Factors Militating Against The Teaching Of Mechanical Engineering Craft Practice In Government Technical Colleges

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Factors Militating Against The Teaching Of Mechanical Engineering Craft Practice In Government Technical Colleges


The journey on the path of technical education started as far back as in the 1930’s when the commission on Higher Education proposed that the premises of Yaba Higher College should be converted to a technical institute. In line with this arrangement a student was expected to spend two years in general studied department and three years in an area of specialization like the mechanical engineering craft department. Responses to questions posed by the researcher have shown that mechanical engineering craft practice is laudable but on the other hand, the country appears not prepared for the effective implementation of this programme.

There seems to be no concrete arrangement on who to finance it and no proper orientation was made to acquit teachers with the function of the scheme. The result of the analysis in the preceding chapter shows that inadequacy of teachers, la ck of well equipped workshop, lack of well equipped laboratories and libraries, non-availability of finance and non provision of accessories are the major factors militating against this course. It is hereby recommended that the government should provide equipments, train instructional personnel for the programme, well equipped laboratories and supply relevant and adequate text books to technical colleges.

Table of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problems
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope of the Study
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Research Question
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Finance and Finding
  • 2.2 Adequacy and Qualification of Teaching Staff
  • 2.3 Non Payment of Teachers Salaries
  • 2.4 Availability of Well Equipped Libraries
  • 2.5 Lack of Equipped Workshop
  • 2.6 Availability of well Equipped Laboratories

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the Study
  • 3.2 Area of Study
  • 3.3 Population
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validation of Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection and Analysis

Chapter One

Presentation of Results of Statistical

  • 4.1 Research Question 1
  • 4.2 Research Question 2
  • 4.3 Research Question 3
  • 4.4 Research Question 4

Chapter Five

Discussion on Findings, Implication, Suggestion and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Discussion on Findings
  • 5.2 Educational implication
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestions for Further Study
  • 5.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Questionnaire for Teacher’s and Students.

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Educational from the beginning has been a strong instrument of change towards our economic, social, political and technology development.

In he past years, Nigeria has realized that she can attain self reliance through technological advancement and so has placed serious emphasis on technology education (Eze 1996) technical or vocational education is one of he form of education that is in existence before the introduction of western education in Nigeria. Oshuala (1995:145) stated that technical education is an education designed at upper secondary and lower tertiary levels to prepare middle level personnel and at university level to prepare engineers and technologists for higher management positions.

The advanced Learner’s Dictionary as cited in Okorie (1981:29) referred to technical education as “the phase of education which seeks to help the students acquire special mechanical or manipulative skills required in industrial arts or applied science”. A more detailed definition of technical education was provided by the committee on research and publications of the American Vocational Association which stated that vocational education is “education designed to develop skills, abilities, understanding attitudes, work habits and appreciations encompassing knowledge and information needed by workers to enter and make progress in employment on a useful and productive basis”. They are various skills taught as part of informal education, these are farming, weaving, sculpturing, blacksmithing and so on.

When the missionaries introduced western education, they aimed at teaching Christian ethics, reading, writing, arithmetic and later it was expanded and they introduced, farming, block laying and carpentry as part of western education but these skills were not seriously regarded by pupils and parents as an integral part of western education and the practice virtually died out before the turn of the present century.

The introduction of this course in Government Technical College Enugu State marks the beginning of organized technical and vocational education in Nigeria. It also marked the beginning of mechanical engineering craft practice. To be sincere, the importance of mechanical engineering craft practice cannot be over emphasized because effective technological education serves as a powerful instrument for national development.

The national policy on education (1971) defines technical education as aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skill as well as basic scientific knowledge. Engineering technology is important for the support it gives directly or indirectly to man for her existence ad economical development for comfort. Technology contributes very remarkably to the government revenue and foreign exchange earning. These is however no doubt that the technology is a basic foundation for our welfare sound economic development and technological advancement.

