Federal Character Principle And Quota System In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment Of The Recruitment Exercise In The Public Service

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Federal Character Principle And Quota System In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment Of The Recruitment Exercise In The Public Service


Abstract


The main purpose of this research work was to examine the Federal Character Principle and Quota System in Nigeria and its relationship with the recruitment exercise in the public service. This was prompted by the fact that there is growing disenchantment in some quarters about the implementation of the federal character principle and quota system, which they believe leads to the violation of the merit principle and lowering of standards in the recruitment of personnel into the public service which will serve as a way of recruiting and promoting less competent staff into the service resulting inevitably to poor performance. Therefore, the research recommended that the application of merit system or meritocracy should become the Linchpin in the recruitment of personnel into the Nigerian public service in order not to endanger standards and professionalism. It was also recommended that there is the need to strike a balance between the application of federal character principle, quota system and the Merit principle in order to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the service, and for equity, unity and fairplay to prevail in the country.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Today in Nigeria the use of federal character and quota system has become an instrument for recruitment into federal, state and local government civil service. In most federal system of government, the major issue is usually that of resources sharing among the federal units at horizontal and vertical level. According to Elaigwu (1992) where the sharing arrangements are working well, there are less agitations and citizens have a feeling of belonging and equity. On the other hand where the quota system is not working well the citizen agitates and makes all sorts of demands such as call for national conference, etc. However, in Nigeria, after a series of debate in 1975 the constitutional drafting committee was set up which established federal character commission as a body charge with the responsibility of implementing the federal character principle in order to ensured equitable sharing of posts in the public services. This was also enshrined in the 1999 federal constitution of federal republic of Nigeria.

The federal character and quota system as enshrined in the constitution of Nigeria is to ensure equitable distributions of bureaucratic and political roles in the public service at federal, states and local government levels. The objectives of the policy are to foster national unity and give every Nigerian a sense of belonging in the country. In support of this view Usman(2004;117) said that it was an effort to readdress the unbalanced structure and ethnic domination in government so that national integration could be achieved. The federal character principle which is implemented under the federal character commission is therefore designed and initiated to correct adverse impact resulting from opportunities and resources provided by the federal government to the citizens of the country that appears neutral but have a discriminatory effect on a protected group. The federal character principle is therefore structured to ensure strong and indivisible nation based on justice and fairness, while also ensuring that a sense of belonging of all Nigerians is still maintained. As laudable as the above policy maybe, and the empowerment of the concept in the nation’s constitution, its application has remain a debatable topic to which some critics have claimed that the policy comprise the merit system which will create an enabling environment for those that are only qualified to be employed into the Nigerian civil service, thereby fostering quality service rendering for the development of the country. According To Ekeh(1989) Federal character principle has become a problem instead of solution to problems it was expected to tackle. Bodunrin(2003) also in assessing the Federal Character from the merit perspective, asserts that the federal character principle is counter-

productive. Therefore it is important to note that, efficient manpower utilization is determined through effective credible recruitment. But Idumange(2008) specifically lists two areas where the Federal government has been most successful in implementing the federal character principle; The National Youth Service Corps(NYSC) and recruitment into the Armed Forces. Thus this ensures Nigerians get their own share of the ‘national cake’ rather than agitations which has prevented another civil war in the country.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is no doubt that every research work must have statement of problem to which this research works is not an exception. There are many cases going on in Nigeria that the federal character principle has been unjustly implemented. Also the annual reports from the publications of the federal character commission shows that a lot of complaint arise as a result of breach of federal character principles by some establishments for example in the federal character monitor, a quarterly publication of the commission (2008:5) accused and summoned the Nigeria communication commission over breach of federal character principles.

More so, the inefficiency of the policy in recruiting manpower potentials into the organization and the selection of employees which is not based on merit but the federal character principles are some of the problems that affect the efficient performance of the Nigerian public service. Furthermore, the poor performance of employee’s discovered by the president Olusegun Obasanjo led administration was traced to poor manpower utilization and poor quality of civil servants, also testify to this weakness. Thus, in view of the above problems, the need to analyze recruitment process in government establishments are strategic and must be structured properly..


1.3 Objective of Study

The following are primary objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the extent to which the federal character and quota system is jeopardizing merit in the recruitment and of personnel in the public service.
  2. To identify the effectiveness and efficiency of the federal character principle
    and quota system in the recruitment of personnel into the public service.
  3. To identify probable problems in the application of the federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment of personnel into the public service.
  4. To examine the overall implications of federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment exercise in the public service.

1.4 Research Question

The following research question guides this study:

  1. To what extent is the federal character principle and quota system jeopardizing merit in the recruitment of personnel in the public service?
  2. How efficient and effective is the federal character principle and quota system in the recruitment of personnel into the public service?
  3. What are the probable problems in the application of the federal character principle and quota system in the recruitment exercise of the public service?
  4. What are the overall implications of federal character principle and quota system on recruitment exercise at public service?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. The application of federal character principle and quota system is largely to an extent jeopardizing merit in the recruitment of personnel into the public service.
  2. That the federal character principle and quota system is inefficient and ineffective in the recruitment of personnel into the public service.
  3. That there are probable problems in the application of the federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment of personnel into the public service.
  4. That the federal character principle and quota system has numerous implications on the recruitment exercise in the public service.

