The Factors Responsible For Primary School Pupils Poor Academic Performances In Accounting

Project and Seminar Material for Accountancy / Accounting

The Factors Responsible For Primary School Pupils Poor Academic Performances In Accounting


Abstract


This research project was on factors responsible for poor academic performance of primary school pupils in accounting education (a case study of enugu education zone). Data were gathered through structured questionnaire information obtained from principals, teachers, assistant head teachers, students and other staff from the selected primary schools within the metropolis. In an attempt to validate the findings of this study, four (4) research questions were posed. The main purpose of the study was to establish whether there is actually poor academic performance among primary school pupils in Enugu Education zone and to determine the possible factors responsible for the poor academic performance of primary school pupils. Data were analysed using the mean. And based on the data collected, and analysed the following findings were made.

  1. The level of competency possessed by a teacher affect his performance, effectiveness and productivity.
  2. Students can experience difficulties in learning sometime, perhaps because the teaching is too fast or the ambiguity of words used by the teacher.
  3. The teacher ought to be able to rational appraisal of his abilities and try to employ likely to enhance not reduce the impact he hopes to make in the teaching learning process etc.

The researchers concluded that acute shortage of qualified teachers contribute to the poor academic achievement of primary school pupils in both computer and primary science subjects in primary schools, coupled with the fact that teachers scarcely take assessment from pupils after an exposure to instruction to know the extent and depth knowledge of pupils learning. Besides many problems are found militating against teachers’ performance and effective service delivery and many strategies should be used to improver student’s performance and teachers’ effectiveness in the science subjects in Nigeria primary school Education. The researchers, however, recommended among other things that the primary education curriculum should be structured basically, to enable pupils to acquire further knowledge on core subjects and develop basic skills as well. And that from time to time, Accounting education teachers should be examined for the purpose of certification and for better service delivery in schools.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The content of Nigeria education must reflect the past present and future of the dynamic Nigeria society in terms of the roles the individual is expected to play in the resent modernalization process. The Nigeria formal education system is the organized and structured aspect of the education which takes place within the four walls of the school. It however has to be noted that, all emphasis in terms of government budgetary allocation and general planning, is usually placed on formal education. Hence, a discussion of Nigeria’s educational system is almost synonymous with a discussion of the formal educational system. As has been pointed earlier, the formal education system comprises interrelated sub-system or levels. The major levels of the Nigerian educational system are primary, secondary, (post primary), and tertiary (Post Secondary) (Mkpa:1992).

Since the introduction of formal education in Nigeria, various conferences and seminars have been held and Commissions set up to deliberate on crucial issues in the Nigeria educational system. Of remarkable significance are the National Curriculum Conference in 1969 which reviewed old, and identified new national goals for Nigeria’s educational system and the 1973 seminar of distinguished educational experts and representatives of all segments of the society under the chairmanship of chief S.O. Adebo which renewed the 1969 paper and made more recommendations.

Besides the numerous other recommendations in this respect, recommendations number 8 dealt with the goals of primary education. It reads thus:

“Specifically, the primary school Curriculum must aim at functional permanent literacy to ensure better producers and consumers of goods. It should provide a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking; inculcate citizenship education and a sound moral character and attitude development, help individuals to adapt and a adjust to the changing society, give physical, emotional and intellectual growth, enhance an individual sense of will power, creative and innovativeness, develop their mechanical vocational and manipulative skills and competencies enable them to communicate freely and effectively through any media, imbibe in them a spirit of self – discipline (Fafunwa, 1974:233)

This statement however, is the beginning of redirecting primary education in Nigeria toward a reasonable end, and a way from production of only church teachers and interpreters.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is pertiment to understand that the so – called academic performance of primary school pupil is a Cankar worm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of our primary schools today. However, in environment where such an ugly situation is found, tention, conflict and anarchy dictate the tone of relationship between pupils, the teachers for a smooth and effective school management. Since the end of the Nigeria Biafra Civil War in 1970, academic excellence has been on the decline. This appears to be more pronounced in the primary schools. Poor academic performance has constituted a big problem not only for schools but the dynamic Nigeria society. The primary schools in Enugu Education zone have been faced with the problem, which is mostly reflected in common Entrance Examination Results. Millions of Naira being pumped into education in Nigeria in general and in Enugu State in particular not withstanding this issue of poor performance in education has continued to persist.

