Factors Militating Against The Introduction Of Computer Education In Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Five Schools In Chikun Local Government Area Of Kaduna State)

Project and Seminar Material for Economics

Factors Militating Against The Introduction Of Computer Education In Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Five Schools In Chikun Local Government Area Of Kaduna State)


Abstract


The current study was undertaken in order to establish the factors militating against the introduction of computer education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state. The study adopted the descriptive survey design for it was concerned with the gathering of people`s perceptions on the factors hindering the implementation of computer education. The population for the study was made up of 100 respondents from five different private secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Out of these 100 respondents only 85 made it into the sample. Data were gathered through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The use of these two Instruments enabled data triangulation thus enhancing data validity and reliability. Major findings of the study reveal that there were no budgets for computer procurement in the majority of schools. Funds were inadequate for computer procurement as central government and the school management did not avail finances for computer procurement. However, stakeholders were willing to contribute towards the purchase of computers for computer education. Results also show that there were no teachers qualified to teach computers in schools. Those teachers who offered the subject were not willing to teach the subject mostly likely due to shortages in equipment and the unavailability of in-service computer training programmes. On a positive note, heads of schools and students had a positive attitude towards computer education. The study recommended that school management should source for computers from organizations such as banks. Schools through the school management should charge levies for computer education and government should make it compulsory for schools to offer computer education through policy statements. Teacher training institutions should incorporate computer education into their curriculum. Teachers should be offered administrative and technical support through in-service training programmes. Lastly, communities should be conscientised on the importance of computer education to inculcate in them a paradigm shift.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Declaration
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Research questions
  • 1.6 Scope of the study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introductions
  • 2.2 Brief History Computer Education in Nigeria
  • 2.3 The Need for computer education in Nigerian Secondary schools
  • 2.4 ICT Application in Nigerian Secondary Schools
  • 2.5 Factors militating against the introduction of computer education in secondary schools
  • 2.5.1 The state and availability of resources in the schools
  • 2.5.2 Budgetary and funding constraints militating against computer education in schools
  • 2.5.3 Availability of training manpower to teach the subject in the schools
  • 2.5.4 Attitudes of schools community towards the teaching and learning of computers in schools
  • 2.5.5 Availability of time
  • 2.6 Remedies to make sure computer education is fully implemented in schools
  • 2.7 Technical support
  • 2.8 Teacher in-service

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Restatement of the research questions
  • 3.3 Research Design
  • 3.4 Area of study
  • 3.5 Population of the study
  • 3.6 Instruments of data collection
  • 3.7 Validation of instrument
  • 3.8 Reliability of the instrument
  • 3.9 Procedure for data collection
  • 3.10 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Analysis on research question
  • 4.3 Research Question 1
  • 4.4 Research Question 2
  • 4.4 Research Question 3
  • 4.5 Research Question 4
  • 4.6 Research Question 5
  • 4.7 Research Question 6

Chapter Five:

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.0 Introduction
  • 5.1 Re-statement of the Problem
  • 5.2 Summary of procedures
  • 5.3 Summary of Major findings
  • 5.4 Discussing of findings
  • 5.4.1 Research Questions 1
  • 5.4.2 Research question 2
  • 5.4.3 Research Question 3
  • 5.4.4 Research Question 4
  • 5.4.5 Research Question 5
  • 5.4.6 Research Question 6
  • 5.5 Implication of the study for education and learning
  • 5.6 Conclusion
  • 5.7 Recommendation
  • 5.8 Suggestions for further study
  • References
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

In the globalised world, technology has become the in-thing as countries and/or organizations devise means of gaining a competitive edge over the others. In view of this, education systems in individual countries need to be tailor-made to suit this Endeavour. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has played a major role in linking business and individuals far apart in terms of geographical distance. Transactions are being carried out in or outside offices, twenty-four hours a day. In pursuit of the objectives to ensure that the country advances its technology base, Nigeria, through the Ministry of Education, has introduced computer Education in the school curriculum. However, the introduction of computer education has failed to take off in the majority of schools, primary and secondary, rural and urban. Given this scenario, it is necessary for this study to look into factors militating against the implementation of computer education in secondary schools.

