Factors Militating Against The Students Enrolment In Adult Education Programme In Rivers State University
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Approval page
- Table of Contents
- List of Table
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Definitions of Operational Terms
Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 Concept of adult education
- 2.2 Socio-cultural gender roles and student enrolment in Adult education programmes
- 2.3 Student attitudes and enrolment in Adult education programmes
- 2.4 Teaching and learning resources and student enrolment in Adult education programmes
- 2.5 Student economic background and enrolment in Adult education programmes
- 2.6 Theoretical Framework
- 2.7 Conceptual Framework
- 2.8 Summary of reviewed literature
- 3.1 Design of the Study
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Research Instrument
- 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.6 Administration of the instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Analyses
Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Findings
- 4.1 Analyses of Research Questions
- 4.2 Summary of Major Findings
- 4.3 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
1.1 Background to the Study
According to Goldberg (2010), education is very paramount in world development and human rights. Its value lies in what precedes literacy: the words that are the expression of human thought. Henschke (2011) posits that its importance lies equally in what can then be done with the written word, which conveys thought across time and across space and makes the reader a “co- author” and active interpreter of the text. Rogers (1999), asserts that an oral society relies on memory to transmit its history, literature, laws, or music, whereas the written word allows infinite possibilities of transmission and therefore of active participation in communication. These possibilities are what make the goal of universal literacy so important. (Frederico, 2002). For adult learners in Europe and other developed countries, adult basic education is aimed at learners who have dropped out of school before acquiring adequate literacy and numeracy skills and for those learners who have never attended school nor received formal educational training.
According to Udofia(2019) there are three major kinds of adult education in Nigeria today, they are; traditional adult education, formal adult education, and Islamic adult education. Because it is the form of adult education most promoted by the government, formal adult education is the most dominant approach found in Nigeria.
Mboneko Munyaga (1986) says that long is gone the days when adult literacy campaigns used to form the big conversation at almost every village meeting and political rallies in Tanzania. Also, there were massive school dropouts and failure to enroll for basic primary education by children of the right school going age. All these factors contributed to the growing chasm between the literate and society’s ignorant lot. However, two innovative approaches to adult learning changed all that. They aimed at reducing donor dependence in favour of enhanced sustainability and greater sense of community ownership of adult learning programmes.
In Africa, Nigeria inclusive, countries have developed their own methods to train and transmit knowledge to upcoming generations. Johannes (2010) commented that there is no society that does not educate its own population, either through indigenous or modern education.
Immense regional differences in literacy rates remain throughout Nigeria particularly in areas with more remote and impoverished populations, (Richmond, Robinson & Sachs-Israel 2008). The Nigeria Country Team (2008) reported that, while one state in Nigeria has a literacy rate as high as 87%, some other districts reported roughly 8.1% literacy rates. As the twenty-first century continues to progress, adult literacy educators in all parts of the world must seek to make literacy an accessible tool capable of both strengthening and transforming the society into which it is being introduced.
Blake & Blake (2002) recognize that the pursuit of literacy is so complex and prone to change based on circumstances that a distinct definition would be impractical. They noted that literacy programs are comprised of a blending of the academic and functional skills that vary depending upon the needs and developments of the society. Defining literacy as merely the ability to read and write underappreciated the intricacy of a field that encompasses a vast body of knowledge and skills. UNESCO‟s (2003) expert meeting defined literacy as: The ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve his or her goals, develop his or her knowledge and potential and participate fully in community and wider society. As literacy students gain access to basic literacy skills, such as reading and writing, the opportunity allows them to benefit from the information in the context of their society. Once the door of literacy has been opened for an individual, the extent and purpose to which it is used varies considerably.
