Flipped Classroom And Jigsaw Puzzle Teaching Strategies On Student Academic Performance In Mathematics In Secondary Schools

Mathematics Education Project Material

Flipped Classroom And Jigsaw Puzzle Teaching Strategies On Student Academic Performance In Mathematics In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out on flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies on student academic performance in mathematics in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Logo local government of Benue state as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between teaching strategies and students academic performance, find out whether flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies are utilized during the teaching/learning of mathematics in secondary schools, ascertain whether flipped classroom teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics and ascertain whether jigsaw puzzle teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of mathematics teachers and students of the selected secondary schools in Logo local government of Benue state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between teaching strategies and students academic performance. The study also revealed that flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies are utilized during the teaching/learning of mathematics in secondary schools. Therefore, it is recommended that mathematics curriculum developers should include the teaching of mathematics using flipped classroom and Jigsaw strategy as part of the teacher education syllabus during the training of mathematics teachers. This makes it part of the curriculum which may address the problem of dismal performance in the subject. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The study of Mathematics plays is of immense significance to the society, however, there had been persistent poor performance in the subject globally. Therefore, appropriate pedagogical approaches are needed to promote not only students’ memory and comprehension, but also facilitate their acquisition of competencies, skills of communication, independent thinking and team work (NASRV, 2008). Recently, although there have been efforts to change from teacher-centered approaches to student-centered approaches such as cooperative learning in an attempt to provide students with greater skills and knowledge, lecture-based teaching continues to be the most prevalent teaching method in institutions (Thanh-Pham, 2010).

Cooperative learning is a methodology that employs a variety of learning activities to improve students’ understanding of a subject by using a structured approach which involves a series of steps, requiring students to create, analyze and apply concepts (Sahin, 2010). Cooperative learning utilizes ideas of Vygotsky, Piaget, and Kohlberg in that both the individual and the social setting are active dynamics in the learning process as students attempt to imitate real-life learning. It is a teaching strategy which allows students to work together in small groups with individuals of various talents, abilities and backgrounds to accomplish a common goal. Each individual team member is responsible for learning the material and also for helping the other members of the team learn. Students work until each group member successfully understands and completes the assignment, thus creating an “atmosphere of learning” (Johnson & Johnson, 2000).

A form of cooperative learning method in teaching is flipped learning. It encourages student-centered learning, participation, and achievement. It’s also a hybrid approach, in which teachers “combine conventional face-to-face training with an online component (Tucker, 2012). Teachers that believe in the efficiency of direct or explicit education and its advantages in the classroom want to use a flipped classroom. The instructor is generally the principal focus of a lesson and the major leader of information throughout the class hour in the conventional paradigm of classroom teaching. While the instructor replies to inquiries, pupils have various requirements for guidance and response from the instructor. Individual lessons in a classroom with a fundamentally conventional style of education may be didactic and subject based. In the conventional paradigm, student interaction may be confined to activities in which students work alone or in small groups on a teacher-designed application assignment. The instructor is usually at the center of class discussions, controlling and, if necessary, directing the flow of the topic (Ryback and Sanders, 1980). In most cases, this teaching method also entails assigning pupils the duty of reading from a textbook or exercising a subject by completing an assignment. In flipped classrooms, in-class activities are reimagined. To engage students in the topic, in-class lessons that accompany flipped classrooms may involve action learning or more typical homework assignments, among other approaches. The following are some examples of class activities: utilizing 5 CLASSICAL VS FLIPPED CLASSROOM METHODS In-depth laboratory investigations, original document analysis, debate or speech presentation, current event conversations, peer reviewing, project-based learning, and skill development or concept practice are all examples of math manipulative and new mathematical technology. Bergmann and Sams (2012; Bergmann and Sams, 2012; Bergmann and Sams, 2012; Bergmann and Sams The flipped classroom paradigm has several benefits and drawbacks in terms of student and teacher academic achievement. The following are some of the benefits: For students: Provide learning chances for students at various times based on their learning abilities; Improving students’ capacity to remark; Providing constant access to information; Providing possibilities for parents to assist more children by following classes; Providing students with the capacity to take responsibility for their learning activities Allow pupils to actively cooperate and practice on their classmates.

On the other hand, Jigsaw learning strategy is one of the cooperative learning models that reduces conflict among students, promotes better learning, improves student motivation, and increases enjoyment of the learning experience (Sahin, 2010). This approach has been claimed to minimize the competitiveness in the learning environment by encouraging students to work together (David & Roger, 2010). In addition it has promoted more positive student attitudes toward their own learning, enhance more positive relationships between participants, develop self-esteem and cohesiveness, and improve learning skills (Sahin, 2010).There are two major theoretical perspectives associated with cooperative learning: motivational and cognitive (Terwel, Herfs, Mertens, & Perrenet, 2010). First, students perceive because their success or failure is dependent upon their ability to work together as a group, students are likely to encourage each other to do whatever helps the group succeed. They are also more likely to help each other with the task(s) at hand. Elaborative thinking is promoted because students give and receive explanations more often (Shindler, 2010). Therefore, cooperative learning increases student motivation to do academic work (Heeden, 2013). The other theory is that cooperative learning helps students acquire critical thinking skills. Because cooperative learning creates a situation in which students must explain and discuss various perspectives, a greater understanding of the material is obtained. Zakaria, Chin & Daud, (2010) argued that the conceptions, attitudes, and expectations of students regarding mathematics and mathematics teaching have been considered to be a very significant factor underlying their school experience and achievement. In their subsequent work, they further stated that students’ success in achieving their goals encourages them to develop positive attitudes towards mathematics and other problem solving activities. Positive attitudes are assumed to have significant effect on students’ achievement. According to Abiam and Odok, (2013) the variable ‘attitude’ is one of the most potent factors that relates to achievement.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A major problem facing Nigerian secondary education is the poor performance of students in core subjects, especially mathematics. Without a credit in mathematics the student cannot pursue most science and technology courses at institutions of higher learning in Nigeria, as such, Nigeria‘s quest for technological advancement and economic emancipation is being undermined by the continued poor mathematics achievement of senior secondary school students in external examinations. It is common knowledge that the economies of the industrialized nations are driven by science and technology. Hence, Nigeria’s vision to be among the top 20 world largest economies by the year 2025 justifies the emphasis she places on “science, technical and vocational education” As a result, students in Nigeria are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects, and one subject that cuts across all sciences is mathematics.

