned national development programmed.

Therefore the statement of the problem is that, could lack of adequate food supply be responsible for the unrest and constant rioting and agitation almost the labour force and youths in Nigeria, which is a factor that hinders national development? Number of families suffering in poverty and starvation due to the fact that there is no enough provision for food availability, accessibility and nutritional discrimination analysis?

In today’s world where the global economy is dominated by a few large national economics grouping, the smaller nations are finding it difficult to complete, as well as to harness adequate resources for their development this undoubtedly must be the plight of Nigeria. So what could be done to help this situation? Education could be the answer, because knowledge present is ignorance banished.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

Sizer and Whiney (2000) stated that in chronic starvation lie the frustration, tension and envy of masses of people who will ultimately resort to violence. Thy therefore take solace in looting, fighting, drugging, robbery and burning of houses.

Therefore the purpose of the study is aims at educating the consumer on the importance of a nation being food secured and how to improve household food security.

  1. To enable the consumers and bodies governing food resolutions engage in regular talks on the importance of food security to individuals, families, the community and the nation as a whole through regular classroom teaching, mass media and community meeting.
  2. To enable the government to put more fund and machinery into agriculture.

1.4 Significant of the Study

This research works is important to individuals of all categories.

  1. To enable the individual to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes require knowing their right as consumers and descern or judge information and consuming intelligently within their means or available resources.
  2. To provide the necessary information about the food they buy e.g. expiry dates, weight, brand names, cost and where to purchase them.
  3. It is also importance to the government do that it will enable the government to plan ahead in case there is food scarcity

1.5 Research Question

  1. Have you heard of the word food security?
  2. Is lack of storage facilities a problem to food security?
  3. Do you secure your food for future purpose?
  4. Do consumers have right on proper practice of food?
  5. Does food availability eliminate poverty?

1.6 Definition of Terms


This is any substance that people or animals eat or drink for maintains of life and growth.


Freedom or protection from danger or worthy.


Things that can be used to obtain or use to achieve something.


Means things that can be reached, the opportunity or right to use.


Means method of preventing food deterioration.


Means any substance including any source of radiation expected to result that substance or its bye products becoming a part of its characteristics.


This means the application of good sanitary practice in the handling of food, which reduce the incidence of spoilage.


Means the scientific study of food and its utilization in the body.


The state of being poor.


The process of using ones ability to achieve much from little.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

This paper is an attempt to evaluate food security in Nigeria. The factors responsible for food insecurity are also discussed as well as recommendations proffered for ensuring food security in Nigeria. Achieving sustainable food security means ensuring continuous access to food both quantity and quality for the present generation as well as the future generations. Nigeria is food insecure just like most sub-Saharan African countries because food production falls below the demand for food even though the government tries to supplement through importation of food.

The major challenge of food security in Nigeria is poverty. Poverty reduces the purchasing power of the people making it difficult for them to acquire their daily minimum requirement of food. Other causes of food insecurity are environmental factors, inconsistent policy pronouncement, unsustainable agricultural productivity and underdeveloped infrastructural facilities, especially in the rural areas. The situation is not insurmountable. The paper recommends intensive promotion of research which will help to increase food production, environment friendliness as well as policy change in order to achieve sustainable food security.

5.2 Recommendations

The following policy recommendations follow from the findings of the study that would be applicable to the Nigerian economy given the trajectory of agricultural trade liberalization and how it affects all the dimensions of food security in Nigeria.

It is pertinent to note that the concept of “advantage‟ is common to all the trade theories. This points to the reality that countries are not engaged in agricultural trade to essentially help other countries but to maximize the benefits therefrom. This implies that Nigeria should strive to feed herself largely from within and export food items for foreign exchange earnings. To this end, the stakeholders should be made to understand, via the orientation agencies, that food security means national security in all ramifications – economic, sociopolitical and otherwise.
Though it has been found that agricultural trade liberalization is not sustainable for food security, Nigeria cannot afford to embark on undue restrictive trade policies as these can only worsen the problem by raising the prices of smuggled food items. It is therefore recommended that Nigeria‟s quest for reduced agricultural trade openness should be pursued simultaneously with the drive for self-sufficiency in food supply.

Specifically, the negative ADOP-food availability nexus requires an overhaul of the entire Sustainable Food System (SFS) in terms of sustainable food production, processing and storage; infrastructure, institutions and processes in a bid to enhance food security in Nigeria. As a component of sustainable food production, the vast arable land should be equipped with irrigation facilities to complement the dwindling rainfall in the face of climate change.

Furthermore, agricultural credit should be stepped up for active and prospective participants in the agricultural value chain and this should be complemented with capacity building. A fair selection of the participants can even be sponsored to understudy some successful farmers or farming institutions abroad. Those engaged in farming should be provided with requisite inputs like agro-chemicals, improved seedlings, as well as up-to-date extension services.
The harmful effect of agricultural trade openness on food utilization both in the short run andin the long run makes the safety and quality of domestically produced and imported food a relevant issue. The safety and quality standards of imported food items should be reviewed. The agencies concerned with setting and monitoring the standards should be better funded for better staff training and technology acquisition.

A. Improved Agricultural Productivity:

Different projects/schemes have been established by different governments in the country in order to improve agricultural productivity, but they have failed because poor policy implementation. Agricultural productivity can be improved through encouragement of research. Research Institutes should be funded so as to encourage innovation and participatory research. Through research, foreign technology can be modified and applied in Nigeria. Inorganic fertilizers and chemicals can be replaced with alternatives such as cow waste and composite manure which are environmentally friendly. Also extensions services should be encouraged and strengthened because through the extension services new technology can be transferred to the farmers.

There should be storage facilities to enable farmers store their post-harvest crops. Farm products are perishables; farmers are forced to sell their products so quickly thereby making revenues that do not meet their daily need. The storage facilities can help them preserve their products before taking them to the market for sale. The storage facility will also help provide enough food reserve for the country.

B. Agricultural Biodiversity:

Improved agricultural biodiversity through improved agricultural practices will also increase food supply. Large scale farming involves planting one type of crop on a large piece of land, but with improved farming different genetically improved crop types and species may be planted on a piece of land. Mono-cropping also exposes crops to both pests and diseases and also increases the use of organic fertilizers and pesticides that erode soil biodiversity. In other to achieve sustainable food security, Nigeria farmers as well as government should embrace this modern food production technique that comes in form of agricultural biodiversity aimed at increasing livestock and crop production.

C. Environmental Management:

Efforts to increase productivity have led to pressure on natural resources as well as environmental damage. There should be effective management of the environment by reducing the rate of deforestation. Trees should be planted as often as possible especially in the desert. Providing habitat for agricultural pests and increasing resilience to shocks and long-term climate change can help in the improvement and management of natural resources. Tree planting should be encouraged because forest trees outside the forest helps in protecting soil and water resources, promotes soil fertility and provides protection from extreme weather events.

D. Policy Changes:

Sustainable food security can be achieved if the government adopts inclusive growth in its development efforts. Development should be participatory and environmentally friendly. People-Centered agricultural development puts the farmers first and attacks poverty with opportunities and education. It requires involving the rural people in decision making stages of agriculture productivity. The inability of government to involve these sets of people in defining and designing projects has led to the failure of some of these projects. There should be well designed social protection systems -such as risk insurance scheme and community empowerment- to help households sustain their resilience to shocks.

Finally, the observed impact of some control variables suggests that trade policies do not operate in isolation. So, Nigeria‟s food security concern should be factored into macroeconomic policy formulation and implementation because the product, factor and financial markets are inter-linked.

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