Factors Militating Against Human Resources Development

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Factors Militating Against Human Resources Development


Abstract


The success of any enterprise depends largely on the effectiveness of its human resources in their work. The need for reappraising the manpower training and development in our organization is apparent. Therefore, this research work tried to identify the problems affecting human resources development with a view to developing means for improving effectiveness in human resource management the statement of the problem the introduction limitation, significance and objective of the study were stated.This study was designed to assess factors militating against Human resource development (HRD) in Technical vocational education. The study was designed to determine from technical teachers the extent to which they considered the constraints affecting HRD in TVE programmes. Simple descriptive survey design was used for the study.

The population of this study consisted of all technical teachers in Anambra State. The instrument used in the collection of data was 70 item questionnaire validated by four experts in Vocational Education Department. The questionnaire elicited information from the technical teachers on five distinct areas considered constraints on HRD in TVE. One hundred and thirty (130) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the respondents but 102 copies of the questionnaire were completed and returned. The data collected were analysed using frequency count and mean to answer 6 research questions posed for the study. Four (4) research hypotheses were appropriately tested using ANOVA and t-test statistic tools at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated that technical teachers considered nonavailability of material resources, technical teachers’ inadequacy, inadequate human resource management, public misconception on the nature of TVE and financial constraints as constraints on HRD in TVE programme. Based on the conclusion, strategies that could improve HRD in TVE will be adopted to help to improve teaching and learning in TVE programmes.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study

Chapter Two

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Theoretical Concept on Human Resource Development
  • 2.2 Basis for the Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria
  • 2.3 Factors militating against Human Resource Development in TVE
  • 2.4 Strategies for Improvement on HRD in TVE in Nigeria
  • 2.5 Summary of Review of Related Literature

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the Study
  • 3.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validation of the instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Presentation And Analysis Of Data

  • 4.1 Research Question
  • 4.2 Hypothesis
  • 4.3 Summary of major findings

Chapter Five

Discussion Of The Result, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Discussion of the Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Implication of the Study
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestion for further Study
  • 5.6 Summary of the Study
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The growth of any organizaiton depends upon the development and utilization of people in it. The efficiency of an organization whether private or be it public depends to a large extent on how effectively human resource are utilized. For any organization to attain its desired objective it must seek and obtain the willing co-operaiton of the people it has to work with Management must work, employ and therefore should develop programmes and policies that will enable them to obtain the best results from the employees Organizations are being forced to operate in an increasingly completive environment and this places emphasis on the role of management in making the most effective use of human resource in order to meet its objectives.

Human resource could be seen as people, who work in organizations, having certain qualities or abilities, talents, and attitudes; and who influence production, quality and profitability. They are people who could set out strategies and goals, design work systems, produce goods and services, monitor quality, allocate financial resources and market the products and services (Bratton and Gold, 1999). According to Eyiuche (2002), human resources make up the ultimate basis for the wealth of a nation. Human resources differ from other resources because of their ability to evaluate and to question management actions. For instance, capital and material resources are passive factors of production while human resources are the active agents that accumulate capital, exploit both natural and material resources, build social, economic and political organizations and cause national development enhancement. In the context of formal education, human resources have to be specifically educated in order to be able to carry out their professional responsibility (Oluremi, 2001). However, the problem here rests on the appropriate development of human resources.

As education is regarded as national investment, the most valuable of all capital is that invested in human beings. It appears that lack of adequate investment in human resources development has been responsible for the slow growth of the less developed countries in the world. Human resource development is a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have skills, education and experience which are critical for economic and political development of a nation (Eyiuche, 2002). This implies that human resource development (HRD) involves acquisition of skills, knowledge and the application of knowledge and skills acquired. HRD according to Nwangwu (2007) is a process of staff improvement through strategies that foster self development, self actualization and self growth. Development involves all those activities that are geared towards the growth and improvement of skills, knowledge, abilities and attitudes of the staff of the system. A well planned and systematic HRD programme will enhance the performance of the TVE programmes in terms of increased productivity, and will reduce costs, as well as engender high staff morale and stability in the system. HRD is growth oriented that may require in-service programmes (Nwangwu, 2007).

