Factors Militating Against The Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies In Secondary Schools
This study focused on the factors militating against the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State. The objective of this study was to determine the problems of teaching and learning social studies in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu, four research questions was formulated to guide the study. The population of the study was sampled and two hundred (200) respondents was selected in the secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire, it was presented in tabular form. The findings revealed that there are inadequacy of qualified social studies teachers. The finding also was that assess to the problem caused by insufficient of teaching materials for effective teaching and learning of social studies, it constitute subject problems that determine if teachers educator are using technology to reform the educational system. Based on the findings, recommendation and suggestion for further study were made and conclusion was subsequently drawn on the research topic.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Scope of the Study
- 1.6 Research Questions
Review Of Related Literature
- 2.1 Theoretical Framework of Social Studies
- 2.2 The concept of Social Studies
- 2.3 Objective of Social Studies
- 2.4 Development of Social Studies in Nigeria
- 2.5 The Importance of Teaching and learning social studies
- 2.6 Lack of Clear Concept of the Nature Scope of Teaching and learning social studies
- 2.7 Summary of the Reviewed Literature
- 3.1 Design of the Study
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Validation of the Instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Collection
- 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Discussion of the Finding
- 5.2 Educational Implication of the Study
- 5.3 Recommendation
- 5.4 Limitation of the Study
- 5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies
- 5.6 Conclusion
- Appendix I
- Appendix II
1.1. Background to the study
The choosing of social studies as a subject in both junior and senior secondary school curriculum has been seen as a choice to be made by the prospective student just to complete the required number of subjects one is expected to choose to meet the minimum standard requirement by the school board. This is because most persons do not choose social studies subject as a course because they desire to make a profession out of it, but just to complete the required number of subjects permitted. In most cases, it is very difficult to see students registering social studies as a course in the final senior secondary school certificate examinations. This trend does not seem to be very healthy for social studies as a course especially as it has been seen as a subject that inculcate the right type of value and social norms in the learners who become committed to the subject.
The need for the examination of factors militating against the teaching and learning of social studies as a subject is justified by the demand for social education principles whose product makes a more responsible citizenship in the communities. Inyang-Abia (1995) in examining the problems of teaching and learning social studies posited that the subject social studies is very important since it helps to prepare young people of our time to be committed to social responsibilities that expands in number and some cases, those positions are suffering from inadequacies and incompetent of reliable citizens to fill such vacancies. The national policy on education (1981) states the objectives of social studies in respect to social life as follows:
- Enable students to imbibe the basic existence of factual information about society with emphasis on where and how it may be discovered, classified, arranged and presentation rather than haphazard memorization.
- To develop respect for the ideals, heritage and institution of the nation and a feeling of brotherhood towards fellow human being everywhere.
- To acquire and develop a capacity to learn certain skills such as listening, speaking, ability to observe, analyze and influence economic and political judgment.
- To learn about the problems and challenge that confront people today in the realm of social living and human relation at different levels, local, state, national and international.
Little or no effort was made in propagating or integrating social studies subject until recently that Social Studies began gaining ground in the various level of education system, this has made it possible as a result of increase in the training of social studies teachers and other were also trained in other related field. The teaching of social studies in our school system has been taught by both trained and quack teachers, making the teaching of the subject is done in a disjointed and uncoordinated manner which makes little sense and meaning to the student. Example History, geography, economic are taught separately by professionals especially in our secondary schools, but social studies has never been taught like that. The new social studies program is integrated in the sense that it is interdisciplinary in form as it draws its content from other social sciences.
Makinde (1979) observed that social studies tries to direct the attention of student to their immediate environment before showing them more of the other world. It begins with the family as the first unit of the community, then school, community, state, nation and the international community. The advantage of this system is that, it promotes greater integration of learning experience by unifying subject matter as it employs systematic correlation of subject around them drawn from the function of living things and their interactions with their environment. Social studies is also organized around the problems and needs of adolescent especially those that demand persona-social understanding as reflected in the social studies syllabus in secondary schools.
The content and subject matter revolves around them like members of the family, responsibilities, obligation, citizenship etc. social studies by its mandate is a course that should introduce the students to make a more responsible and responsive citizenry capable of properly socializing and being a functional member of his immediate environment and the worlds around us. This is the onus of social studies as designed by the designers of the syllabus and curriculum content. If this then is what the subject social studies is designed to achieve, to what extent has this been achieved and how responsive are students in our public and private secondary schools willing to learn and subscribe to the making of social studies a life-long career?
The finder or the researcher sincerely hopes that social studies pupils or student has build up for themselves their initiative, originalities and judgment to become intelligent and use social.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Social studies education in secondary school has been facing many problems, despite the indispensable contribution of the discipline, it has been observed that this subject is confronted with a lot of problems in Awgu Local Government area. Since the main issue in Nigeria is how should we be united, many researcher had come up with the opinion the significance of social studies to Nigeria can be appreciated when we look back to the experience of the two and half years civil war taught all Nigerians the lesson of age long adage which says united we stand, divided we fall unity for strength learnt from the war, it has been translated into all aspect of our life political educational, physical and economical etc.
Mostly due to insufficient qualified social studies teachers, lack the materials for teaching and learning social studies subjects, the nature scope and lack of clear definition of the subject and lack of knowledge of the method of teaching the subject, in the present day Nigeria, a lot of problem had come in between social studies and social subjects, which are physics chemistry because of the importance of science and technology, it make some schools to pay less attention to social studies in the secondary and tertiary level of study, the problem of teaching and learning social studies in secondary school in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu state would be carefully pay attention studies in this work.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the factors militating against the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area. Specifically, there are:
- To find how could instructional material can be include in the teaching of social studies in secondary schools.