1.2 Statement Of Problems

It is found that the objective for which mechanical engineering craft was introduced or established in our various Government technical colleges more especially in Enugu State is almost dying out in Enugu State. In this course the researcher has taken interest to study the factors that militate against the teaching of mechanical engineering craft practice in Government Technical Colleges in Enugu State.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

This study tends to investigate the factor militating against the teaching of mechanical engineering craft practice in government technical colleges in Enugu State.

Particularly, the study will tend to determine.

  1. The qualification of teachers teaching the course.
  2. The quality of laboratory and workshop equipment
  3. The level of students interest in the craft.
  4. Financing of the course/craft.

1.4 Scope Of The Study

This research work is aimed of investigating the factors militating against the teaching of mechanical engineering craft practice in government technical colleges in Enugu urban and Nsukka. It is limited to how financing, poorly equipped libraries, workshop, classroom, teachers contribute to the factors which militate against the teaching of mechanical engineering government technical colleges in Enugu State.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study helps the government, parents an the entire society to know the importance of mechanical engineering craft practice in Government technical colleges in Enugu State. Also the study will help to achieve the aims and objectives for which the course was introduced, that is “to produce individuals that are technologically equipped to man the various sectors of our economy.

1.6 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study and will be used to tackle the problems.

  1. Does your school have enough facilities for workshops, lab. Work, research and class space?
  2. Are all your technical teachers adequately trained?
  3. How adequately does government fund mechanical engineering craft programmes?
  4. How often do you practice mechanical engineering craft work?

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

This research project was intended for only government technical college in Enugu and Nsukka to limited time interval and financial constraint.

This course mechanical engineering craft is not that old in this state and as a result, there is no enough literature about this craft, for this reason, the research has actually made use of oral discussion, counterview articles and the news media to gather information.

However, the finding and recommendations made here will be of general application to the government technical colleges in the other part of the country that have mechanical engineering department.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

1. Finance:

This is the management of money resources for educational purposes.

2. Funding:

This means supplying stock or sum of money in financial dealings on education.

3. Adequacy and Qualification of Teachers:

Adequacy here means sufficiency, enough and suitably while qualification is an attributes of competency. The variable therefore means sufficient, enough, suitable and competent teachers.

4. Well Equipped Workshop:

A workshop is a building where any work or craft is carried out. A well equipped workshop is therefore a building that has all the requisite materials and facilities necessary for the learner to develop manipulative and constructive skills.

5. Well Equipped Laboratories:

A laboratories is a building or room designed for scientific investigations or experimentation, a place where chemical (or medicine) are prepared. A well equipped laboratory is one that has all the necessary equipment and facilities for experimentation.

6. Well Equipped Library

A library is a collection of books or physic cal accommodation/room in which such a collection of books is housed. A well equipped library therefore means a collection of relevant textbooks as well as educative materials like film slides, records tapes and so on.

This means the research area from which sample is selected “sample” a smaller part of the research area selected to represent the population. Technical college a secondary school offering technical subject aimed at skills and ability development.

Chapter Five

Discussion On Findings, Implication, Suggestions And Conclusion

This chapter discusses the findings made on the research work. It goes on to make some recommendations bringing out the educational implications. Suggestions are also made for further research and finally givers a brief conclusion based on the research work.

5.1 Discussion on Findings

Any effective educational system is a function of the factors in the school environment. These factors in the case of this research include personnel teacher supply, workshop and equipment, laboratories, classrooms and good library facilities.

It is noted that mechanical engineering craft practice is aimed at giving Nigerians the acquisition of functional skill. The vision is that the graduates of the trade would be capable of self employment. But they cannot do this without the services of competent qualified teachers.

