Factors That Are Militating Against Effective Teaching And Learning Of Subjects In Secondary School Students
This research work focused on factors militating against effective teaching and learning of subjects in secondary school students in Oriade Local Government, Osun state. the outcome from the data analysis of the research questions for this study reveals that numerous problems exists in the teaching and learning of subjects caused by a number of factors. The factors ranging from student’s attitudes towards the learning of subjects to societal and government factors, it is now glaring from research question 2 with 80.7% of the students showing positive response to the fact that they study subjects to pass examination, which implies they do not understand it, this explains poor students’ attitude towards learning Subjects. According to research question 3, societal factor in the case of parents’ social economic status contributes to the ineffective teaching and learning of Subjects with evidence from the analysis that 53.3% of the students does not have textbooks for further practice of exercise to enhance effective learning of the different subjects. It was found out from research question 4 that the government through its new science policy aims at enhancing student’s empirical and scientific competence of their secondary education but does not play most notable role in making sure that Subjects are well taught because it has failed to provide; a well-equipped and usable library according to 90.0% of the students responding, practical laboratory for science related subjects according to 83.3% of the students responding who showed that there is need for it and also infrastructural facilities like building of more classroom in order to reduce over population in classes according to 74.0% of the students responding that their class is over-populated. From research question 1, it was deduced from the teachers that teachers in schools in Oriade Local Government are not adequate with 56.7% of them confirming that there are not enough qualified Subjects teachers in their schools.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background To The Problem
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance Of The Study
- 1.7 Operational Definition Of Terms
- 1.8 Organization Of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Concept Of Students’ Learning
- 2.3 Factors Militating Against Effective Teaching And Learning
- 2.4 Theoretical Review
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population
- 3.3 Sample And Sampling Techniques
- 3.4 Research Instrument
- 3.5 Data Collection Procedure
- 3.6 Method Of Data Analysis
4.0 Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background To The Problem
The enviable position which education system (science, arts and humanities) of most countries of the world, including Nigeria occupies is perhaps justifiable. The reason is that Science can exert a dominant, if not decisive influence on the life of individuals as well as on the developmental effort of a nation (Emovon, 2001). The universal recognition of the above submission is responsible for the prime position that has been accorded to Science and in particular, Subjects worldwide. Within the context of Science education, Subjects has been identified as a very important School subject and its’ importance in scientific and technological development of any nation has been widely reported. It was as a result of the recognition given to Subjects in the development of the individual and the nation that is made a core-subject among the natural Sciences and other Science-related courses in the Nigerian educational system. Its inclusion as a core-subject in Science in the High school calls for the need to teach it effectively. This is because effective Science teaching can lead to the attainment of scientific and technological greatness.
Subjects teaching can only be effective and result-oriented when students are willing and the teachers are favorably disposed, using the appropriate methods and resources in teaching the students. With the current increase in scientific knowledge all over the world, much demand is placed, and emphasis is laid on the teacher, the learner, the curriculum and the learning environment in the whole process of teaching and learning of Science. Despite the importance of Subjects to mankind and the efforts of researchers to improve on its teaching and learning, the achievement of students in the subject remains low in Nigeria. Among the factors that have been identified, outcomes in Subjects are as a result of; poor methods of instruction (Osuafor, 2001) teacher’s attitude (Aghadiuno, 2002), laboratory inadequacy (Adeyegbe, 2005), and poor Science background (Adesoji, 2003).
Papanastasiou (2001) reported that those who have positive attitude toward Science tend to perform better in the subject. The affective behaviors on the classroom and strongly related to achievement, and Science attitudes are learned (George and Kaplan, 2005), the teachers play a significant role during the learning process and they can directly or indirectly influence the student’s attitudes toward Science which in consequence can influence students’ achievement. Teachers are, invariably, role models whose behaviors are easily mimicked by students. What teachers like or dislike, appreciate and how they feel about their learning or studies could have a significant effect on their students. By extension, how teachers teach, how they behave and how they interact with students can be more paramount than what they teach. Student’s attitude toward the learning of Subjects is a factor that has long attracted attention of researchers. Ojo (2000) and Adesokan (2002) asserted that inspite of realization of the recognition given to Subjects among the Science subjects, it is evident that students still show negative attitude towards the subject, thereby leading to poor performance and low enrolment.
