Factors Militating Against The Effective Teaching – Learning Of Computer Science In Junior Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

Factors Militating Against The Effective Teaching – Learning Of Computer Science In Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


This project work is designed to investigate the Factors Militating against Teaching – Learning of Computer Science in Junior Secondary School in Enugu North Local Government. In the collection of data, the researcher used the following methods; the sample size is 200, sample techniques were randomly selected while the data obtained were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage.

The study concludes that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in order to improve the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools. The study is of the view that computer studies should provide sound basis for further training in computer studies at the tertiary level of education thus should be relied upon to enable students acquire the basic skills and knowledge needed to either secure a job and earn a living or to pursue further studies in the area computer and information science.

Evidence from the study also revealed that funding strategies for computer studies could be used in improving the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools


Table of Content


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.1.1 Concept of Computer
  • 2.1.2 Computer Studies in Junior Secondary School
  • 2.1.3 Problems of Computer Studies in Junior Secondary Schools
  • 2.1.4 Strategies for Improving Computer Studies
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2.1 Constructivism Learning Theory
  • 2.2.2 Downes and Siemens’ Connectivism Learning Theories
  • 2.3 Related Empirical Studies

Chapter Three

Research Methods

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and sampling techniques
  • 3.5 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.6 Validation of Instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation

  • Results

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary of the study
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

 

 


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The worlds are advancing at a rapid rate. Events have moved to the electronic stage with computer at the center. This development has brought a lot of innovations and revolution into teaching and learning. The 3R’s which forms the nucleus of the old system of education has witnessed series of literacy reforms. The world is now in the age of hence there is need to keep abreast with time. One of the ways of achieving this is through the introduction of computer into our institutions of learnings John Ugoji (2006) explains computer as an electronic machine that performs tasks. Such as calculation or electronic communication under the control of a set of instruction called programmes. The programmes usually resides within the computer and are retrieved as processed by the computer’s election. He want further into defining computer as an electronic machines that has the ability to accept data, process data and retrieve data i.e. gives out the result as information. Okolo Lawrence (2007) describes the term “computer” as an electronic machine or gadget that accepts data as input and process them electronically to produce the desired output or information with the aid of a set instructions. Computer can be generally defined as an electronic device that accepts data, process the data and brings out the result of the data as an information. Involving computer science into teaching-learning as a case in Enugu North Junior Secondary Schools simply means that teaching should carry a definition of computer during learning for easy understanding. In this case, teaching according to Nicholas .O. Anyanwu (2006) means a systematic, rational and organized process of transmitting knowledge, attitude and skills in accordance with professional principles. He also said that teaching has come to be a complex task and should involve only professional teachers into the system in order to transmit the knowledge of the computer to the learners properly.

One of the fundamental rights of every human being is education. Education prepares the individual for challenges in life. Consequently, Gujjar (2010) opined that education does not only deliver information, but for developing complete personality of a child. In Nigeria there are three levels of education: primary, secondary and tertiary level. Secondary education is the level between primary and tertiary education. It equally prepares students to be productive members of the society (Jegede2013). In developed countries, Secondary School is seen as the gateway to providing not only an educated citizenry but also a capable workforce. According to World Bank in Etim (2006), Secondary education is now being recognized as the cornerstone of educational system in the 21st century. It therefore means that quality Secondary education is indispensable in creating a bright future for individuals and nations alike.

The term Computer Studies have been used interchangeably, in some cases it has been referred to as computer education while in other cases it is called computer literacy. In whatever way, it means the same thing. Computer education is the effort or the ability to make the generality of the people computer literate. Computer literacy is the ability to be able to read, write and speak the language of the computer. It can also be looked at as a process of educating the people on how to use a computer to run a program and diverse application including business, industry and commerce (Okorie, 2012). Computer studies according to Edhuze (2003) involved teaching and inculcating in the learner the basic skills required to independently manipulate the computer to achieve educational goals. He further stated that, computer studies as a subject is aimed at making students acquire skills and competencies required in this digital word of competitiveness. Such basic skills and competencies upon graduation make them conversant with term and practices embedded in the world of computer. Computer studies, therefore a subject organized toenable people understand the function, uses and limitations of the computer and to provide an opportunity for the study of the modern methods of information processing.