Enugu Education Zone has the highest numbers of primary schools in Enugu State. There are also schools recently opened in each zone for nomads with over one thousand plus qualified teachers. But then, these have not helped matters. Constant research in Curriculum development and the introduction of continuous assessment programme/scheme are yet to take care of this issue of poor academic performance in primary schools. Consequently these of course, are the major factors that motivated the selection of the topic of study by the researchers.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purposes of the study were as follows:

  1. To establish whether there is actually poor academic performance among Primary School Pupils in Enugu Education Zone
  2. To determine factors responsible for the poor academic performance of primary school pupils.
  3. To find out whether qualified teachers for primary and Accounting education within the selected primary schools.
  4. To determine the effectiveness of primary and Accounting education teachers among the selected school.
  5. To determine the extent at which parental influence contribute to poor academic performance of pupils.
  6. To determine the strategies for improving the academic performance of primary school pupils etc.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study would be of immense help to the present and prospective policy makers of the Nigeria educational system in the areas of planning and effective utilization of resources. The study is knowledge and therefore would be of help to students and other researchers who might be interested in this and or other related areas of this study.
The findings of this study shall be beneficial and of immense help in identifying the possible factors responsible for this educational problem. From the study appropriate recommendations, answers to the issue of poor academic performance will be provided. Educational planners and Administrators, parents, the school and the primary school child who is directly involved will realize the appropriate roles they have to play for this issue of poor academic performance to stop.


1.5 Research Questions

To validate the findings of this study the following research questions were posed:

  1. What are the major roles of teachers for academic excellence at the primary school level?
  2. How effective is the teaching and learning of primary and Accounting education subjects in the school activities?
  3. To what extent does parental influence contribute to poor academic performance of pupils?
  4. What is the effect of social influences on the academic performance of primary school pupils?

1.6 Statement of Hypothesis

  1. There is no statistical significance difference in the mean responses of the principals and staff and other respondents at (0.05) on well defined strategies for improving teachers’ and learners performance in the primary schools.
  2. There is no statistical significance difference in the mean responses of the teachers and other respondents (at 0.05) on the factor responsible for pupils poor academic performance.
  3. There is no statistical significance difference in the mean responses of teachers, staff and other respondents (at 0.05) on the teachers roles and the effect of social influences on the academic performance of primary school pupils.

1.7 Delimitation / Scope of the Study

  1. The study was delimited to the determination of the effectiveness of teaching and learning of primary and Accounting education subjects in primary schools.
  2. To determine the extent at which parent influence contribute to poor academic performance of primary school pupils.
  3. To determine the effects of social influence on the academic performance of primary school pupils.
  4. To determine other possible factors responsible for poor academic performance in primary schools.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The research were confronted with a number of obstacles during the course of this study. Some of these limitations are discussed below:

Respondents:

Some of the respondents exhibited negative character. Some bluntly refused to full our questionnaire or answers basic questions posed on them. Some of them reluctantly accepted to respond with some reservations and maintained that they were not in the best position to respond when actually they were.

Finance:

There was a problem of inadequate finance to transport the researchers from their houses to places and the schools were information could be obtained. Inadequate finance restricted the researchers from obtaining certain necessary and useful resource materials. Thus, for a successful research work, money is a motivator.

Programme of Getting Accurate Statistical Data:

It was difficult on the researchers to get accurate statistical data since there were different levels of teachers with diverse work experience from different fields and endeavours of life, and in different categories in positions from the selected primary schools.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Primary Education:

Is the first formal level of the 6 – 3 – 3 – 4 system of Nigeria Education meant for children aged normally 6 to 11 in a formal educational Setting

Education:

Is defined as the aggregate totality of all the process by which a child or the young adult develop his ability, attitude, knowledge, skills, competencies and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to the society in which he lives.