The achievement of students in Subjects is also reported to be causally influenced by the previous experience of the students in integrated Science. A student cannot learn Subjects effectively without passing through some experiences in integrated Science (Oshokoya, 2002). Other factors that may have causal relationships with effective teaching and learning of Science subjects particularly Subjects include; teacher attendance at Subjects workshop, laboratory adequacy, class size and School location. One of the fundamental problems facing Science teaching today is the question of how current are the professional teachers. The majority of teachers who have been employed in the past decades have been doing the same thing, the same way all along. They have no knowledge of the current ideas and innovations that have taken place in the educational field in the recent past. What account for this is that teachers have not been given the opportunity for re-training (Ogunbiyi, 2004). He therefore recommended that teachers should be encouraged to go for workshop training in their areas of specialization.
Laboratory inadequacy which is a School environment factor has been reported to affect the performance of students in Subjects (Raimi, 2002 and Adeyegbe, 2005). Farounbi (2003) argued that students tend to understand and recall what they see more than what they hear as a result of using laboratories in the teaching and learning of Science. The question, “Is small class size better than large class size” continues to be debated among teachers, administrators and parents as well as in the research community. However, Robinson (2001) concluded that research does not support the expectation that classes will of themselves result in greater academic gains for students. He observed that the effects of class size on student learning vary by grade level, learner characteristics, subject areas, teaching methods and other learning interventions. Adeyela (2000) found that large class size is not conducive for serious academic work. Also Afolabi (2002) found no significant relationship among the class size and students’ learning outcomes. The relationship between School location and student academic achievement in Science has been widely reported. Adepoju, (2001) found that students in urban Schools manifest more brilliant performance than their rural counterparts. Also, Ogunleye (2002) reported a significant difference in the achievement of students in urban peri-urban areas. However, Daramola cited in Ogunleye (2002), and Orji (2005) did not find any significant difference in the urban and peri-urban Schools.
The purpose of teaching and learning Subjects is specifically to produce three kinds of intellectual capital: Scientists and engineers who will continue the research and development that is central to the economic growth of our country; technological proficient workers who are capable of dealing with the demands of a Science-based high Technology workforce and scientifically literate citizens who make intelligent decisions about public policy and who understand the world around them.
Accordingly, effective teaching and learning of Subjects is critical to enable students to acquire:
- The deeper intrinsic value of Science and Technology education to shape and define our common life history and culture among others.
- Appropriate skills; abilities and competences that will enable them contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. And so, there is the need for basic standard of achievement in preparing students for occupations in a highly scientific and technological environment (Encarta, 2005).
Moreover, the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) recommended that people should be empowered through education to achieve the 3 goals of – employment generation, poverty eradication and value – orientation (Ajeyalemi, 2006).
The role of Subjects in the development of the scientific base of a country cannot be overemphasized and Nigeria is not an exception. Yet with the increasing importance of Subjects to the unfolding world, the performance of Nigerian students in the subject at the High school remains a dismal failure. However it is disappointing to note that the student’s performance in Subjects at internal and external examination has remained considerably poor despite the relative importance of Subjects (Saage 2009). Several factors have been advanced to affect student’s poor performance. Korau (2006) reported that such include the student factor, teacher factor, societal factor, the governmental infrastructural problem, language problem examination body related variables, curriculum related variables, test related variables, textbook related variables and home related variables. Saage (2009) identified specific variables such as poor primary School background in Science, lack of incentives for test, lack of interest on the part of students, students not interested in hard work, incompetent teachers in the primary School, large classes, fear of the subject psychologically etc. In Nigeria the pupil‘s home upbringing tends to affect their attitudes to authority. It is one of co-operation and passive submission.