In view of the fact that secondary schools are immediate sources of manpower for industry and commerce, it is hoped that ICT literacy could have been taught to students in preparation for employment. This however, has not been the case for the majority of secondary school graduates who have gone job seeking without any knowledge of computers despite their being a prerequisite for employment in many institutions.


1.1 Background to the Study

Computer education is of paramount importance to national development and it is on this premise that the government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in the education system from primary through to tertiary institutions. The Ministry of Education stipulates that schools should offer technical and vocational subjects to students. At secondary school, a student should enroll for two a technical/vocational subject among which is Computer Studies. It against this background that the government went about distributing computer equipment in schools across the country. Complementing these efforts, private companies donated and distributed computers to various schools in the state and the country.

However, despite such efforts document analysis carried out shows that the majority of schools are not offering the subject. This has been the situation prevailing even in the schools which received the donations of computer packages, for free. This, therefore, has prompted this current research study to find out why computer studies are not being undertaken in the majority of schools despite the significance of the subject to national development and in the face of support from the political and corporate leadership. The study therefore aimed at unearthing those problems hindering the implementation of computer studies in the school curriculum in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government area of Kaduna state.

According to the National Policy on Computer Education (NPCE, 1988), the main aims and objectives of computer literacy and education in schools are considered important bearing in mind the fact that computer studies aid in National Development.

The objectives of computer studies in schools include:

  1. The development of rudimentary knowledge about information system. Information process techniques and the role of computer in this regard.
  2. To impart the knowledge about the use of computer and its applications in everyday life and to develop in the learner an appreciation of computer work.
  3. To develop an understanding of the basic principles of operating a computer and expose learners to hands of experience using programmes packages which are relevant to the interest of the pupils on teaching aids to different subject.
  4. Creating an understanding of the concept of programming language and their application through problems solving methods and techniques as they apply to the programme design, coding and documentation.
  5. To develop reasonable level of competence in ICT applications that will engender entrepreneurial skills.

As a result of the above listed aims and objectives, there is need for the full implementation of computer studies in all levels of Education, most especially at Secondary school level.

Despite the tremendous importance of computer studies, government, schools, pupils and teachers attitude have shown that much is expected to be done to position it well. Most pupils believe that computer study is not a core subject and so do not bother to give it keen attention. Many schools do not place computer studies within the favorable perception, interest and vocational choice of majority of learners as most of them tend to consider it as unnecessary and less important.

There is an increasing demand for a work force in Nigeria in area of technological development and self-reliance; this demand cannot be met without full implementation of Computer Education in schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Due to the fact that computer education has failed to take off in the majority of schools, fears are that Technological development may be a pipe dream for the country. Given this scenario, it is necessary for this Study to look into factors militating against the introduction of computer education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government area of Kaduna state. The question to be answered by this current study is: What factors have impeded the implementation of computer Education in schools?


1.3 Purpose of the Study

Through this study, Factors militating against the introduction of computer Education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state would be identified, specifically the study will:

  1. Identity the state and availability of computer resources in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.
  2. Identify if there any budgetary and funding constraints militating against computer education in Secondary schools in Chikun Government Area.
  3. Identify if there are trained manpower to teach the subject in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.
  4. Identify the attitude of the school community towards the teaching and learning of computers in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.
  5. Identify the time adequate for the computer lessons to be incorporated on the timetable?
  6. Identify the remedies that can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in schools?

1.4 Significance of the Study

When the Factors militating against the introduction of computer Education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state are identified and the remedies that can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in schools are suggested, the Chikun Local Government Authority may adopt and integrate such remedies for the full implementation of computer Education in all the schools under its control. The private secondary schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area could also adopt the remedies suggested.

Teachers in Secondary schools in Kaduna State may be trained in the right direction so as to use the remedies suggested to make sure Computer Education is fully implemented in schools.


1.5 Research Questions

  1. In an attempt to answer the major research question, the following sub problems stood as research questions.
  2. 2. What is the state and availability of computer resources in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  3. Are there any budgetary and funding constraints militating against computer education in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  4. Are there trained manpower to teach the subject in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  5. What is the attitude of the school community towards the teaching and learning of computers in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  6. Is time adequate for the computer lessons to be incorporated on the timetable in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?
  7. What remedies can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study would identify the Factors militating against the introduction of computer Education in secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state and also enumerate the remedies that can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.