It seems that a greater proportion of problems confronting the development of technical education in Nigeria currently are rooted in inadequate supply of technical teachers arising from inadequate HRD strategies. The peculiarities of inadequate supply of technical education teachers may include deficiencies in quality and quantity. Most technical teachers available appear to lack industrial experience, and pedagogical training. Also limited training facilities constitute the greatest bottle-neck for staff training and retraining (Olu and Beecroft, 1987). Eze (2007) stated that TVE teachers should be specialist in their trades because lack of adequately trained TVE teachers could affect students’ enlistment in TVE programmes. Eze emphasized that if people lack technical skill, knowledge and entrepreneurial consciousness, most of the constituents of the environment will be greeted with ignorance and there may not be any commitment to discover and tap the available resources because the knowledge may be lacking and the necessary technical skill may not be acquired. In a country where the technical staff and human resources available lack these abilities, it is assumed that such country might remain underdeveloped. It is also assumed that such country where the necessary human resources, lack adequate knowledge and the technical know-how for promoting economic development, advancement may not be foreseen and predicted.

The development of human resources has been the main focus of TVE because TVE objectives rest on skill acquisition and application of scientific knowledge in problem solving. It also involves practice, application of knowledge and manual inhibitions of mastery using the hands. TVE helps in meeting the manpower needs of the society and no country has ever been able to achieve and sustain any degree of technological development without a conscious and conscientious effort to develop its technical manpower. TVE ensures the production of adequate and appropriate productive manpower which leads to wealth creation, material progress, resource base development and national empowerment which accelerates economic growth, reduce inequality and eradicate absolute poverty.
TVE enhances the manual dexterity, technical skill and knowledge, and the entrepreneurial consciousness of the people with a view to improving the economic development of the country through human empowerment. Also the solution to underdevelopment in a country and to minimize economic backwardness and instill capacities and instruction to progress is to introduce and implant a robust and viable TVE system. However, the achievement of these good qualities of TVE programmes depends to a great extent on the development and proper utilization of human resources. TVE teacher as a key factor in human resources need to be adequately developed through training and effectively utilized for proper achievement of TVE objectives and also to enable them carryout their professional and administrative duties. The success and effectiveness of TVE depend on the quality and quantity of teachers available for the TVE programmes. That is to say the realization of educational goals of TVE programmes depend to large extent upon the quality and quantity of TVE teachers engaged in TVE system because the TVE teachers cannot give out what they do not have.

In developing TVE teachers as a key factor in human resource development there appears to be some constraints. This may be one of the reasons why most students do not study technical vocational courses in tertiary institutions in the state. The constraints may be in so many forms. It can be in form of lack of availability of adequate trained technical teachers, nonavailability of material resources or inadequate human resources management. In order to make human resources productive and dependable, there should be adequate HRD strategies in TVE programmes. It is against this background that this study is designed to assess the extent of the factors militating against Human resource development and strategies for improvement in TVE programmes in Anambra
State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Technical vocational education is a powerful vehicle for development and sustenance of competence, efficiency and effectiveness in graduates of technology education (Okoye, 2006). Unfortunately, the human resources development in this discipline appears to be seriously neglected by successive governments in Nigeria. For instance, early 80’s, the Federal Government made efforts to empower technical personnel in the country through Technical
Teachers Training programme (TTTP) Over-seas, and subsequently in Indigenous Universities, the programme had since stopped due to the same negligence. Consequently, there has always been dearth of professionally trained technical instructors / teachers or practitioners, inadequate supply of training materials and facilities, and grossly inadequate funding. These shortcomings form constraints against adequate HRD in technological studies in Nigeria and Anambra State in particular. Admittedly Nwanoruo (2002) maintain that some of the constraints on HRD in Nigeria include lack of adequate funding, non-availability of instructional materials and lack of qualified technical manpower. The consequence is that the graduates of this programme are not adequately trained. As a result they appear to feel inferior and thus entertain some inferiority complex and incompetent amidst counterparts. Worse still, there has always been low regard for manual application which had always assumed greater proportion among TVE graduates (Okorie, 2002).