In her match towards scientific and technological advancement, Nigeria needs good performance in mathematics for students at all levels of schooling. However, the poor performance of students in mathematics at the end of secondary education over the past decade is a big challenge to policy makers and stakeholders in Nigerian educational system. The poor achievement in mathematics in Nigerian secondary schools is assuming alarming proportions; as such ministry of education is worried about the poor performance in Mathematics in West African Examination Council. This poor performance is evidenced in WAEC result of year 2011 to 2015, where less than 40% of Kaduna state students obtained credit and above in mathematics in each of the 5 years.

Many factors have been identified by researchers as the causes of the low mathematics achievement among secondary school students. These include inadequate facilities in the schools, inadequate qualified teachers, poor attitude towards the subject by the students and teachers, mathematics anxiety, culture/beliefs, gender stereotypes, lack of role models for girls, and the ineffective instructional methods used by teachers are among those widely examined in the study of the causes of poor performance in mathematics among students. This study therefore seek to examine the impact of flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies on students’ academic performance in mathematics in secondary schools.


1.4 Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of the study is to appraise flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies on student academic performance in mathematics in secondary schools.

Specific objectives are:

  1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between teaching strategies and students academic performance.
  2. Find out whether flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies are utilized during the teaching/learning of mathematics in secondary schools.
  3. Ascertain whether flipped classroom teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics.
  4. Ascertain whether jigsaw puzzle teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Is there any significant relationship between teaching strategies and students academic performance?
  2. Are the flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies utilized during the teaching/learning of mathematics in secondary schools?
  3. Does flipped classroom teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics?
  4. Does jigsaw puzzle teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho1: Flipped classroom teaching strategy does not have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics?

Ho2: Jigsaw puzzle teaching strategy does not have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics?


1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be beneficial to secondary school mathematics teachers by helping them to use learning strategies which arouse the interest of the learners and with high participation of the learners. The outcomes of the study will help the mathematics teachers appreciate that girls can also perform well in mathematics by use of appropriate learning strategies and thus have positive attitude towards girls in mathematics classrooms. This study will help the secondary school students to identify the learning strategy that enhances achievement in mathematics. The head teachers and the head of departments will benefit from the suggestions on how to support the teachers on use of appropriate learning methods. This study will inform the teacher educator about effective teaching strategies in preparation of the teachers and thus enhancing students‟ achievement in mathematics. The study is also beneficial to education officers and also policy makers in deciding on the appropriate learning strategies for learners to improve the students‟ mathematics achievement.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is to appraise flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies on student academic performance in mathematics in secondary schools. The study will be delimited or carried out in Benue State. Hence, the respondents will be obtained from selected secondary schools in Logo local government of Benue state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Flipped Classroom:

A flipped classroom, the instruction is delivered online, outside of Class. Then, class time is spent doing what ordinarily may have been assigned as homework.

Jigsaw:

Jigsaw puzzle is a picture printed on cardboard or wood, which has been cut up into a lot of small pieces of different shapes that you have to fit together again (The Free Dictionary, Jan 20, 2012). In this study it refers to a grouping strategy in which members of the class are organized into learning groups called “Home groups” and then rearranged in new groups to share their learning.

Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Strategy:

This is where each student of a “home” group specializes in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other “home” groups who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return to the “home” group and teach the material to their group members (Aronson, 2000).

Mathematics Achievement:

This is a measure of the degree of success in performing tasks in mathematics after teaching or instructions (The Free Dictionary, Jan 20, 2012).

Academic Performance:

The extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies on student academic performance in mathematics in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Logo local government of Benue state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies on student academic performance in mathematics in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Logo local government of Benue state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between teaching strategies and students academic performance, find out whether flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies are utilized during the teaching/learning of mathematics in secondary schools, ascertain whether flipped classroom teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics and ascertain whether jigsaw puzzle teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are mathematics teachers and students of the selected secondary schools in Logo local government of Benue state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between teaching strategies and students academic performance.
  2. Flipped classroom and jigsaw puzzle teaching strategies are utilized during the teaching/learning of mathematics in secondary schools.
  3. Flipped classroom teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics.
  4. Jigsaw puzzle teaching strategy have a significant positive effect on students academic performance in mathematics.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Mathematics curriculum developers should include the teaching of mathematics using flipped classroom and Jigsaw strategy as part of the teacher education syllabus during the training of mathematics teachers. This makes it part of the curriculum which may address the problem of dismal performance in the subject.
  2. When implementing flipped classrooms, teachers should consider whether students can adapt to and accept the curriculum reform and whether the content is suitable for a flipped classroom.
  3. Teachers should consider the number of the students, learning stage, subject area, and intervention duration before implementing flipped classrooms.
  4. Teachers should seek for more knowledge on the utilization of flipped classroom for instruction because is a technology-driven; hence, attending workshops, seminars and conferences within and outside their education districts and state is a must if they must use this approach with all amount of expertise.

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