Monitoring:

Is the act or a relationship where one person (teacher) guides the other (student) in developing a philosophy of or a way of life.

Performance:

Is the act of achievement. It is a process where the student carryout the activities they have been taught and have been guided on what to do normally by the teacher.

Examination:

Is a device adopted for measuring and evaluation learners success in the teaching learning process etc.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the summary of findings of the study which formed the foundation for discussion. The discussion provided a firm basis upon which conclusions and recommendations were advanced to address the factors influencing performance. It also includes suggested areas for further research and contributions made to the body of knowledge.


5.2 Summary of Findings

The summary of the findings based on objective one which was to determine the influence of parents’ participation in school activities on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools. The findings show that majority of the respondents interviewed were males 237(57.3%) while females were 176(42.7%).The study shows that majority of the respondents were male. The study has shown that majority of the respondents 213(51.5%) have reached primary level of education while 18(4.5%) have reached bachelors level. The findings show that most of the respondents 182 (44.2%) are below 15 years of age and 112 respondents (27.2%) in 36-45 years. This indicates that majority of the respondents are in their middle age and therefore suitable in undertaking productive work which require efficiency. The findings indicated that most of the respondents 95(23.0%) are called for parent meeting regularly while 77respondents (18.6%) indicated that they are called for staff meetings irregularly. The study show that most respondents 89(21.5%) attend meetings irregularly while 78 respondents (18.9%) attend meetings regularly.

The study indicated that 192 respondents (46.5%) rate the school management as below average while 147 respondents (35.6%) indicated that the school performance is average while 74 respondents (17.9%) indicated that the school performance is above average.

According to the study, school management affect performance as indicated by 372 respondents 90.1%) while 41 respondents indicated that school management does not affect performance. According to the study, school management affects performance of public primary schools as indicated by 372 respondents 90.1%). The study indicated that 16 (3.7%) have been called for disciplinary cases of their children. This shows that the pupils are well behaved. The study also found that 73 respondents(17.6%) pay their school levies on time while 100 respondents(24.2%) indicated that they do not pay levies on time. Payment of levies immediately enables schools to run smoothly without financial problems. According to the study, 173 respondents (41.6%) indicated that they have never been called to school to discuss on any instructional material or other school resources while one respondent (0.2%) indicated that he was called to discuss on instructional materials and other resources.

The summary of the findings based on objective two which was to establish how pupils’ discipline influence academic performance in public primary schools. The findings indicated that 144 respondents (35.3%) levies paid by fathers while 14 respondents indicate that their mother pay for them while 14 respondents (3.4%) levies is paid by guardians. The findings show that 127 respondents (30.8%) got 201-349 marks. Only 61 respondents (14.8%) scored a mean of 350-400 marks. The study has shown that 134 respondents (33.4%) absent from school 4-6 times per term while 28 (6.8%) respondent were absent from school 1-3 times per term. Coming to school always without absenteeism improve school performance. The study has shown that 104 respondents (26.1%) indicated that the mother assist them in homework.28 respondents (6.8%) indicated that the father assist in homework. The findings indicated that 114 respondents (27.6%) indicated that their parents are farmers while 34 respondents indicated that their parent are doing other businesses apart from keeping shops. The findings indicated that 36 respondents (8.7%) had disciplinary cases and brought their mother while 1(0.2%) brought his guardian male The findings indicated that 41 respondents (9.9%) indicated that schools perform poorly because the teachers are not committed.
The summary of the findings based on objective three which to determine how teachers influence on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools

The findings indicated that 6 respondents (1.5%) prepare their schemes of work regularly but majority of teachers do not prepare schemes of work irregularly. All the other teachers prepare their schemes of work irregularly. The findings indicated that 6 respondents (1.5%) prepare their lesson plans regularly while majority of the respondents. The findings indicated that 30respondents (7.3%) give continuous assessment test weekly while 12 respondents give continuous assessment test monthly. Continuous assessment tests improve the performance of pupils. The findings indicated that 25 respondents (6.1%) indicated that English is the language used in communication. 5 respondents showed that kiswahili is the language used .12 respondents showed that both English and Kiswahili are used in communication. From the study 29 respondents (7%) stated that the discipline of pupils is good while one respondent stated that the discipline is very good. A disciplined school is likely to perform well academically. The study shows that 42 respondents (1.2%) indicated that parents consult teachers about their pupils academic performance while 371(89.8%) indicated that parents do not consult teachers. The study indicated that 24 respondents (5.8%) felt that completing syllabus on time will enhance examination performance while 12 respondents believed that maintaining good discipline will enhance examination performance.

The summary of the findings based on objective four which was to assess the influence of head teachers’ management styles on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools. The study indicated that 12 respondents have attended an administrative course in order to enhance their administrative ability while one respondent indicated that he has never attended any administrative course. The findings indicated that 3 respondents (0.7%) have attended administrative course at degree level, 6 respondents have attended training at diploma level and 2 respondents have attended at certificate level. A leader with administrative skill is likely to enhance performance in the school. The findings indicated that 347 respondents (84%) their schools scored from1-100 marks while 42 indicated that the school scored 301-400 marks. The findings indicated that 292 respondents (70.7%) their schools scored from1-100 marks while 42 indicated that the school scored 301-400 marks while 78 respondents (18.9%) scored from 101200 marks. The study indicated that 159 respondents (38.5%) believed that parents should be role model for the pupils to perform well while 121 respondents (29.3%) indicated that teachers and pupils perform well when motivated .Parents should instill value in their pupils by being role model. The management should motivate their teachers and pupils for enhanced performance.


5.3 Discussion of Findings

A discussion of findings of the study is presented based on the four objectives of the study. The objectives were; Parent participation, pupils’ discipline, teachers and head teachers’ management styles influence on pupils’ academic performance.

5.3.1 Influence of parents’ participation in school activities on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools.

The study shows that parental participation influence pupils academic performance this agrees with Gakure et al, (2013) who stated that parental participation, school environment and pupils discipline are known to influence academic performance. The research also agrees with Wolfendale (1999) who indicated parents have the right to play an active role in their children’s education. The findings show that majority of the respondents interviewed were male 237(57.3%) while females were 176(42.7%).The study shows that majority of the respondents were male. The study has shown that majority of the respondents 213(51.5%) have reached primary level of education. The study has shown that most of the respondents 187 (44.2%) are below 15 years of age and 112 respondents (27.2%) in 36-45 years. This indicates that majority of the respondents are in their middle age and therefore suitable in undertaking productive work which require efficiency. The findings indicated that most the respondents 95(23.0%) are called for parent meeting regularly while 77respondents (18.6%) indicated that they are called for parent meetings irregularly. The study show that most respondents 89(21.5%) attend meetings irregularly while 78 respondents (18.9%) attend meetings regularly. This is supported by Van der Warfet al., (2001) who reported that parental participation is not only necessary but it is also one of the most cost-effective means of improving quality in education

The study indicated that 192 respondents (46.5%) rate the school management as below average while 147 respondents (35.6%) indicated that the school performance is average while 74 respondents (17.9%) indicated that the school performance is above average.

According to the study, school management affect performance as indicated by 372 respondents 90.1%) while 41 respondents indicated that school management does not affect performance.

According to the study, school management affects performance of public primary schools as indicated by 372 respondents 90.1%).

The study indicated that 16 (3.7%) have been called for disciplinary cases of their children. This shows that the pupils are well behaved. This agrees with Wood et al (1985) who stated that good discipline helps to develop desirable student behaviour. If a school has effective discipline, the academic performance will be good. Directions on the side of the learners as well as educators will be easy and smooth. The study also found that 73 respondents (17.6%) pay their school levies on time while 100 respondents (24.2%) indicated that they do not pay levies on time. Payment of levies immediately enables schools to run smoothly without financial problems. According to the study, 173 respondents (41.6%) indicated that they have never been called to school to discuss on any instructional material or other school resources while one respondent (0.2%) indicated that he was called to discuss on instructional materials and other resources.