Chapter Five


Summary, Discussion, Finding and Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

In this chapter, we deal with the summary, discussion of the findings and recommendations of the study. The major findings with regards to the research questions were discussed; suggestion and recommendations for further studies were also made.

A brief summary of the whole study was made while conclusions were drawn from the study.


5.1 Re-Statement of the Problem

The entire study focused on the Factors militating against the introduction of Computer Education; A Case study of five secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state.

Through this Study, it was identified that Computer Education is very important for the Socio-Economic development of a Nation. Any Nation aspiring to grow must embrace Computer Education right from the primary School Level through Secondary to Tertiary Level.


5.2 Summary of Procedures

The procedure used for this study was to survey the state and the availability of computer resources, budgetary constraints militating against computer education, availability of trained manpower to teach computer, attitude of school Community and to find out the remedies to make sure Computer Education is fully implemented in schools.

The Methodology adopted in carrying out the study was highlighted, the population and sample drawn was stated and the questionnaire was designed for teachers and students of five different Secondary schools in Sabon Tasha Education Division in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

The data gathered were analyzed according to their demographic characteristics on one hand and according to the research question on the other: personal data were analyzed using tables and percentages while the statistics was used to analyze the research questions.


5.3 Summary of Major Findings

From the results obtained in the study the following challenges have impeded the implementation of computer education in schools:

  1. There are no budgets for computer education in most schools and were funds exists these are inadequate or computer procurement as all the respondents agreed.
  2. Central government as well as the School Managements do not avail funds for computer procurement in most cases.
  3. The majority of teachers and parents have a negative attitude towards computer education there are no teachers qualified and trained to teach computers in the schools.
  4. The few teachers available are not willing to teach the computer as a subject in the schools and computer teachers were inadequate considering the student enrolment.
  5. There is a negligible number of in-service computer training programmes for teachers in the schools.
  6. Phobia of computers is another significant factor for resenting the subject.
  7. Stakeholders are unwilling to have computer education succeed since they have not given any meaningful support to the implementation of the subject.

5.4 Discussion of Findings

5.4.1 Research Question 1
On the question “What is the state and availability of computer resources in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?”

The response gathered showed that the majority of Schools did not have Computer Laboratories. Where the computers were available, they were not functional. Where the computers were functional and available, only few of these were adequate for the students. The majority of these computers were inadequate for the student numbers. As for the availability 0f computer accessories in the labs, majority of the Schools did not have. Computer literature was available in form of books only for a few respondents, while a large number indicated the non-existence of these books.

5.4.2 Research Question 2
On the question “Are there any budgetary and funding constraints militating against computer education in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?”

The responses gathered indicated that there were no budgets for computer procurement in the schools. According to the majority of the respondents, funds in the schools were inadequate for computer procurement as all the respondents, indicated that central government did not avail funds for computer procurement. The School Management as well did not avail funds for the procurement of computers. In most of the cases, funds for computer accessories were not available. However, on a positive note, according to a great number of respondents, parents and other stakeholders were willing to contribute towards the purchase of computers for computer education. Notably, their willingness could only be a wish since most school communities in Nigeria are predominantly poor and living below the poverty datum line. Computer purchases could therefore be a luxury bearing in mind that such communities have struggled to raise funds for the basic educational requirements.

5.4.3 Research Question 3
On the question “Are there trained manpower to teach the subject in the Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?”

The responses gathered indicated that the majority acknowledged that there were no teachers to teach computers in the schools. Only few stated that teachers were available. However, where the teachers were available, the majority of the respondents, indicated that the teachers were not qualified to teach computer education with a minority stating otherwise. Newhouse (1995) concurs when he identifies teachers’ lack of computer literacy as being an obstacle to their using computer education implementation in schools. Ya`acob et al (2005) and So and Swatman (2006) also concur by remarking that teachers` readiness for ICT is a significant factor the attempt to embrace on modern technology in the schools. In concurrence, Bukaliya and Mubika (2011) noted that the qualifications of the majority of the teachers are far from being satisfactory due to lack of exposure to college curriculum that does not cater for ICT training. The teachers have poor practical skills in ICT usage since the majority of them could not even use the basic software in computers for the delivery of their lessons and indications are that the teachers lack the necessary skills and knowledge of computers in basic software usage. This obviously militated against the implementation of computer education in schools.

