Federal Polytechnic Students Preference Of Selected Radio Programmes Of Hot Fm Radio, Owerri

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Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication


This project is dedicated to Almighty God in whose powers we flourish.

And to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Jude Okereafor, my brothers and sisters.


My special thanks goes to God Almighty for his grace, guidance and protection throughout my stay in this great institution.

To my beloved parents Mr. and Mrs. Jude Okereafor, especially to my lovely mother Mrs. Theresa Okereafor for their support both spiritually, physically and financially. My brothers and sisters, Canice, Augustina, Chukwuma, Sunny, Benadeth, Jacinta and Okechukwu, Chibuike and Chisom Okereafor whom the Lord has used to bless and support me. They constantly meet me at the point of my financial needs. I pray the good Lord replenish your purse and bless you all and also in his infinite mercy bless, protect and be with them all the days of their life Amen.

My immense gratitude goes to my supervisor Mrs. Sheba Garbson my academic professional mentor, who supervised and guided me in making sure that this work was successful. I will not forget in a hurry, my H.O.D Mrs.

Basilia Igbokwe, the Dean and all the lecturers of mass communication department, thank you for molding this great intellectual structure and also to everyone who cared for me, thank you for your financial wisdom and inspiration.


In the study, the research had critically examined the student’s preference of selected radio programme. The ultimate purpose of this study were to determine if students listernership to radio is based on timing of such programmers of Hot FM to evaluate and ascertain the students level of listernership based on the stations packaging [content]. The result of the study showed that majority of the student are [54%] also majority of the students are between the age range of 21 – 25. the already study also reveals that they to listen to radio programme based on programme timing also of the students go for such programmed based on the package [content] of the programme of the students listen to programmes for informative and educative purpose. Students have their different reasons for preferring/selecting the different programme aired.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research question and hypothesis
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • Literature Review
  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Theoretical frame work
  • 2.1.1 Uses and gratification theory
  • 2.1.2 Selective perception
  • 2.2.1 Conceptional review
  • 2.2.2 The Nigerian experience
  • 2.2.3 The uses of radio
  • 2.2.4 Radio as mass media over reader
  • 2.2.5 Uses of radio in nomadic education
  • 2.2.6 The objectives of using the radio for nomadic education
  • 2.2.7 Radio programming
  • 2.2.8 Characteristics of learning through radio
  • 2.2.9 Influence of good listenership
  • 2.2.10 The golden role of radio
  • 2.2.11 Brief history of the selected radio station
  • 2.3 Empirical review

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Method of data collection
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling procedure
  • 3.5 Sampling size
  • 3.6 Description of measuring instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.8 Validity of measuring instrument
  • 3.9 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Presentation of data
  • 4.2 Data analysis
  • 4.3 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

  • Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

One of the distinguishing features of human beings is that he is endowed with a free will from creation. He is therefore free to act and make choices that seem satisfactory in every faced of life and when it comes to listening and viewing.

However, as a social being, he is expected to align his values with the societal values of the society where he lives. As such, the need to be informed. Information, they say, is education and as well power. The increasing number of communication media, especially the broadcast media, radio, has made communication research an imperative.
Today, there are so many radio stations in the country with focus on catering for the audience needs. Therefore, there is need to find out how audience communication needs can be met. [Nwaogu 2010:352].

For instance, there is a need to you are supposed to be objective in research. Avoid using personal words like I, we, me, all of us etc. understand through research which progamme the audiences prefer or student selected at a particular time and why.

Since the increasing numbers of media houses are demanding for the attention and listernership of the audience, there is need for a research into factors that enhance the competitive edge of a programme.

This research will allow each media organization to know its area of competitive advantage by understanding its area of strength, weakness, opportunities and threats as to obtain their target goal which is satisfying their audience in meeting audience programmes needs the problem of choice.; this has poised a great challenge to radio stations. It is on that basic that we ask; does students’ preference programme have anything to do with circumstances beyond their control? [Time].