1.6 Significance of Study

The importance of this research work cannot be over emphasized. However, this study intends to examine the application of federal character principle and quota system in the Nigerian public service: jeopardizing the meritocracy of the service, particularly examining recruitment exercise at the FIRS and assess the commission in charge of the application of the federal character principle in the Nigeria public service. Also the study examines and reviews the implication of federal character principle on manpower utilization in public service at federal, states and local government level in Nigeria.

This study will further add to existing literature on this study domain and as well serve as a reference material to scholars, researchers and students who may want to carry out further research on this topic or related area in the future.


1.8 Scope of Study

This study focuses on investigating Federal character principle and quota system in Nigeria


1.7 Limitation of study

Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Federal Character Principle:

A principle of representativeness in which recruitment, promotion and distribution of other state resource are aimed at establishing a fair balance of ethnic and regional representation in all federal government agencies and parastatals (Agbodike 2003)

Quota System:

A system which limits or prescribes certain shares, or quotas,


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the federal character principle and quota system in Nigeria using Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) Sokoto as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the federal character principle and quota system in Nigeria using Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) Sokoto as case study. The study specifically was aimed at examining the extent to which the federal character and quota system is jeopardizing merit in the recruitment and of personnel in the public service, identifying the effectiveness and efficiency of the federal character principle and quota system in the recruitment of personnel into the public service, identifying probable problems in the application of the federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment of personnel into the public service and examining the overall implications of federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment exercise in the public service.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 30 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are staff of Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) Sokoto State.

The following was the result of the hypothesis; The application of federal character principle and quota system largely to an extent jeopardizes merit in the recruitment of personnel into the public service, the federal character principle and quota system are inefficient and ineffective in the recruitment of personnel into, that there are probable problems in the application of the federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment of personnel into the public service, and that the federal character principle and quota system has numerous implications on the recruitment process in the public service. More so the federal character principle and quota system has numerous implications on the recruitment exercise in the public service.


5.3 Conclusions

In conclusion it is agreed that recruitment exercise in FIRS is based on federal character principle and quota system, The federal character principle and quota system are not efficient and effective enough in the recruitment 0f personnel into FIRS Sokoto. The application of federal character principle and quota system does not jeopardize merit in the recruitment exercise at FIRS Sokoto. There are probable problems in the application of federal character principle and quota system on recruitment process in FIRS Sokoto, The application of the federal character principle and quota system is having implications on the recruitment exercise in FIRS Sokoto, The application of federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment exercise at FIRS Sokoto improves workers performance, The Federal Character Commission does not proprely supervise the application of thefederal character principle and quota system in the recruitment process at FIRS Sokoto, that the application of federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment exercise in the public service has not solved the problem of unequal representation across the country, and that there should be the continous use of the federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment exercise in the public service.

From the finding of the research work the researcher discovered that the federal character principle and quota system has some deficiencies. The actual application of the federal character principle negates the merit system of civil/public service in which the FIRS is not an exception since appointments and promotion are not always based on merit. This is to say that positions in FIRS sokoto state are traditionally reserved for some persons against others who may be more qualified for such positions. This creates the impression of discrimination and sectionalism.
Notwithstanding the deficiencies inherent in the application of federal character principle and quota system on the recruitment of personnel into the public service which has resulted in endangering of the standards and professionalism in the organization, it has in many ways helped in solving the problem of marginalization or unequal representation in the Nigerian public service.


5.4 Recommendations

In regard to the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that;

  1. The Application of Merit system or meritocracy should become the Linchpin in the recruitment of personnel into the Nigerian public service in order not to endanger standards and professionalism.
  2. The need to strike a balance between the application of federal character principle, quota system and the Merit principle in order to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the service, and for equity, unity and fairplay to prevail in the country.
  3. The problem of political selfish manipulation of the principle of the federal character and quota system for personal or sectional gain should be checked, defaulters punish and prosecuted.
  4. Even educational developmental programmes should be carried out in Nigeria by the government, in order to enable each state, provide qualified persons to represent them in the distribution of positions in the public service.
  5. The federal Character commission should always inspect public service institutions to ensure proper implementation of federal character principle and to guard against violation of the merit principle.

Complete Material For Federal Character Principle And Quota System In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment Of The Recruitment Exercise In The Public Service


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The Complete Material will be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make a Mobile Transfer or POS Payment of ₦3,000 to any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current
Zenith BankAccount No.: 1225513212
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  • Payment Details
  • Email Address 
  • Federal Character Principle And Quota System In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment Of The Recruitment Exercise In The Public Service

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your Email Address After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Federal Character Principle And Quota System In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment Of The Recruitment Exercise In The Public Service” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Federal Character Principle And Quota System In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment Of The Recruitment Exercise In The Public Service” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.