On the other hand, the learning environment appertaining to TVE programmes is nothing to write home about. For instance, Eze (2007) noted that poor training and learning environment in TVE workshops have resulted in production of incompetent vocational graduates who cannot adapt to changing economic situation in Nigeria. In this awareness, it becomes pertinent to organize a study in this category to assess the constraints that affect HRD and determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programmes.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

This study intends to assess some factors militating against Human resource development and determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programmes. Specifically, the study intends to assess the;

  1. Extent to which non-availability of material resources affects HRD in TVE programmes.
  2. Extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affects HRD in TVE programmes.
  3. Extent to which inadequate human resource management affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State.
  4. Extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State.
  5. Extent to which financial constraints affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State, and
  6. Determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programme in Anambra State.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of benefit to technical vocational administrators, technical vocational teachers and students.

By this study, the extent to which the identified constraints affect HRD will be assessed. It is believed that the problematic issues that result in nonavailability of material resources, public misconception of nature of TVE and financial constraints will be unveiled too. Consequently, the strategies for improvement will be determined and also implemented in TVE programmes. The assumption is that most of the students will shun inferiority complex and pick a vocation in TVE. In the long run many more intelligent and brilliant students will be attracted to enroll into TVE programmes with a willing intension to make enviable achievement and a competitive career for self
reliance.

If factors militating against Human resource development in TVE programmes are adequately assessed as a result of the findings of this study, the perennial problem of inadequate supply of qualified technical vocational teachers in TVE will be solved. This is believed to bring job satisfaction among technical teachers which will make them also to impart the knowledge and skills needed. If adequate knowledge and skill are imparted to the students, it is deemed that students will become more productive and independent citizens.

If findings on the extent to which inadequate human resources management affect HRD in TVE programmes are discovered, it will help the TVE stakeholders to improve on human resource development in TVE programmes in Nigeria.


1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions are posed to guide the study

  1. To what extent does non-availability of material resources affect HRD in TVE programmes?
  2. To what extent does technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE programmes?
  3. To what extent does inadequate human resource management affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State?
  4. To what extent does a public misconception of the nature of TVE affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State?
  5. To what extent does a financial constraint affect HRD in TVE programmes?
  6. What strategies could improve HRD in TVE programme in Anambra State?

1.6 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho1: There is no significant difference among the opinion of technical teachers of NAU,Awka; FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which non-availability of material resources affect HRD in TVE.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between mean responses of technical teachers in FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE programmes.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the opinion of technical teachers of NAU,Awka and FCE(T),Umunze in Anambra State on the extent to which inadequate human resource management affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

Ho4: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male technical teachers and female technical teachers in TVE on the extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to an assessment of constraints on HRD in TVE and strategies for improving HRD in Anambra state.

This study was limited to some influential factors such as: which nonavailability of material resources; technical teachers’ inadequacy; inadequate human resource management; public misconception on the nature of TVE programmes and financial constraint that could affect HRD in TVE. This study focuses on technical teachers’ in NAU, Awka; FCE (T) and technical colleges in Anambra State that offer technical courses. The technical teachers in private establishments that offer programmes in TVE were not covered in study.


Chapter Five


Discussion Of Results, Conclusion and Recommendation(S)

In this chapter, the discussion of the findings, conclusion and recommendation are presented.


Discussion of Major Findings

Based on the result obtained from the analysis of data, discussions of the major findings of the study were made thus.

The respondents used for this study were the professional technical teachers who were supposed to be adequately prepared for teaching in tertiary institutions and technical colleges in Anambra State. Their responses, therefore, predicate to a great extent what should be considered as constraints that affect HRD in TVE programme. With this knowledge, the technical education administrators will be acquainted with the truth of the facts. As a result, what should strategize for improving HRD in TVE programme would no more be a guess.