The intention of Nigeria to include computer studies into the secondary school curriculum dates back to 1988 when the National Policy on Computer Education was enacted and launched (Abimbade, 1999). The policy on computer education suggested the following as some of the computer curriculum context at the secondary school level: A basic appreciation of how the computer works, an understanding of the basic principle of operating the computer, hands-on experience using the pre-programmed packages which are relevant to the interest of the students as teacher aids in different subjects. According to the National Policy on Computer Education (2006), it is expected that by the end of secondary education, the child has acquired reasonable competence in software such as word processing, spreadsheet, database analyzing programs that allow learners interact with the computer the way they desire (Ayogu, 2008). It therefore means that to achieve these objectives as stated in the National Policy on Education, strategies are needed.

In modern world, the computer is being gradually applied in all aspects of human endeavour. It has been stressed that the application of computer will enhance effectiveness and efficiency in this rapidly growing and technologically changing world. Computer education is being advocated because it is almost certain that computer literacy will have as much impact on career opportunities in the fast growing information age (Adamu and Bello, 2012). The relevance of computer education is therefore, hinged on its utility value. The National Policy on Education (NPE, 1981, revised in 1988, 1991, 1998 and 2004) introduced the teaching of computer studies in Nigerian schools. The inclusion of the study of computer studies in the school curriculum was aimed at providing opportunity for every student to become computer literate. The study of computer studies has in effect, gained tremendous influence on the student and society. However, the use and study of computers in Nigeria is recent when compared to other parts of the world where computers have been in use in all facet of human endeavour including offices, schools, industries, research centre’s, communication, hospitals to mention but a few. The complex nature of present day school situation has made transmission of information and instruction to students and the nature of learning and teaching in general more complex. This has made the role of the teacher in promoting learning more challenging. The new role does not just, involve mere transmission of information to students but also include looking at the problems associated with learning and instruction so that students can gain maximally from teaching and learning process. Computers are now used where there is a lot of data to be manipulated, where complex tasks must be managed or where there is need for real time access to centralized information from arbitrary locations such as in education, telemedicine, telecommunicating and in several other area (Adewopo, 2015). The study of computer in school is therefore, aimed at helping the students cope with modern technological development, equip them knowledge and competencies or skills of programme and administrative management as well as, improve the learning process. Students are expected to master the skills of computer appreciation or application and not just what it is and can do. Students are therefore, expected to be taught in such a way as not only to conceptualize and understand the computer, but also to be able to effectively manage their own learning, reinforce it and apply such knowledge or training in practical situation. This new approach has made the teaching of computer studies a little bit more complex and challenging. It has been observed that the teaching and learning of computer studies in schools has not been quite easy. Often time, people talk about inadequate equipments, facilities, and computers instructional resources for learning and teaching exercise (Aghadino, 2014). It is believed that teaching of science in general and computer studiesin particular is beset with a number of problems (Adamu, 2010). The slow pace of learning and application of computer had been attributed to this. This presupposes that there are problems associated with the teaching and learning of computer studies education. In the circumstance therefore, one is prompted to ask: what exactly is the situation? What are the problems associated with the teaching of computer studies education? It is against this backdrop this study was designed to assess the difficulties associated with computer studies education using Enugu North as a case study. The learners that are mentioned here are the students of junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A. of Enugu State that studies computer science. Wikipedia (2010) describes learning as a change in behaviour based on previous experience. This learning therefore involves processing of various types of information.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The world as it is today has become computerized. That is to say that everything and almost all the activities of today is are computerized. Going by this, it therefore becomes very important that everybody should have the knowledge of computer, starting from the junior secondary or even primary school. This is very important for young children in order to be able to cope with any computer challenges that may arise. Computer science is a technical subject which demands a skillful teacher to handle it, if the students should be expected to perform well in it.
The growing need for computer literacy has made it imperative that increased attention be given to the study of computer at all level of education especially in secondary schools. The researcher observation on junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State shows that laboratory, computer and instructional materials required for learning of computer studies are not only inadequate but have not been fully utilized. Further interaction with student has shown that they are not taught computer studies regularly like any other subject due to shortage of computer teachers. However, one of the reasons why computer teachers are in short supply is that when teachers with computer qualification are employed, they prefer to teach mathematics rather than computer subject. Most of these computer teachers have been exposed only to the theoretical aspect of their programme while little or no attention was paid to the practical aspect of their programme during their years of training. (Aghadino, 2014).
It therefore means that without proper improvement on the gaps facing computer studies in junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State, Secondary School Students upon graduation are bound to be completely obsolete in our contemporary society where knowledge of computer has become a prerequisite for employment, interview and in some cases for promotion. Following this assertion, we know that the junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A. are faced with problems that hinder the effective teaching-learning of all the subjects especially-computer science. It is on this basis that the researcher deems it necessary to conduct a study on the perception of junior secondary school students’ on difficulties in learning computers and tend to provide strategies for improving computer studies in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to identify factors militating against the effective teaching – learning of computer science in some junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A. of Enugu State.