The complex nature of literacy instruction implies that literacy must manifest itself differently as it adapts to various contexts. Barton and Hamilton (1998) wrote extensively on how literacy is most appropriately placed within the social context of the community and requires the assumption of multiple literacies to address the needs of society. When educators recognize the relationship that literacy has within the cultural context of a program, it is the first step in gaining a better knowledge of how to improve and build instruction; therefore, the recognition of a broad understanding of functions of literacy should not be overlooked. Bartlett (2008) notes that educators now recognize literacy as inextricably tied to its specific cultural location. Modifying the perception of literacy in undeveloped regions like Northeast Nigeria provides motivation to educators and the community to reinvigorate literacy programs through improving literacy practices.
Education has characteristically manifested its political implications in its contributions to citizenship. Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa, is known to have said, “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” (Quote of the Day, 2012) and there have been multiple social theorists that have purported the same idea. Most recently Ntiri (2009) writes that Paolo Freire has been the champion of encouraging political advancement through education. Despite a particularly Marxist perspective in his politics, Friere‟s contribution must be considered because of his significant focus on grassroots efforts to increase the number of literate adults throughout the world. Giroux (1987) notes that Friere used literacy explicitly as a tool for the advancement of social freedoms and the individuals “voice”.
Freire & Macedo (1987) say at one point that “it is impossible to…understand literacy…by divorcing the reading of the word from reading of the world”. Although literacy programs are not always designed explicitly to engender political empowerment, they can gain support and organization from politicians who desire to see communities develop.
South Africa (SA) has an illiteracy rate of 14.3% which compared to America‟s 3%, is relatively high. This is incongruous with the fact that SA is a fast developing country. The ideal situation would be for such a country to have a high literacy rate in order to complement the growing economy. A third of the workforce of City Power has had either little or no education. This is mainly because of the past imbalances in education under apartheid SA.
Although Nigeria’s progress in primary education of its people has been excellent, there remains a large adult population that is illiterate and much more adults who have not had the opportunity to progress to a point in school that they desire.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria like many African countries has been the recipient of an abundance of international intervention for adult literacy. In the „50s UNESCO began what has become a primary role in the education of adults from the most fundamental to complex (Jefferies, 1967). Through their support of ventures like the Literacy Decade, better assessment organizations and contributions to governmental policy making, UNESCO has played a huge role in motivating the government and the people of Nigeria (Richmond, Robinson & Sachs- Israel, 2008). Non-formal education is a growing field of influence in the education of adults but little data exists because of the informal nature of such projects (Bunyi, 2006).
In 2006, the estimated population of Rivers State was 5,198,716, out of this a good percentage of the adult population enrolled in adult school programs. When the first massive literacy program was launched in 1982 by SheuShagari, there was excitement and many believed this literacy program would have far reaching impacts and lead to better understanding of problems faced by learning of new ideas, acquisition of knowledge, increased skills and self-confidence. There is evidence that those who benefited from the literacy program have great gains in socio-economic development thus providing proof of the importance of adult literacy. As literacy thrived in Nigeria, enrolment was initially high (415,074) but over the years there was general decline in participation, by 2003 only 93,000 were enrolled against a population of 4.2 million illiterate adults (Aderinoye, 2007).
Based on the above statistics there is need to carry out a research to find out if the current continuous drop of enrolment of adult learners may have been as a result of socio- cultural gender roles, attitudes of learners or teaching and learning resources since these factors have not been addressed extensively in previous studies.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to establish the factors militating against the students’ enrolment in adult education programmes in Rivers State University.
1.4 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions:
- To what extent does socio-cultural gender influence enrolment of students in adult education programmes in Rivers State University?
- To what extent do learner attitudes influence students’ enrolment in adult education programmes Rivers State University?
- To what extent do lack of teaching and learning resources used in adult education influence students’ in adult education programmes in Rivers State University?
- To what extent do learner economic backgrounds influence students’ enrolment in adult education programmes Rivers State University?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between socio- cultural gender roles and the enrolment of students in adult education programmes in Rivers State University.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between learner attitudes and enrolment of students in adult education programmes Rivers State University.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between teaching and learning resources used in adult education influence students’ in adult education programmes in Rivers State University?
