Factors Militating Against Effective Administration In Secondary School

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Factors Militating Against Effective Administration In Secondary School


Abstract


This study investigated the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo State. The study employed a survey design and it was guided by two research questions and one null hypothesis that were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study consisted of 5,896 subjects, comprising 268 principals and 5,628 teachers in the 268 public secondary schools in Imo State. The sample for the study was 600 respondents that were selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The study sample was made up of 100 principals and 500 teachers. The instrument for data collection was a 20-item research-developed structured questionnaire that underwent validity and reliability tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the null hypothesis was tested with t-test statistic at 0.05 level of significance.

The findings of the study showed, among others, that the challenges to effective administration of secondary schools in Imo state include: insufficient funds; inadequate physical facilities, equipment and instructional materials; inadequate qualified staff, inadequate staff motivation, poor decision-making, and poor leadership style of school principals.

Key words: perceived challenges, effective administration, and principals.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education has been widely acknowledged as an instrument for achieving socio-economic growth and national development. This is true of the fact that it is through well planned and implemented educational systems that advanced nations of the world have achieved high level of socio-economic growth and national development. No wonder Okolo (2010) viewed education as the key to solid development of the individual for the acquisition of competencies necessary for self development and national development.

In Nigeria, there are different levels of education institutions among which is the secondary school level which is also regarded as the post-primary school level. Ogbonnaya (2003) conceptualized secondary school as an educational institution where full-time education is provided and directed at pupils between the ages of eleven or twelve and eighteen plus. This definition shows that secondary school is a school where children receive education after they have received primary education and it, therefore, serves as a link between primary and tertiary education institutions.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) articulated the broad goals of secondary schools as including the preparation f students for useful living within the society, and preparation for high education. It is noteworthy that the achievement of these goals of secondary schools depends on effective administration of these schools. Gregg (1997) defined administration as the process of directing and controlling life in an organization, while Osuala and Okeke (2006) viewed it as a systematic process involving the use of human, financial and material resources in achieving specified goals and objectives. It can be deduced from these definitions that administration is an activity that is concerned with making people, activities and things to function so that objectives will be achieved; administration involves using men, materials and funds in an organization to achieve objectives; and it also involves directing and controlling the affairs of an organization. In support of these views, Ogbonnaya (2004) remarked that educational administrators play very important roles in the enhancement of teaching and learning process in schools by procuring and managing funds; proving and maintaining staff, physical facilities and equipment as well as establishing and maintaining school-community relations.

Heads of secondary schools are tasked with the implications of these objectives. The success of secondary school education rests on a good administration involving the local communities, adequate and well qualified teachers, adequate funds for infrastructural facilities, together with interested parents supplying children’s material needs and bringing home training to supplement the efforts of the teachers at school. For heads of secondary schools to succeed in the administration of secondary schools, they need the collaboration and sustenance of the parents, teachers, the Post Primary Schools Service Commission and the Ministry of Education.

In spite of the roles of secondary education, Ajayi (2014) reported of public crises of various dimensions such as poor funding, poor educational infrastructure—which include inadequate classrooms, inadequate and low quality teachers, and polluted learning environment. In a school, where these infrastructures and amenities are not well provided, heads of secondary schools efforts to administer schools diligently will be disenchanted. Probable outcomes of this kind of situation comprise unruly and disorderly students, non-literate population and an unresponsive teaching workforce (Ikegbusi, 2014). These hinder the fulfillment of educational objectives. Many secondary schools in Anambra state are not excused from this bitter state of matters. Many are confronted by a constant outburst of rowdy behavior on the part of students, a constant lack of educational amenities as well as an overpopulation of students. Administration according to Peretomode (2003) is the component part of the management concerned with facilitating accomplishment of the objectives of an organization like school through the systematic management of constraints and careful utilization of the available limited resources like human, material, finance and so on. Okeke (2014) sees secondary school administration as involving the provision and maintenance of the necessary manpower to those who teach children with a view to bring about the desired change in the children’s behaviour. The school principals face numerous administrative problems which militate against operative running of their schools. These include inadequate and low quality teachers, inadequate funding to maintain schools and paying teachers’ salaries, intrusion by parents. Others are lack of accommodation for students, indiscipline behaviours on the part of teachers and students and uncooperative assertiveness of other school staff. Where the heads fail to arrest these situations and problems, the smooth running of secondary school is conceded. Etuk (2007) outlined the following under listed functions of school administration as staff personnel administration, student personnel administration, finance and physical resources, and school community relationship management.

