Fermentation Of Plantain Peel
Ripe plantain peels (RPP) and unripe plantain peels (UPP) were subjected to solid state fermentation using pure culture of three fungal isolates, namely Aspergillus niger, a flavus and penicillium sp. After seven days of fermentation a niger, a flavus and penicillum sp increased the crude protein content of both unripe plantain and ripe plantain peels by 34, 30.3, 2.3 and 9.5, 4.5, 4.0% respectively. Though the UPP fermented with pencillium sp showed the least percentage increase in the crude protein content after seven days of fermentation, it recorded the highest percentage increase (39.8%) when fermentation was allowed to continue for 21 days. Except in the ripe plantain peel fermented with A niger, the sugar content of the waste also showed an increase after seven days of fermentation with the ripe plantain peel fermented with a flavus recording the highest percentage increase of 142.6%.
There was a corresponding reduction in the cellulose content of both unripe plantain peel and ripe plantain peel with the ripe plantain peel fermented with A Niger showing the highest percentage reduction of 300%.
Available information reveals that the nutritional value of plantain peels is increased by fermentation using A. niger A. flavus and pe nicillium sp.
Fermentation is a metabolic process converting sugar to acids, gases and or alcohol using yeast or bacteria. In it strictest sense, fermentation is the absence of the electron transport chain and takes a reduced carbon source such as glucose and makes products like lactic acid or acetate (Oboh et al., 2002).
Fermentation is one of the oldest methods of applied biotechnology, having been used in food processing and presentation as well as beverages production for over 6000 years (Motarjemi, 2000)
The fermentation processes of staple food serve as a means of providing a major source of nourishment for large rural populations and contributing significantly to food security by increasing the range of raw material which can be used in the production of edible products (Adewusi et al., 1999). Fermentation increases the nutrient contents of food through the biosynthesis of vitamins, essential amino acids and protein. It improve protein quality and fiber digestibility. It also enhances the availability of micro nutrient to organisms for utilization and aids in the degradation of anti nutritional factors (Achinewhu et al., 1998).
The bioconversion of agriculture and industrial wastes to chemical feedstock has led to extensive studies on cellulolytic enzymes produced by fungi and bacteria waste and their disposal have become an environmental concern worldwide especially when these waste are biodegradable to useful goods and services (Shide et al.,2004).
Three major waste management routes have been identified, namely sewage disposal, composting and landfill and bioremediation (William,2001) out of which sewage disposal provides opportunity for possible recovery of useful product after biodegradation.
The use of biological means in the degradation of waste, especially agro-industrial by- products has greater advantages over the use of chemical because biotechnologically synthesized products are less toxic and environmentally friendly (Liu et al., 1998). Hence the modern world encourages a shift towards the use of microbes in degrading agro-industrial waste. So far, the literature has been silent on the use of some fungi to achieve this purpose in plantain peels.This study therefore intends to report the changes in the protein, cellulose and sugar contents of both ripe and unripe plantain peels when fermented with A. Niger, A. Flavus and penicillium sp (Iyayi, 2004).
Plantains are a member of the banana family. They are a starchy, low in sugar variety that is cooked before serving as it is unsuitable raw. It is used in many savory dishes somewhat like a potato would be used and is very popular in Western Africa. It is usually fried or baked. Plantains are grown most widely in tropical climates.
A. niger belong to the kingdom of fungi, phylum ascomycota, class eurotiomycetes, order eurotiales, species of A. niger fungi. A niger is a fungis and one of the most common species of the genus aspergillus. It cause a disease called black mold on certain fruits and vegetables such as grape, onions and peanuts and is a common contaminant of food.
A Flavus belong to the kingdom of fungi,phylum ascomycota, class eurotiomycetes, order eurotiales, family of trichocomaceate, genus aspergillus, species of A.flavus fungi. Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is found globally as a saprophyte in soils and cause disease on many important agriculture crops common host of the pathogen are cereal grains and legumes.
Penicillium belong to the kingdom of fungi, order eurotiales, family of trichocomaceate, genus penicillum, penicillium is a genus of a scomycetous fungi of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production. Members of the genus produce penicillin a molecule that is used as an antibiotic which kills or stop the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body.
Aims and Objective
- To know the nutritional value of plantain wastes
- To know the protein content of ripe plantain peel (RPP) and unripe plantain peel (UPP).
- To investigate the potential green and mature plantain peel as a support substrate to produce laccase extracellular enzymes.
- To treat waste and enriching products with protein content
Similar result have been reported by Ijayi and Aderolu (2003) where an increase of 61% in protein content was recorded in corn bran fermented with Trichodermaviride. Iyayi (2004) also reported an increase of 41% in the protein level of wheat offal after 14 days of fermentation using A.niger. Ofuya and Nwanjiuba (1990) reported an increase of 185% in the protein content of cassava peel (from 5.6-16%) when Rhizopus sp. was cultured on the peels. The increase observed in the protein levels is as a result of the bioconversion of sugar into proteins (Iyayi, 2004).
The highest percentage reduction of 300% was observed in ripe plantain peel fermented with A.niger after 7 days of fermentation while the percentage reduction observed in unripe plantain peel. The sugar level also increase up to 7 days after fermentation in ripe plantain peel fermented with all the fungal isolates. likewise there was also increase in unripe plantain peel fermented with A.niger and A.flavus. the ability of fungi to degrade cellulose has been reported by several authors, namely Ofuya and Nwajiuba (1990), Iyayi and losel (2001), Iyayi and Aderolu (2003) and Iyayi (2004). The authors reported that over 35% of the original cellulose content of the substrate was lost during the solid state fermentation.
Fungi have the ability to produce a variety of enzymes. A.niger, A.flavus and penicillium sp have been reported to be the main source of cellulose, amylase, hemicellulase catalase, pectinase and xylanase (Hamilyn, 1998). These enzymes help to degrade the non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the substrate to soluble sugar.
It is possible that systhesis release of the enzymes are showed due to the change in conditions in the medium. (Ofuya and Nwajuiba 1990) have reported that fungal biomass increase the nutrient in the substrate medium are quickly used up beyond 7 days, the fungi start to take up the product of breakdown of the NSPS hence the observed reduction in the sugar level. This means that a period of seven days in the optimum time for breakdown of NSPS in plantain peels using A.niger and A.flavus as against 14 days, reported by (Iyayi and Losel 2001). Iyayi and Aderolu (2003) and (Iyayi 2004) for agro industrial by products such as maize offal, wheat offal, corn bran, brewer’s dried grains, rice bran and palm kernel meal.
Nevertheless, the ability of the fungi to take up products of polysaccharide degration as demonstrated by reduced sugar levels after 7 days has been shown by results obtained from this present study.
Solid state fermentation as a mean of treating waste and at the same time enriching products with protein content has been attempted by Akindahunsi et al., 1999 ,Balagopalan 1996 and Oboh et al., 2002.
Plantain peel can be a good substrate when is supplemented with other lignocellulosic waste such as sugar cane bagasse. The carbohydrate content of plantain peel is high and when it is broken down is constitute a good medium for fungal growth.
Fermentation Of Plantain Peel
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Fermentation Of Plantain Peel
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