The result of the analysis indicated that technical teachers in Anambra

State considered improper use of workshop equipment for practical works by TVE students and lack of confidence by TVE students in establishing and managing small firms after graduation as constraints on HRD in TVE programme to a great extent with mean rating of 3.86 and 3.8 respectively. This is in line with the findings of Odu (2007) that most schools offering TVE programme lack material resources which results in ineffective and inefficient practical acquisition of skills by the TVE students. Also the impact of inadequacy in the supply of tools, equipment and machines is that the training of students becomes impeded and the students end up not acquiring skills to go into labor market. Thus, there is need for availability of material resource in TVE to enhance teaching and learning in order to deliver educational goal of teaching. Non-availability of material resources according to Eze (2007) cause people to have low regard for manual and technical skills achievement. In essence, this short fall yields production of ill-equipped graduates who lack confidence in the labour market or entrepreneurial expression in managing small-scale business. In consonance, Ngome (1992) had earlier indicated that there are three problems causing serious constraints in TVE programmes. They are inadequate materials, facilities/equipment and inadequate trained teachers. Supportedly, Nwangwu (2007) noted that material resources for TVE programmes are grossly inadequate and there is need for well-equipped workshops for carrying out workshop practical exercise. These researchers are of the opinion that when materials resources are adequately provided, the technical teachers would impart the knowledge and skills needed in developing human resources which will lead to success in TVE. Establishment of adequate workshops, with well equipped machines, equipment, will also improve the quality of TVE which will invariably enhance the acquisition and application of technical vocational knowledge and skills in production of goods and services.

Technical teachers considered low enrolment of potential trainees in TVE programmes, lack of quality teaching techniques and inadequate implementation of TVE programmes as constraints relating to technical teachers’ inadequacy. These were indicated by the mean of 3.72, 3.52 and 3.60 respectively. This is in line with the findings of Oluremi (2001); Nwangwu (2007); Olu and Beecroft (1982), Olakunri and Okolocha (2006) that a greater proportion of problems confronting the development of technical education in Nigeria are rooted in inadequate supply of adequately and professionally trained technical teachers. According to Eze (2007) lack of adequately trained technical teachers could affect students’ enrolment in TVE programmes. Also Nwangwu (2007) noted that the quality and quantity of teachers are essential inputs affecting the implementation of TVE programmes. It is agreed that professionally trained technical teachers are the key factor in TVE programmes and their skills and ability determine to a large extent the quality of the programmes offered. It is upon their number, quality, efficiency and effectiveness that the future of TVE programmes depends. Therefore, as teacher’s quality is a strong predictor of students’ quality, it is widely accepted that no TVE system can rise above the quality of TVE teachers. In other words, if adequate number of technical teachers and qualitative TVE instructors are made available for adequate instruction at which ever level they find their services useful, the issue of low enrolment in TVE programmes will be laid to rest permanently.

Findings on constraints in relation to inadequate human resource management that affect HRD in TVE programmes to a great extent includes; inadequate motivation due to unsatisfactory working environment and inadequate improvement of technologists and workshop attendant. This findings agreed with the views of Nwangwu (2007) that the extent to which the head of department motivates the teaching staff, communicates with them, supervises them, provides satisfactory working environment, provides welfare services, provides training and re-training services determines the level of performance of the teachers in the institution. The teachers’ performance determines to a large extent the level at which the objectives of TVE will be achieved. In line with the view of Ivancerich (2004), adequate human resource management by the TVE administrators attracts, develops and maintains a functional workshop in TVE programmes.

The fact that technical teachers were undecided on some constraints relating to public misconception of the nature of TVE was not enough to conclude that they do not consider public misconception of the nature of TVE as constraints on HRD in TVE programmes in Anambra State. It may be because they were unfamiliar with the constraints. This is why technical teaches should always see the need of information and always updates their knowledge.

Technical teachers considered misplaced confidence in paper qualification, low level of readiness to address issues of TVE programmes by government, appointing of leaders in TVE being politically biased, underfunded and lack of involvement of professionally trained TVE teachers in formulating, planning and evaluating training programmes on TVE as constraints on HRD in TVE programmes at a great extent with the mean ratings of 3.72, 3.85, 3.59, 3.51, and 3.52 respectively. In support of this, Olu and Beecroft (1982) stated there is more emphasis on paper qualification than the practical education. These authors emphasized that the pursuit of knowledge should be based on the immediate needs of the society which should cause teaching and learning strategies to focus on the acquisition of usable and practicable knowledge. Otubelu (1987) noted that there is unreadiness on the part of the nation in effective implementation of TVE programmes. Otubelu (1987) also noted that due to inadequate involvement of professional trained TVE teachers in formulating, planning and evaluating training programmes there is a number of problems bordering on admission, finance and budget, staff recruitment and work experience.
Technical teachers had no opinion on inadequate implementation of the 63-3-4 system of education and inadequate maintenance and repairs of equipment and machines as constraints relating to financial matters that affect HRD in TVE programmes. In support of this, Otubelu (1987) stated that the 6-3-3-4 system of education was introduced in order to ensure that adequate provision is made for the various fields of education. But the system is not effectively implemented for the fact that there are inadequate teachers in the various areas and workshop are yet to be built in all the tertiary institutions and technical colleges not to talk of equipping and maintaining the infrastructures needed for technology education. The technical teachers agreed to a great extent that seven out of nine constraints relating to financial constraints affect HRD in TVE programme. In support of this, Nwangwu (2007) noted that the quality and level of TVE education has significant correlation with the level of funding. Also Igwe and Ibeneme (2006) affirmed that poor funding has caused poor quality output and this situation has affected the development of human resources in TVE.