A majority of respondent stated that teachers were not willing to teach the computer as a subject in the school. The present findings concur with those by Seidman (1996) who found out that subject matter teachers were reluctant to consider the implementation of computers in teaching due to their limited experience with software and hardware, and the uneasiness about changing their habits and techniques. Asked if there were any in-service computer training programmes for teachers in the schools, few said yes against a majority who indicated otherwise. The majority of teachers with computer literacy had done so through their own initiatives with the intention of securing better paying jobs in the private sector. Lau and Sim (2008) and Mintz (1997) teachers needed training on a continuous basis and successful computer education implementation was based on the professional development for teacher. This finding also goes to show a bleak picture for computer education in the School where all the respondents remarked that computer teachers were inadequate considering the student enrolment, a factor most likely to impede the implementation of the subject in the country`s education system.

5.4.4 Research Question 4
On the question “What is the attitude of the school community towards the teaching and learning of computers in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area Kaduna of State?”

The response gathered showed that the majority of respondents indicated that heads of schools had a positive attitude towards computer education while very few thought otherwise. This is in concurrence with the findings by Madden (1989) and Krysa (1998) who established that some of the principals have supported labs by ensuring that money was made available for hardware and software. According to the majority of the respondents, teachers had a negative attitude towards computer education unlike the views expressed by a minority of the respondents who felt teachers had a positive attitude towards computer education. Newhouse (1995) also established the same in a research that revealed that a majority of the teachers did not believe that computers had a useful educational objective and that they were non essential and supplemental to their teaching and classrooms, hence they had a negative attitude towards computers. Interview results show that the majority of the teachers indicated phobia for computers as a reason for resenting the subject. Students had a positive attitude towards computer education according to an overwhelming majority. Probed further to substantiate this claim, both parents and teachers admitted that students showed the desire to embrace computer education through their use of cellular phones and regular visits to internet cafes, particularly so for those in urban, peri-urban and growth points. Out of the 85 respondents, only 20 thought parents had positive attitude towards computer education. Majority of) indicated that all stakeholders had not given any meaningful support to the implementation of the subject. Findings by Bukaliya and Mubika (2011) however, show that the responsibility for ICT programme development for teachers should extend to all stakeholders and should not be limited to the Ministry of Education or Government at large.

5.4.5. Research Question 5
On the question “ Is time adequate for the computer lessons to be incorporated on the timetable in Secondary schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area?”

The response gathered showed that computer education was timetabled at most of the schools that offered the subject as an examinable course . Asked if computer education was accorded the same number of hours per week as other subjects, a minority agreed whereas t he majority of the respondent thought otherwise. Few agreed that computer timetabling was given priority in the school as other subjects but the majority disagreed. Roszell (1995) concurs by suggesting that the time factor surrounding the implementation process is viewed by teachers as being a major barrier in the implementation of computer education in schools.

5.4.6. Research Question 6
On the question “ What are the remedies that can be put in place to make sure computer education is fully implemented in Secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area?”

The response gathered showed that A majority of respondent thought that sourcing for funds and computers from well-wishers would contribute significantly to the implementation of computer education in schools. According to 64%, the School management should charge levies for computer education while 76% suggested that government should make it compulsory for schools to offer computer education through policy statements that should be enforced. STEPS (2007) concurs with the findings of the present study by remarking that the education policy should be tailor-made to increase, improve and diversify teacher education and support and attempts should also be made to build computer education into general educational policies. According to majority, government should provide funding to schools for computer education. Invigorating the training of manpower to teach computers in schools was suggested by an overwhelming majority. According to 88%, teacher education institutions must incorporate computer education into their curriculum. Currently, computer education is not among the curricula for teacher training colleges though in some isolated cases computer short courses are offered to interested students by the colleges. Majority of the respondents suggested that teacher support through in-service for computer education teachers should be regularized whereas only a few thought that communities should be conscientised on the importance of computer education, with the hope of challenging them towards a paradigm shift. 29% suggested that efforts must be made to motivate the school community into accepting computers as a valuable piece of technology (Drury, 1995) whilst 75% were of the idea that administrative support should be given by heads who should make sure gadgets for computer education are available. This is in agreement with the findings by Krysa (1998) who identifies administrative support as enabling successful implementation of computer education in the school system. Lack of support by administrators is identified as a significant barrier toward implementation of computers in classrooms (Morton 1997; Brand 1998).


