The Factors Responsible For Primary School Pupils Poor Academic Performances In Primary Science And Computer Science (A Case Study Of Enugu Education Zone)
This research project was on, FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCIENCES AND COMPUTER SCIENCE (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU EDUCATION ZONE). Data were gathered through structured questionnaire information obtained from principals, teachers, assistant head teachers, students and other staff from the selected primary schools within the metropolis. In an attempt to validate the findings of this study, four (4) research questions were posed. The main purpose of the study was to establish whether there is actually poor academic performance among primary school pupils in Enugu Education zone and to determine the possible factors responsible for the poor academic performance of primary school pupils. Data were analysed using the mean. And based on the data collected, and analysed the following findings were made.
- The level of competency possessed by a teacher affect his performance, effectiveness and productivity.
- Students can experience difficulties in learning sometime, perhaps because the teaching is too fast or the ambiguity of words used by the teacher.
- The teacher ought to be able to rational appraisal of his abilities and try to employ likely to enhance not reduce the impact he hopes to make in the teaching learning process etc.
The researchers concluded that acute shortage of qualified teachers contribute to the poor academic achievement of primary school pupils in both computer and primary science subjects in primary schools, coupled with the fact that teachers scarcely take assessment from pupils after an exposure to instruction to know the extent and depth knowledge of pupils learning. Besides many problems are found militating against teachers’ performance and effective service delivery and many strategies should be used to improver student’s performance and teachers’ effectiveness in the science subjects in Nigeria primary school Education. The researchers, however, recommended among other things that the primary education curriculum should be structured basically, to enable pupils to acquire further knowledge on core subjects and develop basic skills as well. And that from time to time, primary science and computer science teachers should be examined for the purpose of certification and for better service delivery in schools.
List of Tables
- Table I: Respondents Responses on the availability of qualified teachers for primary and Computer science subject within Enugu Education Zone
- Table II: Respondents Responses on the effectiveness of teachers in the teaching and learning of Computer and primary science subject at the primary School level.
- Table III: Respondents Responses on how parental influence contributes to poor academic achievement of primary school pupils.
- Table VI: Respondents Responses on the Impacts of social Influence on the academic achievement of primary school pupils.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- List of Table
- Table of Contents
- Background of the Study
- Statement of the Problem
- Purpose of the Study
- Significance of the Study
- Research Questions
- Statement of Hypothesis
- Delimitation of the Study
- Limitations of the Study
- Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- The Concept of Primary Education
- The General Principles of Academic Performance
- Teachers Contributions to Poor Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils
- Government Contribution to the Poor Academic Performance of the Primary Education
- Tests And Examinations – Viewed Distinctively
- Environment Influence as a Contributing Factor to Poor Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils
- Test / Examinations as Instrument for Measuring Academic Performance
- Summary of Reviewed of Related Literature
- Research Design
- Area of the Study
- Population of the Study
- Sample and Sampling Techniques
- Instrument for Data Collection
- Validation of the Instrument
- Rehabilitee of the Instrument
- Method of Data Collection
- Method of Data Analysis
Data Analysis and Results
- Research Question 1
- Research Question 2
- Research Question 3
- Research Question 4
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
- Summary of Procedures Used
- Suggestions for Further Study
Background of the Study
The content of Nigeria education must reflect the past present and future of the dynamic Nigeria society in terms of the roles the individual is expected to play in the resent modernalization process. The Nigeria formal education system is the organized and structured aspect of the education which takes place within the four walls of the school. It however has to be noted that, all emphasis in terms of government budgetary allocation and general planning, is usually placed on formal education. Hence, a discussion of Nigeria’s educational system is almost synonymous with a discussion of the formal educational system. As has been pointed earlier, the formal education system comprises interrelated sub-system or levels. The major levels of the Nigerian educational system are primary, secondary, (post primary), and tertiary (Post Secondary) (Mkpa:1992).
Since the introduction of formal education in Nigeria, various conferences and seminars have been held and Commissions set up to deliberate on crucial issues in the Nigeria educational system. Of remarkable significance are the National Curriculum Conference in 1969 which reviewed old, and identified new national goals for Nigeria’s educational system and the 1973 seminar of distinguished educational experts and representatives of all segments of the society under the chairmanship of chief S.O. Adebo which renewed the 1969 paper and made more recommendations.