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between learner economic backgrounds influencingstudents’ enrolment in adult education programmes Rivers State University?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study are hoped to help training facilitators gain insight into learning principles that underpin learning motivation and retention strategies. In addition, findings from this study will be useful to facilitators involved in the planning and implementation of Adult learning programmes and in skills development. It is hoped that the research will encourage other organizations to initiate workplace learning and training programmes in order to better equip and develop their employees and to inspire aspirant Adult learners to join these developmental programmes.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study was carried out in Rivers State, South South Nigeria on the Period 2021. The area was selected because despite its urban and cosmopolitan status, it has registered minimal students in adult education programmes in the State.
1.8 Limitation / Delimitation of the Study
The study was limited by the following factors. The researcher had inadequate time to carry out the research given that the researcher was attending to her school work at the same time. The respondents were shy about giving information thinking it was for commercial purposes but they were assured of confidentiality. Lastly some respondents were not willing to cooperate during the study period but the researcher was patient and made several trips to collect the questionnaires.
1.9 Definition of Operational Terms
A circumstance, fact, or influence that contribute to a result.
Means a conclusive factor preventing the growth of something
Being in opposition in resistance to or defense from.
Is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment at desired field.
Number of people registered or the population found in learning set up.
Is education giving to matured men and women who were not able to finish the formal education due to some reasons to upgrade their skills and knowledge in the face of changing technology.
Is a set of related measures of activities within a particular long term aim.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter the conclusion and recommendations based on the findings of the study.
Adult education as the entire body of ongoing learning processes, formal or otherwise, whereby people regarded as adults by society to which they belong develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge and improve their technical or professional qualification or turn then in a new direction to meet their own needs and those of the society (UNESCO 2006).While the important of adult education programme is immense, there are a range of challenges that adult learners face, adult education centers had different challenges allocated in different parts of the world. The study highlighted four factors militating against the enrolment of student in Adult programmes this factor include socio-culture,learners attitude teaching and learning resources and economic factors as indicated in the study has been the main determinant factors when it comes to learners enrolment in adult education programme. On the strength of the findings it was concluded that the condition of physical facilities and the availability of teaching and learning resources is wanting, the poor state of the furniture and lack of adequate teaching and learning resources, and funding of the programme significantly affected the recruitment and enrolment of adult learners in adult education programme.
Educating adults differs from educating children in several ways. One of the most important differences is that adult have accumulated knowledge and experience that can add to or hinder the learning experience, another difference is that adult education is voluntary therefore; the participant are generally better motivated is implies that if the factors militating against student enrolment in adult education programmes is not well tackled it can discourage the growth of the programme. Furthermore adult education programme promote worker training, increase literacy level towards change and enhance increase in minimum knowledge required.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendation were made
- The government should allocate more funds to the Directorate of Adult education for them to be able to purchase and provide enough instructional resources in the learning centers. This could encourage learners more to enroll especially those who cannot afford to buy their own resources for learning.
- To supplement government efforts communities and NGOs and other willing sponsors should be encourage building adult education centers and equipping them.
- Communities should change their attitude towards adult education. This can be achieved through embracing the notion of lifelong learning and educating the public through the mass media on the importance of being learning communities is crucial.
- The masses should be sensitized on the value of education at all levels this would enable them to know the social and economic benefits of education at all ages.
- Communities should encourage and avoid or ignore cultural beliefs and practices where are outdated yet interfere with educational activities.
- Family members should support and encourage any adult who want to enroll back to school. Because the new skill and knowledge that the learner again in cause of the study can be useful in expansion of the family status or level and it outcome can become beneficial to the community and society at large.
5.4 Suggestion for further research question
- Similar study could be carried out in other universities in Rivers State
- Factors motivating student in enrolment in adult education programme in rivers state university
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