Parents that are too push-up can cause academic maladjustment for learners. Boocock (2002) found that parental dominance tend to discourage the children in School learning. However some parents over-pamper their children too much to the points of spoiling them completely Korau, 2006). Since such parents shun their responsibility to train their children at home such children will develop nonchalant attitude to Subjects and other courses. Korau (2006) observed that the Schools population counts in thousands today against the hundreds of the previous years. Schools today are overcrowded in classrooms which make it impossible to talk of an ideal size of a classroom for effective teaching of Subjects. No effective teaching can take place under a chaotic situation where he cannot handle the large number of students effectively. Based on the background of the variables discussed earlier, this study is premised on investigating some factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of Subjects in Secondary schools in Oriade Local Government Area of Osun State in order to improve the academic performance of students.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The report of Shelter Right Initiative clearly stated that Nigeria trailed behind other West African countries for nine consecutive years in Science especially Subjects, Mathematics, Physics and Biology subject’s academic performance (Olubusuyi, 2003). According to Uzoechi (2004), students do not only perform poorly at the cognitive level, they also perform badly at the affective and psychomotor domains respectively. And to the extent that it is difficult to have a good number of candidates with enough credits to secure admission at higher levels of Science, Technology and Mathematics disciplines. Furthermore, Mathematics achievement has never fared better, and has affected subjects like Physics and Subjects adversely. WAEC (2006) noted that the marks lost by each Physics students as a result of poor knowledge in Mathematics accounts for fifty percentages (50%) of the marks lost for errors in that subject.
Akpan (2000) identified poor knowledge of Mathematics as one of the major problems militating against students’ progress in Subjects. Accordingly, there is a growing public concern over this unimpressive performance and therefore expedient to understand the problems and challenges facing STM subjects as to suggest appropriate remedies for improved performance. The question however remains, what are the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Science, Technology and Mathematics subjects especially Subjects.
Due to the increasing nature of poor academic performance of High school students especially in external examinations like WAEC or JAMB, many educationists says the reason for ineffective teaching and learning of Subjects or any other Science subject are; the teaching methodology adopted by the teachers and lack of fund from the government to provide quality textbooks, inadequate conducive learning environment, However, other reasons why teaching and learning is ineffective may be student – oriented. It is clear from all indications that most High school students have poor study habit and abysmal attitude towards learning due to some societal factors which might lead to ineffective teaching and learning of Subjects in any classroom situation. So with respect to the above stated reasons, it was necessary to look into some factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Subjects in Secondary schools in Nigeria a case study of Oriade Local Government Area so that we would have in the country Scientists and engineers who will continue the research and development that is central to the economic growth of our country Nigeria, technological proficient workers who are capable of dealing with the demands of a Science-based high Technology workforce and scientifically literate citizens who make intelligent decisions about public policy and who understand the world around them.
From the foregoing highlighted statement of problem, it is pertinent to investigate some factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of subjects in secondary schools in order to improve the academic performance of students.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of this study was to investigate some factors militating against effective teaching and learning of subjects in secondary school students in Oriade Local Government. Specifically, the objectives therefore were to:
- Find out whether qualified Subjects teachers, good learning environment in Secondary schools in Oriade Local Government are adequate or not.
- Find out the attitude of students in Secondary schools in Oriade Local Government towards learning Subjects.
- Find out the extent to which societal factors militate against the effectiveness in the teaching and learning of Subjects in secondary schools in Oriade Local Government.
- Find out whether educational facilities provided for Secondary schools in Oriade local Government are adequate or not and if the teachers are well paid by the government.
1.4 Research Questions
To achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were posed:
- Are Subjects teachers in Secondary schools in Oriade Local Government qualified and adequate?