Besides the numerous other recommendations in this respect, recommendations number 8 dealt with the goals of primary education. It reads thus:
“Specifically, the primary school Curriculum must aim at functional permanent literacy to ensure better producers and consumers of goods. It should provide a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking; inculcate citizenship education and a sound moral character and attitude development, help individuals to adapt and a adjust to the changing society, give physical, emotional and intellectual growth, enhance an individual sense of will power, creative and innovativeness, develop their mechanical vocational and manipulative skills and competencies enable them to communicate freely and effectively through any media, imbibe in them a spirit of self – discipline (Fafunwa, 1974:233)
This statement however, is the beginning of redirecting primary education in Nigeria toward a reasonable end, and a way from production of only church teachers and interpreters.
Statement of the Problem
It is pertiment to understand that the so – called academic performance of primary school pupil is a Cankar worm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of our primary schools today. However, in environment where such an ugly situation is found, tention, conflict and anarchy dictate the tone of relationship between pupils, the teachers for a smooth and effective school management. Since the end of the Nigeria Biafra Civil War in 1970, academic excellence has been on the decline. This appears to be more pronounced in the primary schools. Poor academic performance has constituted a big problem not only for schools but the dynamic Nigeria society. The primary schools in Enugu Education zone have been faced with the problem, which is mostly reflected in common Entrance Examination Results. Millions of Naira being pumped into education in Nigeria in general and in Enugu State in particular not withstanding this issue of poor performance in education has continued to persist.
Enugu Education Zone has the highest numbers of primary schools in Enugu State. There are also schools recently opened in each zone for nomads with over one thousand plus qualified teachers. But then, these have not helped matters. Constant research in Curriculum development and the introduction of continuous assessment programme/scheme are yet to take care of this issue of poor academic performance in primary schools. Consequently these of course, are the major factors that motivated the selection of the topic of study by the researchers.
Purpose of the Study
The main purposes of the study were as follows:
- To establish whether there is actually poor academic performance among Primary School Pupils in Enugu Education Zone
- To determine factors responsible for the poor academic performance of primary school pupils.
- To find out whether qualified teachers for primary and computer science within the selected primary schools.
- To determine the effectiveness of primary and Computer science teachers among the selected school.
- To determine the extent at which parental influence contribute to poor academic performance of pupils.
- To determine the strategies for improving the academic performance of primary school pupils etc.
Significance of the Study
This study would be of immense help to the present and prospective policy makers of the Nigeria educational system in the areas of planning and effective utilization of resources. The study is knowledge and therefore would be of help to students and other researchers who might be interested in this and or other related areas of this study.
The findings of this study shall be beneficial and of immense help in identifying the possible factors responsible for this educational problem. From the study appropriate recommendations, answers to the issue of poor academic performance will be provided. Educational planners and Administrators, parents, the school and the primary school child who is directly involved will realize the appropriate roles they have to play for this issue of poor academic performance to stop.
To validate the findings of this study the following research questions were posed:
- What are the major roles of teachers for academic excellence at the primary school level?
- How effective is the teaching and learning of primary and computer science and computer science subjects in the school activities?
- To what extent does parental influence contribute to poor academic performance of pupils?
- What is the effect of social influences on the academic performance of primary school pupils?
Statement of Hypothesis
- There is no statistical significance difference in the mean responses of the principals and staff and other respondents at (0.05) on well defined strategies for improving teachers’ and learners performance in the primary schools.
- There is no statistical significance difference in the mean responses of the teachers and other respondents (at 0.05) on the factor responsible for pupils poor academic performance.
- There is no statistical significance difference in the mean responses of teachers, staff and other respondents (at 0.05) on the teachers roles and the effect of social influences on the academic performance of primary school pupils.
Delimitation / Scope of the Study
- The study was delimited to the determination of the effectiveness of teaching and learning of primary and computer science subjects in primary schools.
- To determine the extent at which parent influence contribute to poor academic performance of primary school pupils.
- To determine the effects of social influence on the academic performance of primary school pupils.
- To determine other possible factors responsible for poor academic performance in primary schools.
Limitation of the Study
The research were confronted with a number of obstacles during the course of this study. Some of these limitations are discussed below:
Some of the respondents exhibited negative character. Some bluntly refused to full our questionnaire or answers basic questions posed on them. Some of them reluctantly accepted to respond with some reservations and maintained that they were not in the best position to respond when actually they were.