The specific objectives include;

  1. To find out students-related difficulties in learning computer in Junior Secondary School
  2. To determine School-related difficulties affecting learning of computer in Secondary Schools
  3. To find out strategies in improving learning of computer in Junior Secondary Schools.

1.4 Research Questions

To achieve the objective of the study, three research questions were formulated.

  1. What are students-related difficulties affecting learning of Computer studies in Junior Secondary Schools?
  2. What are the school-related difficulties affecting learning of computer studies?
  3. What are the strategies for improving the learning of computer studies?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be important to the teachers of computer science and also the learners while learning the subject. By so doing, it will help them to improve on their teaching method. The teacher will benefit because it will avail them the opportunity of discovering the teaching method to be used and the materials suitable for teaching-learning of computer science in junior secondary schools. It will enable them to discover the areas that they need to help the computer teachers improve on. It will equally lead to the discovering of students problems or weaknesses in the study of computer science. To the students, they study so as to enable them to identify their own problems in the study of computer science.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is meant to cover the junior secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A. of Enugu State. It will equally discuss the method of teaching-learning of computer science. The study will as well study the problems facing the teachers and students in teaching–learning of computer science and also the physical environment factors.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

The chapter is concisely built on the summary of study, conclusion, and recommendations.


5.1 Summary of the study

The main purpose of this study was to establish the difficulties in teaching computer studies in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State. In an attempt to focus the study, three research questions were posited to guide the study. Some published and unpublished works of earlier researchers were consulted.

To obtain answers to the questions a fifteen (15) item questionnaire was formulated based on the research questions and was administered to two hundred (200) respondents upon whose responses data was collected and analyzed.

The outcome of the analysis based on the responses of the respondents to the questionnaire items revealed that:
There are student related factors that causes difficulty in teaching computer studies. There are school-related factors that cause difficulty in teaching of computer studies in secondary schools. Proffer corrective strategies for improving the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools in Enugu North.

Therefore, it was concluded that it was concluded that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in other to improve the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools.


5.2 Conclusion

The study concludes that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in order to improve the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools. The study is of the view that computer studies should provide sound basis for further training in computer studies at the tertiary level of education thus should be relied upon to enable students acquire the basic skills and knowledge needed to either secure a job and earn a living or to pursue further studies in the area computer and information science.

Evidence from the study also revealed that funding strategies for computer studies could be used in improving the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools. It is also found that strategies for improving the availability and supply of instructional facilities as well as teaching methodologies strategies could be used to enhance the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools. It is evident in the study that when students are adequately trained under an improved learning environment where instructional facilities are provided and qualified teachers engaged for the services of teaching and learning applying by proper teaching techniques there is no doubt that the performance of students in computer studies will improve considerably, and as such they are bound to develop a remarkable interest in computer studies and develop the necessary skills required to secure and succeed in the workplace.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher hereby makes the following recommendations:

  1. School administrators (Education Secretaries and Principals) should ensure that computer teachers are sponsored on retraining programmes at least twice a year through workshops, seminars and conferences to enable them learn the modern technological skills in their chosen field of endeavour.
  2. The school administrators should as a matter of urgency liase with private sectors to provide computers and other instructional materials needed for teaching of computer studies.
  3. Parents through the PTA and other major stakeholders of our education should assists our secondary schools by donating instructional facilities like laptops, desktop computers, multimedia, generating sets, internet etc to enable students practice and acquire the skills of computing.

Factors Militating Against The Effective Teaching – Learning Of Computer Science In Junior Secondary Schools


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