- To find the problems involved in teaching of social studies in secondary schools.
- To suggest appropriate solutions to any of the problems in teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools.
- To find out the prospect of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research is of significance to the domain social studies education and as well throw more light on appropriate methodology and choice of instructional material. These aims and objectives however cannot be achieved if there are no sufficient and effective means of running these subjects into our Nigerian institution of learning.
The finding of the study would help to expose the problems and betters ways of teaching and learning social studies, the introduction of social studies subject in Nigerian school curriculum is not without aims and objectives. The rational behind this introduction is to meet the state and nation man power needs.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study was carried out on the factors militating against the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools. This present an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of these different approaches in Awgu Local Government Areas and specifically centered extensively on (16) sixteen secondary schools found in the area. The general aim of the study was to choose, develop and experiment with some evaluation method. It also identifies the consequences and some possible solution to the problems as well as using non-formal educational programme to meet up the needs of the students.
1.6 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
- Are there enough social studies materials like, textbook, maps, globes in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
- What are the problems of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
- What are the solution of the problems of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
- What are prospect of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
This chapter deals with the following:
- Discussion of finding
- Educational implication of the study
- Limitation of the study
- Summary for further studies
Discussion of the Finding
This study succeeded in documenting valuable information concerning the problems of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu state. It also succeeded in brining out problem and finding solution to them, it hoped that this study will indoctrinate the minds of these who are particularly interested in the subjects. Generally from the research and the investigation made through the students and teacher questionnaire, it has been discovered that most the secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area lack appropriate teaching materials like textbook, ruler for pointer, field trip etc.
It is not encouraging that a subject like social studies that plays an important role in the community development should be taught with inappropriate teaching materials. In the five schools sample, majority of them agreed that lack of learning materials constitute to the problem of teaching and learning social studies subject. From the finding it has been also discovered that the methods used by the teachers in teaching the subject in schools were inadequate, for example in some schools sampled, some teachers use mainly lecture method in teaching the pupils neglecting the discussion method and role play method that will make them to understand it better and practically the subject. However, it is clear that teaching of social studies has many problems but it is good to point out that these problems are not insurmountable.
Educational Implication of the Study
The educational implication is to find out if there are inadequacy of qualified social studies teacher in secondary school in Awgu Local Government Area. The purpose was to determine of teacher educator are using technology to reform the student. To assess the problem caused by insufficient teaching materials for effective teaching and learning social studies and to suggest various way of solving those problems by the educators.
This project was provided that there are problems of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools. Based on the assumption and the topic I recommended for the improvement on the following.
- Social studies should be made compulsory subject at all level of education in Nigeria.
- Lectures and teachers of the subject should endeavor to advertise the study in the television and emphasis it important to enable those who have no or little knowledge of the subject to know why it is necessary that the subject should be made mandatory at all levels of education in the country.
- Teachers of the subject should be properly mined in this field of study and further be made integer constant refresher course and seminars to up date their knowledge of the study.
- Ministry of education and government should look into social studies curriculum and provide more teaching material for the teacher and the learners.
- Parent and guidance should encourage their children on the importance of studying of social studies.
Limitation of the Study
This project was limited to five schools out of sixteen secondary schools as estimated by the researcher in Awgu Local Government Area. These five schools are listed below.
- Awguboys secondary school.
- Awgu urban secondary school.
- Boys secondary schools Mgbowo.
- Girls high secondary school Mgbowo.
- Community secondary school Ituku.
The researcher limitation of the study was basically on these five listed schools to know the problem of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools and how to over come the problem or weaknesses.
Suggestion for Further Studies
This study is on the problem of teaching and learning social studies in Awgu Local Government Area. To carry out the research the study was broken in to five chapters. In chapter one new have background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study and research question all these are posed to examine the problems of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area. The research question include:
- Are there enough social studies materials like textbook, ruler for pointer, taking student for field trip and school library in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
- What are the problem of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
- What are the solution of the problems of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
- What are the prospect of teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools in Awgu Local Government Area?
In extensive review of literature in chapter two provided with the theoretical framework of social studies, concept of social studies, objective of social studies, development of social studies in Nigerian, importance of social studies, lack of clear concept of the nature scope of social studies and finally the summary of review literature which provided information that helped in building of the review of related literature. In chapter three treated the design of the study, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, method of data collection and method analysis. For the sample and sampling techniques two hundred persons were used which includes both students and teachers and five secondary schools were used in Awgu Local Government Area. In chapter four deals with data analysis and data presentation of result, it is presented in a table form and the research question are presented in each of the question item.
Finally the chapter five which contain the discussion of the finding, educational implication of the study, recommendations, limitation of the study, suggestion for further studies and conclusion which point that social studies teachers should establish an organization that will coordinate the teachers.
The entire project is here to prove one things that social studies has a problem in teaching and learning in the secondary schools, a comprehensive study of the project shows actually that at all levels of education social studies is vital. The introduction of the subject has been defined through different authors. But in general is known as a programme of instruction which a society uses it deals, knowledge, skill attitude and action it consider important concerning the relationship and things we have with each others. Therefore it indicate unequivocally that the introduction of social studies in to the educational curriculum of school in the country were ideas.
The study has brought most of the problem affecting the teaching of social studies, some of these problem are lack of relevant instructional material and it is clear that with good planning, hard work that is combined effects of all, a lot will be achieved in solving the problems and social studies teachers should establish organization that will coordinate the teachers.
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