There was a problem of inadequate finance to transport the researchers from their houses to places and the schools were information could be obtained. Inadequate finance restricted the researchers from obtaining certain necessary and useful resource materials. Thus, for a successful research work, money is a motivator.
Programme of Getting Accurate Statistical Data:
It was difficult on the researchers to get accurate statistical data since there were different levels of teachers with diverse work experience from different fields and endeavours of life, and in different categories in positions from the selected primary schools.
Definition of Terms
Is the first formal level of the 6 – 3 – 3 – 4 system of Nigeria Education meant for children aged normally 6 to 11 in a formal educational Setting
Is defined as the aggregate totality of all the process by which a child or the young adult develop his ability, attitude, knowledge, skills, competencies and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to the society in which he lives.
Is the act or a relationship where one person (teacher) guides the other (student) in developing a philosophy of or a way of life.
Is the act of achievement. It is a process where the student carryout the activities they have been taught and have been guided on what to do normally by the teacher.
Is a device adopted for measuring and evaluation learners success in the teaching learning process etc.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter deals with the summary of procedures used, principal findings, conclusion, recommendations and suggestions for furthers study.
Summary of Procedures Used
The research was on factors responsible for poor academic performance of primary school pupils in primary science and computer science. Data were gathered through structured questionnaire. The area of research was Enugu Education Zone, within Enugu metropolis-in Enugu State. Information was obtained from principals, teachers, assistant head teachers students, students and other staff of the selected sciences within the metropolis.
Data Were Analysed Using The Mean.
The following principal findings were made by the researchers based on the data collected, obtained and analysed in chapter four:
- The level of competency possessed by a teacher affects his performance effectiveness and productivity.
- Students can experience difficulties in learning sometime, perhaps because the teaching is tool fast or the ambiguity of words used by the teachers.
- Active manipulation of available learning resources by the teacher and analyzing working examples with learners during teaching-learning process could help improve teachers performance in the two subject areas.
- Provision of knowledge of result and feed back of learners performance help to chart their course and build self confidence.
- The teacher ought to be able to make rational appraisal of his abilities and try to employ likely to enhance not reduce the impact he hopes to make in the teaching learning process etc.
Based on the principal findings, the following conclusion were drawn:
- Acute shortage of qualified teachers contribute to the poor academic achievement of primary school pupils in both computer science and primary science subjects in primary schools.
- The teacher needs to take assessment from the pupils after an exposure instruction to know the extent and depth knowledge of pupils learning.
- Many problems are found militating against teacher’s performance and effective service delivery in the teaching and learning of primary and computers science subjects at the primary school level.
- Many strategies should be used to improve on teacher’s performance and effective service delivery in the teaching of primary and computer science subjects in Nigeria primary school education.
The following recommendations are made with the view of improvement efficiency and effective service delivery in the teaching and learning of primary and computer science subjects in the primary school curricular in Nigeria formal educational system.
- The primary education curriculum should be structured, basically, to enable pupils to acquire further knowledge on core subjects and develop basic skills.
- Many participative methods should be employed by the teacher in the teaching and learning of primary and computer science subjects at the primary school level.
- Government from time to time should endeavour to provide adequate instructional resources, good laboratories and other basic infrastructures for the effective teaching and learning of primary and computer sciences at the primary school levels.
- Supervisory body should be constituted to ensure that each individual teacher is doing his teaching work effectively, as scheduled by the school authorities.
- From time to time, primary science and computer science teachers should be examined for the purpose of certification.
- Training and re-training programmes should be organized from time to time for primary computer science teachers, even at the primary education system.
- During training and retraining, emphasis should be placed on the workable strategies for improving teacher’s effectiveness efficiency and productivity for effective service delivery in the teaching and learning of primary and computer science subjects in Nigeria schools.
Suggestion for Further Study
The following suggestions are hereby advice for further study :
- This research should be replicated in other primary schools in and out side Enugu state, since a unified educational system is in operation.
- A study should be carried out on the assessment of teacher’s performance and effectiveness in the teaching and learning of computer and integrate science subjects in senior secondary schools. (A case study of Enugu North Local Government Area Enugu State).
- A comparative study should be carried out on the identification of difficult teaching and learning topics in Mathematics and computer science subjects at the junior secondary school curricular (A case study of JSS 2 and 3 curricular in Nigeria).
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