5.3.2 The summary of the findings based on objective two which was to establish how pupils’ discipline influence academic performance in public primary schools.

The findings indicated that 144 respondents (35.3%) levies paid by fathers while 14 respondents indicate that their mother pay for them while 14 respondents (3.4%) levies is paid by guardians. The findings show that 127 respondents (30.8%) got 201-349 marks. Only 61 respondents (14.8%) scored a mean of 350-400 marks. The study has shown that 134 respondents (33.4%) were absent from school 4-6 times per term while 28 (6.8%) respondent were absent from school 1-3 times per term. Coming to school always without absenteeism improve school performance. Report by Thika District Education Board Task Force (2009) showed that causes of poor performance which are related to indiscipline were: lack of teachers commitment in class; lack of parental care and advice; lack of teacher supervision by head-teachers; lack of regular pupils’ supervision by teachers; absenteeism and lack of commitment by pupils; and pupils’ behavior in class. The study has shown that 134 respondents (33.4%) were absent from school 4-6 times per term while 28 (6.8%) respondent were absent from school 1-3 times per term. The study has shown that 104 respondents (26.1%) indicated that the mother assist them in homework.28 respondents (6.8%) indicated that the father assist in homework. The findings indicated that 114 respondents (27.6%) indicated that their parents are farmers while 34 respondents indicated that their parents are doing other businesses apart from keeping shops. The findings indicated that 36 respondents (8.7%) had disciplinary cases and brought their mother while 1(0.2%) brought his guardian male. This was also supported by Gawe et al (2001) who said Pupils’ discipline is a prerequisite to almost everything a school has to offer students. He further said that in order for a satisfactory climate to exist within a school, a certain level of discipline must exist. A democratic form of discipline leads to a healthy classroom environment that in turn promotes respect for education and a desire for knowledge (Karanja and Bowen, 2012).

5.3.3 The summary of the findings based on objective three which to determine how teachers influence on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools

The findings indicated that 6 respondents (1.5%) prepared their schemes of work regularly but majority of teachers do not prepare schemes of work regularly. All the other teachers prepare their schemes of work irregularly. The findings indicated that 6 respondents (1.5%) prepare their lesson plans regularly while majority of the respondents do not. The findings indicated that 30respondents (7.3%) give continuous assessment test weekly while 12 respondents(3%) give continuous assessment test monthly. Continuous assessment tests improve the performance of pupils. This is supported by Fan and Williams (2010).who stated that a, greater pupils involvement leads to teachers having better relationships with pupils and parents, fewer behavioural problems, a reduced workload and a more positive attitude towards teaching. The findings indicated that 25 respondents (6.1%) indicated that English is the language used in communication. 5 respondents(3%) showed that Kiswahili is the language used while 12 respondents(3%) showed that both English and Kiswahili are used in communication. From the study 29 respondents (7%) stated that the discipline of pupils is good while one respondent stated that the discipline is very good. A disciplined school is likely to perform well academically. The study shows that 42 respondents (1.2%) indicated that parents consult teachers about their pupils academic performance. This is supported by Kgaffe (2001) and Tan and Goldberg (2009) state that in this case, teachers who get support and appreciation from parents, broaden their perspectives and increase their sensitivity to varied parent circumstances, gain knowledge and understanding of children’s homes, families and out-of-school activities. Teachers also receive higher ratings from parents, in other words, teachers who work at improving parental participation are considered better teachers than those who remain cut off from the families of the pupils that they teach. A sound parent-child relationship leads to increased contact with the school and to a better understanding of the child’s development and the educational processes involved in schools, which could help parents to become better ‘teachers’ at home, for example, by using more positive forms of reinforcement (Henderson and Mapp, 2002). The study is also supported by Lydiah and Nasongo (2009) who asserts that the concept of performance was a major source of concern to all education stake holders including teachers, researchers, parents, government among others. For instance, parents are concerned about their children’s performance for they believe that good academic results will increase their competitiveness in securing a better career and hence assurance for a better life. According to Symeou (2003) parents, at nearly all levels, are concerned about their children’s education and success and want advice and help from schools on ways of helping their children.