On the other hand, it will be right to also clarify the programme classification of the selected media houses have taken concerns of their audience needs in packaging their programme, one will therefore ask, have radio stations been able to package their programmes in every way it will satisfy their listeners audience?

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Man in his man’s everyday life he is faced with the reality of making choices. The quest to satisfy ones’ wants at a particular time has resulted to the choice of programmes that one listen to on radio. The question must frequently asked focuses on the circumstances surrounding an individual’s purpose for the selection of the programme one listens to?

Despite the array of daily programmes on the radio air waves and the time constrains faced by students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, there are indications that students still have preference for certain programs which suits their desire at a particular time. The problem that calls for this research is the purpose or reason for students’ preference of certain radio programs and the factors that lead to the choice of certain programs over others.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

Based on the statement of the problems, this study will:

  1. Help find out the programmes students prefer.
  2. The reason why they have a preference for certain programs over others.
  3. Help radio stations know how to package their programmes to suit the audience preference.
  4. The challenges faced by students in making their choices and proffer possible solution.

1.4 Research Question And Hypothesis

  1. Do students have a preference of certain programs over others?
  2. What are the reasons for their preference?
  3. Are the radio stations packaging their programs to meet the needs of their audience?
  4. What are the challenges faced by student radio audience when choosing their programs?
  • H2: Radio stations should always package their programs to meet the needs of their viewers/audience
  • H2: There are many challenges faced by students radio audience when choosing their programs.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The importance of this research is to investigate the students preference of selected radio programme of Hot fm as a means of achieving organization goals and objectives by Hot fm Owerri Imo state for the better of her employee.

It is hoped that apart from Hot fm radio, this research study might be useful to other radio stations.

It is also believed that this research will expose the employees of Hot fm radio on the areas to improve on their productivity.

This research would also be useful to researchers or scholars who might undertake detailed empirical study by using this research as a reference.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study, student’s preference of selected programs on Hot FM Owerri, will centre on Federal radio programs preferred by students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede. Other broadcast media are left out. Reason is that the researcher wants to extensively carry out the research and going beyond this scope will be a burden. Only one radio station is selected, Hot FM Owerri.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The constraints faced by the researcher in the course of carrying out this research were enormous including first, the time of concluding the research was short, second and the respondents, being students, were unwilling to fill the questionnaire for lack of time. Third, getting to hyposet and organize the work proved to be a heculian task not to maintain funds and power supply.

1.8 Definition Of Terms


Students are persons within the age bracket 18 – 30 studying in tertiary institutions of learning. In this case of Federal Polytechnic Nekede.


Preference is a thing that is liked better in study of students’ preference. Preference will be given to graduates of this tertiary institution in the case of Federal Polytechnic Nekede.

Radio Programme:

Radio programme is a content of plan of things that will be done or included in the development of the radio station.


Radio is equipment used for listening to programmes that are broadcast to the public.


Students are persons studying at the tertiary institution.


It is a greater interest desire for something.

Radio Programme:

A radio programme here is referred as something that people listen to on the radio.


Radio here is a process of sending and receiving messages through air using electromagnetic waves.

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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence

You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

Structure of a Seminar Paper

I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.

I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.

Section #1 — Introduction

Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.

Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.

  1. Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
  2. Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do

Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.

  1. Define issue and any key terms
  2. Limit scope as necessary
  3. Establish significance of issue
  4. State problem by defining the gap
  5. Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
  6. Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
  7. End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper

Section #2 — Literature Review

Give some credit where credit is due.

  1. Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
  2. Define or qualify terms
  3. Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)

Section #3 — Argument / Discussion

As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!

  1. Examine issue
  2. Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
  3. Provide evidence and support
  4. Make some lively commentary along the way

Section #4 — Conclusion

We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.

  1. Summarize research question
  2. Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
  3. Explain where we go now
  4. End well

Section #5 — Works Cited

Double check

Is everything listed on the works cited?

Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.

Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project

Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.

With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.

As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.

Selecting the right topic or title:

The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.

The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:

This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.

The realistic plan for the project:

A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.

Quality of research materials available:

Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.

The funding channels:

Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.

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