Furthermore, technical teachers considered all the identified strategies for this study as strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programme. Earlier Martins-Umeh (2002) had stated that there is need to improve the quality of developing human resources in TVE programmes considering the operations of TVE, the quality of graduates produced and the rapid growth of unemployment. This shows that for Nigeria to be self-reliant and achieve her goals and objectives, emphasis should be placed on proper implementation of TVE programmes, through which the quality of the graduates produced by technical vocational institutions will improve. It is, therefore, the researcher’s belief that if the strategies for improvement as identified by this study is adequately and religiously implemented by the government, then much impact must have been made on HRD in TVE programme.

Table 9 shows the result of the ANOVA statistical tool used for testing hypothesis1. According to result from the analysis there was significant difference in the opinion of technical teachers of NAU, Awka, FCE(T), Umunze, and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which nonavailability of material resources affect HRD in TVE. This was indicated by the t-calculated value of 58.5, which was greater than the critical value of 3.09 leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis. Results of the ANOVA analysis which show that there was significant difference in the opinions of technical teachers may be due to their location or cadre of technological manpower. This suggests that there is need for provision of material resources to all technical schools in the State to make sure that technical teachers impart the knowledge and skills needed in developing human resources in TVE programme. The establishment of adequate workshop will improve the quality of TVE. This will invariably enhance the acquisition and application of technical knowledge and skill in production of goods and services. This is in line with Nwangwu (2007) and Okorie (2002) who maintained that the provision of adequate qualitative material resources is important for the success of TVE programme. MartinUmeh (2002) also advocates that adequate workshops, with well equipped machines and equipment should be established to improve the quality of TVE programme.

The result of the analysis of the data on table 9 shows that there was no significant difference in the mean responses of technical teachers of FCE(T), Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affects HRD in TVE. The t-cal of 0.68 was less than the t-crit of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. This led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis. This implies that adequate trained TVE teachers will help to impart knowledge and skills to TVE students in order to improve HRD in TVE programmes in Anambra State. This is in agreement with Nwangwu (2007) who stated that the quality and quantity of TVE teachers are essential inputs affecting the implementation of TVE programmes. Martin-Umeh (2002) supported the view that adequate trained TVE teachers are necessary to impart knowledge and skills to TVE students.

The result of the t-test shows that the t-cal of 1.52 was less than the t-crit. of 2.1 at 0.05 level of significance. The fact that the t-cal was less than the t-crit. led to the conclusion that technical teachers in NAU, Awka and FCE(T), Umunze do not differ significantly on how they considered the extent to which inadequate human resource management affects HRD in TVE. The researcher, therefore, concluded that status of Institutions of service does not prevent the respondents from recognizing the importance of adequate human resource management to improve HRD in TVE. This implies that adequate human resource management determines to a great extent the effectiveness of TVE programmes. Nwangwu (2007) affirmed that the extent TVE leaders motivate, communicate, supervise and provide welfare services to TVE teachers determines the level of their performance.

The result presented in table 13 shows that there was no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female technical teachers on the extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE affects HRD in TVE programme. This was indicated by the t-cal of 1.85 which was less than t-crit of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance. This led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis. This means that sex does not influence the opinion of technical teachers on the damages public misconception of the nature of TVE could cause on HRD in TVE programmes. Ibeneme (2007) has attestedthat one of the greatest problems facing TVE programme is the public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes.