5.4.4 The summary of the findings based on objective four which was to assess the influence of head teachers’ management styles on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools.

The study indicated that12 respondents have attended an administrative course in order to enhance their administrative ability while one respondent indicated that he has never attended any administrative course. The findings indicated that 3 respondents (0.7%) have attended administrative course at degree level,6 respondents have attended training at diploma level and 2 respondents have attended at certificate level. A leader with administrative skill is likely to enhance performance in the school. This agrees with Odhiambo (2009) who stated that the problem of poor performance is deeply rooted in management practices which will have to change if the targets in education sector are to be realized. The study is also supported by Neagley and Evans (1970) who stated that effective supervision of instruction can improve the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom.
He observed that school administration plays a vital role in academic performance as it is concerned with pupils, teachers, rules, regulations and policies that govern the school system. The findings indicated that 347 respondents (84%) their schools scored from 1-100 marks while 42 indicated that the school scored 301-400 marks. The findings indicated that 292 respondents (70.7%) their schools scored from1-100 marks while 42 indicated that the school scored 301-400 marks while 78 respondents (18.9%) scored from 101-200 marks. The study indicated that 159 respondents (38.5%) believed that parents should be role model for the pupils to perform well while 121 respondents (29.3%) indicated that teachers and pupils perform well when motivated .Parents should instill value in their pupils by being role model.

The management should motivate their teachers and pupils for enhanced performance. This is supported by Reche et al., (2013) who stated that other teachers’ factors that affect academic performance in primary schools include motivation, teacher turnover rate, work load, absenteeism, and gender. They further suggested that parents, pupils and teachers benefit from increased parental participation. This is also supported by World Bank Report (1986) which stated that teacher satisfaction is generally related to achievement. Highly motivated teachers are able to concentrate on their work hence enhancing academic performance of their pupils


5.4 Conclusions of the Study

The followings conclusions were made from the study:

  1. It was seen that parental participation influence pupils academic performance this agrees since parental participation, school environment and pupils discipline are known to influence academic performance. Parents have the right to play an active role in their children’s education. This indicates that majority of the respondents are in their middle age and therefore suitable in undertaking productive work which require effective. It is important that parental staff meeting are called and attended regularly since parental participation is not only necessary but it is also one of the most cost-effective means of improving quality in education School management affects performance of public primary schools. Disciplinary cases need to involve parents since good discipline helps to develop desirable student behavior. If a school has effective discipline, the academic performance will be good.
  2. It was concluded that lack of teachers’ commitment in class, lack of parental care and advice, lack of teacher supervision by head-teachers, lack of regular pupils’ supervision by teachers, absenteeism and lack of commitment by pupils and pupils’ behavior in class leads to poor performance. Parents should assist their children in homework. Teachers should prepare their schemes of work, lesson plan regularly and give examinations to pupils since since a greater pupils involvement leads to teachers having better relationships with pupils and parents, fewer behavioral problems, a reduced workload and a more positive attitude towards teaching improve academic performance.
  3. It was concluded that School managers and administrators should undertake administrative courses since a leader with administrative skill is likely to enhance performance in the school because school administration plays a vital role in academic performance as it is concerned with pupils, teachers, rules, regulations and policies that govern the school system.

5.5 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made from the findings of this study

  1. Parents should be involved in the management of academic performance through pupils supervision and management of instructional resource required in schools.
  2. The teachers should be undertake regular pupils’ supervision. Teachers should prepare their schemes of work, lesson plan regularly and give examinations to pupils since a greater pupils involvement leads to teachers having better relationships with pupils and parents. The teacher should be given a workload he or she can handle comfortably and a more positive attitude towards teaching improve academic performance.

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