Factors Responsible For Pupils’ Dropout And Achievement In Primary School
The main purpose of the study was to examine the factors responsible for pupils dropout and achievement in primary school in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. The questionnaire was administered to 100 respondents in the primary schools in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State by the researcher herself. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The cut-off point was 2.5, any mean score of 2.5 and above was accepted, while any mean below 2.5 was rejected.
The result of the study showed the factors responsible for pupils dropout, such as financial constraint, personal or family issues, academic unpreparedness. The result it of the study also showed the strategies that parents adopt to reduce their pupils dropout. Moreso, the results of the study revealed the rate of dropout in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that, there should be a central organization which will comprise the teachers’ parents and representatives of national/state primary education boards at national, state and local government levels. This body should co-operate and pull resources together in reducing dropout rate in schools.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is the acquisition and application of knowledge in various fields for effective performance of ones task. The federal, state and local Governments of the federation place high premium on education they recognize it as a weapon against ignorance, disease, squalor and poverty and as a means of raising an enlightened, lively and industrious citizenry and of producing a prosperous nation.
Education is an important medium for imparting the cultural traits and for change and transition and for instructing members of any society on the accepted norms, values and practices. Omebe (2005) states that the main aim of educational institution is to bring change in the behaviour of human beings from the time an individual is born and last till death.
Omebe (2007) defined education as that training which is given by suitable habits to the first instincts of virtue in children when pleasure and pain are rightly implanted in non-rational soul. The particular training in respect of pleasure and pain which leads on to hate and love what love ought to have and love is called education.
The federal government of Nigeria has adopted education as an instrument for excellence for effecting not only national development but also as a tool in the achievement of her five national objectives stated in the national policy on education (2007).
These objectives are the building of:
- A free and democratic society
- A just and egalitarian society
- A united, strong and self-reliant nation
- A great and dynamic economy
- A land full of bright opportunities for all citizens.
This implies that among other things Nigeria intends producing education for all her children of school age. This provision of education covers at least from primary school level to tertiary levels depending on the individuals academic ability.
National policy on education (2007:14) defined primary education as the education given in institutions for children aged 6 to 11 plus since the rest of the education system is build upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system.
The duration shall be six years. The goal of primary education is to:
- Inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy and ability to communicate effectively.
- Lay a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking
- Given citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society.
- Mould the character and develop sound attitude and morals in the child.
- Develop in the child the ability to adapt to the Child’s changing environment.
- Give the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable the child function effectively in the society within the limits of the child’s capacity.
- Provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and craft of the locality. These goals will form the basis of primary education in all the states of the federation.
According to Emore (2005) Defined dropout as a person who withdrew from conventional or who never completed his or her education in the primary school or other higher institution because of one circumstances or the other. The cost of dropping out of primary school can have a profound effect on a young person’s life. The relative earnings of primary school dropout experience more unemployment during their work careers. Young girls who dropout of school are more likely to become pregnant at young age and single parents Synder and Sickmud (2005).
The relative earnings of primary school dropout may be lower than those who completed their education. Similarly, primary school dropout experience more unemployment during their work careers. Young girls who drop out of primary school are forced to take up a nanny job, hawking exercise, farming and planting etc.
Ecological achievement, During planting and farming season, pupils from the populous farming and fishing areas are drawn out from schools to help in these activities. Still speaking on economic, young girls who are unfortunate to come from a poor background drop out of school due to inability of the parent to afford school fee, are force into hawking simply to make ends meet. Both boys and girls dropout of school to take up a nanny job either in their home or outside their home.
At home to save the cost of employing a well trained mature nanny who will be suit for the job, outside the home in order to get paid for and provide for the family needs. Some times primary schools pupils are forced to take some national assignments like taking part in census exercise, registration of voters are drawn out of school to help in these activities .They are sobering statistics when contrasted with the reality of a work place that continue to require skills and the ability to embark on careers that require increase in literacy. More education, enhance technical skills and the ability to embark on careers that require life long learning without the skills and training that schooling provide. Davidson (2005:15) states that those who do not complete their education face a life time of limited opportunities or even possibly a life delinquency and crime.
The purpose of this research work is to broaden peoples understanding of dropout by taking into consideration psychological behavioral risk and protective factors associated with primary school dropout. Though dropout can be viewed as personal decision, it should not be forgotten that other contributing factors such as family, peer relationship, school and individual psychological process must be taken into consideration.