Conclusion

Based on the results of the findings and the test of the hypotheses, it has been confirmed with some levels of variance that technical teachers in Anambra State considered non-availability of material resources, technical teachers’ inadequacy, inadequate human resource management, public misconception of the nature of TVE as constraints on HRD in TVE programmes and also considered the identified strategies important enough to enhance outstanding improvement HRD in TVE programmes.

In the course of this study, it was highlighted that HRD involves acquisition of appropriate skills, right attitude and good knowledge of how to retrieve, process and update natural resource. It is, therefore, believed that if technical teachers are developed skillfully and knowledgeably to enable them perform their professional and administrative duties, the TVE programme will yield adequate output. It is also believed that if adequate strategies are taken to address such constraints that affect HRD in TVE programme as discovered in
this study, it is possible to have success in TVE programmes.


Implication of the Study

The study aimed at assessing factors militating against Human resource development. The result indicated that technical teachers considered all the constraints identified as constraints on HRD in TVE to a great extent. The major implication of these findings is that any TVE administrator who applies these strategies that could improve HRD in TVE will be sure of success.

For improving HRD in TVE, technical teachers should emphasize more on employing people who possess industrial experience and skills on the good use of tools, equipment and materials for practical classes. The quality of TVE teachers should be seriously emphasized by giving them opportunity to up-date their knowledge and skills occasionally. When every other aspect of these strategies is put into practice and the constraints adequately addressed by technical administrators and teachers, there must be improvement on HRD in TVE programmes and the world of work.


Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made. The constraints identified in this study have potentials of hindering HRD in TVE programmes. Also the strategies identified have the potentials of improving HRD in TVE. The researcher recommends that the TVE administrators should adopt these strategies in TVE programmes.

  1. Administrators of TVE programmes in Anambra State should make conscious efforts to make sure that workshop equipment are properly used. It can be done through adequate supervision and evaluation of practical classes.
  2. TVE stakeholders should ensure adequate implementation of TVE programmes by inculcating quality teaching techniques in TVE teachers.
    This can be done through seminars, conference, workshops and so on.
  3. Technical teachers should be consistently motivated in order to ensure satisfactory working environment. Also encourage them to up-date their knowledge to align with the changing realities in the society.
  4. TVE administrators should also educate the public on TVE objectives, goals, vision, mission and National Policy of Education through media, workshop, and talk-show.
  5. Finally, TVE programmes should be adequately funded in order to supply adequate workshop equipment, facilities, new model machines, instructional and learning materials which will help to train TVE students
    on emerging skills.

Suggestions for Further Study

In this study, only few constraints on HRD in TVE and strategies were identified. There should be more studies to identify other constraints on HRD in TVE, and assess the extent they have affected HRD in TVE. For instance,

  1. Inadequate entrepreneurial development.
  2. Inadequate planning and development of TVE curriculum.
  3. Lack of adequate leadership.
  4. Lack of awareness of the National Objectives of TVE programme.

Secondly, another research should be carried out to find out other strategies considered by technical teachers for improving HRD in TVE programme.

The study should be carried out to cover a wider area preferably the whole of Nigeria.

Finally, the study should be repeated in other states of the federation to know whether the result obtained would be the same.


Summary of the Study

A questionnaire was used by the researcher to collect data from the technical teachers in Anambra State. The entire population numbering 130 out of which 102 responded were technical teachers in NAU, Awka; FCE(T), Umunze and Technical Colleges. The population was not too large, so there were no sample and sampling techniques. Seventy (70) item questionnaire were raised and were validated by four experts in Vocational Education Department. The questionnaire elicited information from the technical teachers on five distinct areas considered as constraints on HRD in TVE programme. The reliability co-efficient computed to establish the degree of reliability of the instrument was 0.86. The reliability of the instrument was determined using test-re-test method of determining consistency.

Frequency count and mean were used to answer six research questions posed for the study while analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test statistics were appropriately employed to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Based on the result of research findings, technical teachers confirmed that the identified constraints for this study affect HRD in TVE to a great extent. They also agreed on strategies identified could improve HRD in TVE programmes. The result obtained after test of one of the hypotheses shows that sex does not influence the responses of the technical teachers.


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