5.5 Implication of the Study for Education and Learning.

The implications of the findings of this study are as follows;

For an effective implementation of Computer Education in Secondary Schools, the Government, Schools Management, Teachers, students and all the stakeholders in Education all have roles to play in achieving this desired goal.

The Government should make it compulsory for schools to offer computer education through policy statements that should be enforced. Government should provide funding to schools for computer procurement and invigorate the training of manpower to teach Computers Education in schools. Teacher training institutions should incorporate computer education into their curriculum.

Teachers should be offered administrative and technical support through in-service training programmes.
School Management should source for funds and computers from well-wishers. The Schools through the School Management should charge levies for computer education.

Communities should be conscientised on the importance of computer education, with the hope of challenging them towards a paradigm shift.

Authorities should motivate both the school and the local communities into accepting computers as a valuable piece of technology.

Administrative and technical support should be given by heads that should make sure gadgets for computer education are available.

The Teacher on their own part must development keen interest in Computer Education because it has a useful educational objective and that it is essential and supplemental to their teaching and classrooms.


5.6 Conclusion

The results of the current study paint a very gloomy picture of computer education in schools in Chikun Local Government area. Results showed that only few secondary schools in the Local Government Area are offering computer education in their schools and of these, only a very minute number are offering computer studies as an examinable subject at Ordinary level.

From the results obtained in the study the following challenges have impeded the implementation of computer education in Secondary schools:

  1. There are no budgets for computer education in most schools and were funds exists these are inadequate for computer procurement.
  2. Central government as well as the School Management do not avail funds for computer procurement in most cases.
  3. The majority of teachers and parents have a negative attitude towards computer education there are no teachers qualified and trained to teach computers in the schools.
  4. The few teachers available are not willing to teach the computer as a subject in the schools and computer teachers were inadequate considering the student enrolment
  5. There is a negligible number of in-service computer training programmes for teachers in the schools.
  6. Phobia of computers is another significant factor for resenting the subject.
  7. Stakeholders are unwilling to have computer education succeed since they have not given any meaningful support to the implementation of the subject.

5.7 Recommendations

From the above conclusions the following recommendations are made:

  1. School Management should source for funds and computers from well-wishers.
  2. Schools through the School Management should charge levies for computer education.
  3. Government should make it compulsory for schools to offer computer education through policy statements that should be enforced.
  4. Government should provide funding to schools for computer procurement and invigorate the training of manpower to teach computers in schools.
  5. Teacher training institutions should incorporate computer education into their curriculum.
  6. Teachers should be offered administrative and technical support through in-service training programmes.
  7. Communities should be conscientised on the importance of computer education, with the hope of challenging them towards a paradigm shift.
  8. Authorities should motivate both the school and the local communities into accepting computers as a valuable piece of technology.
  9. Administrative and technical support should be given by heads that should make sure gadgets for computer education are available.

5.8 Suggestions for Further Study

In spite of the comprehensive nature of the work, it should be noted that it was restricted to just five private secondary Schools in sabon Tasha Education Division in Chikun Local Government area of Kaduna State. This study can also be carried out in all private and public secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state. Also the Study can be carried out in both private and public secondary schools in whole Kaduna state at large.
The different strategies for the effective teaching of Computer Studies can also be investigated.


How To Get The Complete Material For Factors Militating Against The Introduction Of Computer Education In Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Five Schools In Chikun Local Government Area Of Kaduna State)


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The Complete Material will be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make a Mobile Transfer or POS Payment of ₦3,000 to any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current
Zenith BankAccount No.: 1225513212
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 80 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  • Payment Details
  • Email Address 
  • Factors Militating Against The Introduction Of Computer Education In Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Five Schools In Chikun Local Government Area Of Kaduna State)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your Email Address After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Factors Militating Against The Introduction Of Computer Education In Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Five Schools In Chikun Local Government Area Of Kaduna State)” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Factors Militating Against The Introduction Of Computer Education In Secondary Schools (A Case Study Of Five Schools In Chikun Local Government Area Of Kaduna State)” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.