From a historical stand-point, research has shown a one sided view as why pupils dropout of primary school. According to Whelage (2006), it is the characteristics of students along with their families and cultural background that are responsible for their dropping out. Whelage (2006) further added that a more complex and balance picture addressing the cause of dropping out of school has been identified. There is strong evidence that subject failure and school disciplinary problem in combination with chaotic personal, social and family background conditions contribute to dropping out.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In this study the researcher is concerned with identification of those factors that bring about dropout in educational programmes among primary schools in Nsukka local government area.
Teachers at times resort to strikes which can last for weeks or month to press their demand.
Dropout rate differ by various demographic factors including gender race and ethnicity, immigration status and geographic location.
Dropout rates in the United States are higher for males than for females Nigeria may have the highest dropout rate by far, following by Africa Americans, and Asia American. Anyanwu (2005) noted that in 2005 the status dropout rate for Nigeria was 27.8 percent while the corresponding rate for Africa Americans and Asia Americans were 13.1 percent 6.9 percent and 3.8 percent respectively. Individual born outside the united states have a higher dropout rate than those born in united states. These are also regional differences in Nigeria with the south and west having higher dropout rate than the north east and the mid-west. Students in urban areas are more likely to dropout of primary school than students in sub-urban areas.
Internationally, there is considerably variation in dropout rate because different nations are in different stages of extending universal basic education. Among developed countries primary education completion rate are generally as high as or higher than in the United States, though the nature of primary school varies considerably. Rate in other countries but primary admission and completion rate has been increasing world wide. There are also differences in dropout rates associated without socio-economic and demographic factors. One notable demographic difference concern rate for males and females, Females are less likely to dropout in developed countries and in Latin American and Caribbean, but females are more likely to dropout prior to primary education completion in the rest of the world. It is against this back drop that the researcher intends to diagnose the factors responsible pupils dropout and their achievement among primary school pupils.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors responsible for pupil’s dropout in primary school in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state.
Specifically the study sought to find out the following:
- To find out the factors responsible for pupils dropout in primary schools.
- To find out the strategies that parent adopt to reduce their pupil dropout rate.
- To investigate the rate of dropout in primary school in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu state.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Achieving a significant result is highly imperative in any empirical study. Mostly, the result of this study will be useful to government, parents, curriculum planners and the students.
Also findings of this study will be of benefit to parent by understanding that they should give support of education to their children. It will help parents by knowing that children are the leaders of tomorrow and school dropout could be dangerous to their children’s future.
Also, this will help government to supply the missing link if any in its future plan for educational progress.
However, it will be of benefit to curriculum planners by providing the planned experiences provided by the school to assist the pupils in attaining the designated learning outcomes. Again, it is expected that the result of this findings will expose the problem associated with school dropout and it consequence to the development of Nigerian education.
More significantly, apart from increasing the volume of literature in emerging research work, the findings of the study will aid government for its policy making and will assist student to a great extent who may wish to conduct a research which is related to this one.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work covers the factors responsible for pupil’s dropout in primary school in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State. In the course of the study, these factors will be highlighted and tackled properly to reduce the incidence or rate of dropout, the study is expected to suggest possible ways in which the rate of dropout will be minimized.
1.6 Research Questions
The following research question is designated to guide the study.
- What are the possible causes of dropout in primary school?
- What strategies do parents adopts to reduce the incidents of their student dropout?
- What are the rates of dropout in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State.
Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was to examine the factors responsible for pupils’ dropout and achievement in primary schools using two selected primary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State as case study. The study specifically was aimed at finding out the factors responsible for pupils dropout in primary schools, the strategies that parent adopt to reduce their pupil dropout rate, and investigate the rate of dropout in primary school in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu state.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active workers and pupils in the 2 selected primary schools in Nsukka L.G.A, Enugu State.
The findings revealed that the factors responsible for pupils dropout, such as financial constraint, personal or family issues, academic unpreparedness and health issues. The findings also revealed that the strategies that parents adopt to reduce their pupils dropout are by soliciting from government for free and compulsory education, Solicit for government to address the needs of orphans and vulnerable learners, creation of employment and abolish child labour. The findings also revealed that the rate of school dropout in Nsukka L.G.A is very low.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- There should be a central organization which will comprise the teachers’ parents and representatives of national/state primary education boards at national, state and local government levels. This body should co-operate and pull resources together in reducing dropout rate in schools.
- Poor conditions in schools contributed a lot in learners dropping out of school to engage in child labour. Government should ensure that schools are properly investigated to make sure that the condition of schools and learning system is good for the pupils.
- Government should create employment to help the parents generate fund to pay their children school fees.
- Teachers should be trained properly to be able to carry out their duties in an interesting way so as not to make the pupils loose interest in going to school.
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