Teacher supply

Apart from the fact that various technical colleges sampled showed a fair percentage of qualified teachers, table 1, Item 1, shows 17% of 100 indicates that teachers in mechanical engineering departments of government technical colleges Enugu are not enough. This is confirmed by 83% of the 100 who said that they were not enough. This means that qualified teachers are very much needed. Consequently, the shortage of teachers in this trade would mean a total collapse of the programme.

Equipment / Workshop/ Classroom/ Laboratory

The distinctive feature of the mechanical engineering craft practice is the incorporeities of components like turning, fitting and machining. For effective study of these areas, there is need for well equipped workshops, classroom, laboratories, and equipments.

Unfortunately these things are lacking. With reference to the findings made, some schools have workshop but no equipments while some other have equipment but no workshops. Thus the inadequacy of workshops and equipment has influenced the teaching of the above mentioned course in the Government technical school in Enugu.

Good Libraries

The role of a well equipped libraries cannot be over emphasized. This was why the Government promised in the National policy on education (1981) that all schools would be properly equipped with textbooks to promote sound and effective teaching.

But unfortunately some of the sampled schools do not even have libraries in their school and in schools where they exist, it is poorly equipped. As indicated in table 3 item 4, 81% of the respondents said that their school libraries were highly inadequately equipped. This means that development in good study habit cannot be enhanced in the students unless they have access to books and other reading materials that contain such knowledge which good library services offer.

No matter how elaborate an educational system may be, if it does not include libraries in its working programme, if it does not encourage and instill good reading habits and provides necessary material to consolidate formal learning, it is doomed.

Finance and Funding

The greatest constraint to the effective teaching of mechanical engineering craft practice has been that of financial support. From the findings mad,91% of the respondents opinion confirmed that schools were not given any subsidy for running them Akagha (1990) opined that it is because of lack of finding and poor planning that there is lack of infrastructures likes workshops, laboratories, libraries and even classrooms.

In summary the findings and discussion suggests that finance can influence the teaching of mechanical engineering craft practice in government technical colleges.

5.2 Educational Implications

The implication is that mechanical engineering craft practice will die a natural death without achieving some of its objectives. Moreso the much that has been invested in the scheme can on longer be recovered. The task ahead to all meaningful citizen of this country should be how best to get rid of these problems to ensure the success of the scheme. In other to help prevent these problems, certain suggestions and recommendations are made.

5.3 Recommendation:

In light of the findings above, it has become necessary to make the following recommendations:-

  1. The ministry of Education should mountain intensive public enlightenment campaign on mechanical engineering craft practice since opinion was suggested about teachers getting confused on how to teach the course effectively in the government technical colleges.
  2. The teaching profession should be made incentive the teachers should be given more incentives. Salaries should be paid on time so that the teaching profession should compete fevourably with other professions. Unless this is done the problem of in adequacy of teachers will continue to pose a problem to this trade.
  3. Regarding book shortage and library services, Philanthropic organizations should be called upon to make contributions either in cash or in kind.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Study

I strongly behave that this research has been well conducted and carried out with the resources within the reach of the researcher. Therefore I suggest that the research should be extended to cover more areas in Nigeria as a whole for wider and unsided generalization.

The researcher in this study has carried out a research into the factors militating against the teaching of mechanical engineering craft practice in government technical colleges in Enugu State.

Two technical colleges were involved in the study. Questionnaires were distributed to teachers and students from the sampled population. Data were analyzed and findings were in line with the stated purpose of study.

Mechanical engineering craft practice is profitable enough and geared towards achieving a bright future for our great nation. Though there are some problems inherent in it, but with good planning, management and administration, the problems could be eliminated.

However, the researcher is of the view that success can be achieved if the three ties of government are able to co-operate with each other in the area of implementation.

5.5 Conclusion

It can be concluded that mechanical engineering craft practice is a unique programme which can make individuals self reliant if properly implemented. On the other hand like every other programmes this trades has its problems which if solved, through the co-operation of all, will make it not only smooth sailing, but it will also achieve the aims and objectives behind its adoption.

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