- What are the students’ attitudes towards learning Subjects in Secondary schools in Oriade Local Government?
- To what extent do societal factors contribute to ineffective teaching and learning of Subjects in Secondary schools in Oriade Local Government?
- Does government provide adequate facilities for the teaching and learning of Subjects in Secondary schools in Oriade Local Government?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no significant relationship between factors militating against teaching and learning of students and their academic performance in Subjects
- HA1: There is a significant relationship between factors militating against teaching and learning of students and their academic performance in Subjects
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The findings of the study may be of use to teacher, students, education administrators and other people who may want to know the major factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Subjects in Nigerian Secondary schools and other Science and Technology related subjects. Therefore, the study will be significant in the following regard;
- It examines teacher, student, learning environment and society as some of the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Subjects which may be useful to people about student’s academic performance in subjects.
- It may provide valuable information about the causal effects of the factors considered on the Nigerian education system.
- It may serve as a source of awareness creation for major stakeholders in the field of education.
- It may serve as a resource material for others who want to carry out research in related field.
1.7 Operational Definition Of Terms
This refers to the different disciplines from science to arts to social sciences and humanities which students could specialize in.
It refers to the process of imparting knowledge and skills from the teacher to the learner. It encompasses the activities of educating or instructing. It is also an act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual.
This is the act of acquiring new, modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information
1.8 Organization Of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
There is no denying the fact that Subjects teaching can only be effective and result-oriented when students are willing and the teachers are favorably disposed, using the appropriate methods and resources in teaching the students. With the current increase in scientific knowledge all over the world, much demand is placed, and emphasis is laid on the teacher, the learner, the curriculum and the learning environment in the whole process of teaching and learning different subjects that cut across the various disciplines. Subjects has come to stay as an effective medium of internal and global scientific and technological development of Nigeria which was one of the reasons why it was made a compulsory subject which calls for the need for its teaching learning to be effective.
This study has shown that learners and teachers do well when they are motivated and when enough teaching and learning facilities are provided for them. The failure of the government to adequately provide instructional materials and facilities which are important hinders the effective teaching and learning of Subjects in Oriade Local Government Area of Osun State.
Teacher have generally shown positive attitude towards the teaching of Subjects but not well motivated to teach the subject. The teachers who it is clear from observation are not adequate and even the ones present are grounded in Subjects and are handicapped by a number of problems such as complex working time for a Subjects teacher to teach the whole of GRADES 10, 11, 12 students with the combination of another science subject like biology without been assisted, non-availability of instructional materials, over populated classroom in the teaching of Subjects.
Results of the study should interest educational policy makers in federal, state and local governments, inspectors of Education and practicing classroom teachers. Based on findings from the study, it is apparent that the government must generate policies and guidelines that will introduce effective Subjects teaching and learning into our schools.
For our Subjects teachers and inspectors of education, diagnostic tools based on findings relating to interest, attitude, cognitive and manipulated skills of the learners could be designed and developed. Such tools will enable them assess the degree of readiness of each student and prescribe appropriate intervention learning programmed when and where necessary.
The following recommendations were made;
- More qualified teachers should be employed in order to decongest the classrooms. If a class is over-populated, the teachers will find it difficult to mark tests and assignments given to the students.
- Well equipped, functional and usable laboratories should be installed in our Secondary schools. Relevant audio-visual aids should be provided.
- Students should be encouraged to Learn Subjects in order to understand so that they could have better understanding of their world and not just to read to pass examinations.
- While it is universally accepted that a well-motivated teaching force is essential for improvement in any educational system. Different teachers use varying motivation factors, a more thorough supervision of teachers should be emphasized as a means of improving the quality of education.
- All teachers in a school are role model to students, therefore it is the responsibility of all the teachers in a school to encourage their students through the way they dress, the things they say that would influence students’ learning positively, and also encourage one another to attend workshops and seminars on Subjects.
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