In his own perspective, Emenike (2010) attributed the ugly state of affairs in secondary schools in Imo state to the challenges faced by the secondary school principals in their administration of these schools and which were not yet known because no study has been carried out to determine these challenges. In relation to Emenike’s view, Anakwe (2010) opined that there are possible strategies that can be adopted to tackle the challenges to effective administration of secondary schools in South East Nigeria. By Virtue of the fact that the challenges to effective administration of secondary schools in Imo state and the strategies for dealing with the challenge lacked empirical knowledge gap, the problem of this study put in a question form was: what are the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo State and what are the strategies that can be adopted to deal with these challenges.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In spite of the roles of secondary education, Ajayi (2014) reported of public crises of various dimensions such as poor funding, poor educational infrastructure—which include inadequate classrooms, inadequate and low quality teachers, and polluted learning environment. In a school, where these infrastructures and amenities are not well provided, heads of secondary schools efforts to administer schools diligently will be disenchanted. Probable outcomes of this kind of situation comprise unruly and disorderly students, non-literate population and an unresponsive teaching workforce (Ikegbusi, 2014). These hinder the fulfillment of educational objectives. Many secondary schools in Anambra state are not excused from this bitter state of matters. Many are confronted by a constant outburst of rowdy behavior on the part of students, a constant lack of educational amenities as well as an overpopulation of students.

Administration according to Peretomode (2003) is the component part of the management concerned with facilitating accomplishment of the objectives of an organization like school through the systematic management of constraints and careful utilization of the available limited resources like human, material, finance and so on. Okeke (2014) sees secondary school administration as involving the provision and maintenance of the necessary manpower to those who teach children with a view to bring about the desired change in the children’s behaviour.

The school principals face numerous administrative problems which militate against operative running of their schools. These include inadequate and low quality teachers, inadequate funding to maintain schools and paying teachers’ salaries, intrusion by parents. Others are lack of accommodation for students, indiscipline behaviours on the part of teachers and students and uncooperative assertiveness of other school staff. Where the heads fail to arrest these situations and problems, the smooth running of secondary school is conceded. Etuk (2007) outlined the following under listed functions of school administration as staff personnel administration, student personnel administration, finance and physical resources, and school community relationship management. The above fit well with the objectives of this study.

In his own perspective, Emenike (2010) attributed the ugly state of affairs in secondary schools in Imo state to the challenges faced by the secondary school principals in their administration of these schools and which were not yet known because no study has been carried out to determine these challenges. In relation to Emenike’s view, Anakwe (2010) opined that there are possible strategies that can be adopted to tackle the challenges to effective administration of secondary schools in South East Nigeria. By Virtue of the fact that the challenges to effective administration of secondary schools in Imo state and the strategies for dealing with the challenge lacked empirical knowledge gap, the problem of this study put in a question form was: what are the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo State and what are the strategies that can be adopted to deal with these challenges.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the factors militating against effective administration in secondary school. Specifically, the study aims;

  1. To Examine the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo State.
  2. To Suggest the strategies that can be adopted to deal with the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo state

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the two research questions below:

  1. What are the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo State.
  2. What are the strategies that can be adopted to deal with the challenges to effective administration of secondary schools in Imo state?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The study was also guided by one null hypothesis as formulated below:

H01: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the perceived challenges to effective administrating of secondary schools in Imo State.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of a study of this magnitude cannot be overemphasized. Parents, local government education department, state and federal ministries of education involved in policy formulation and implementation, would find this study really useful especially as they utilize the findings of the study.

The study will equally add to the existing body of knowledge on the subject matter. Students undergoing research work similar to the present study who may wish to use this work as a reference material or a spring board for their own work will find this work really useful


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study was carried out among principals and teachers of government secondary schools in Imo State of Nigeria.

The study covered all government secondary schools This is because all government secondary schools in the state operate under one Ministry of Education and the school structure, curriculum content and SSCE Examination structure are quite homogenous.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Principal:

The principal is a school educator who has authority for a school, he represent the school in the instructional division and in the administrative council. He interpret methods and techniques of implementing district adopted program, his decision are normally considered final in respect to the responsibility of specific school constituency with district policy, goals and objectives.

Management:

This has to do with the way something is handled, careful supervision. School management is the combination of different administration and their roles in the operation of the school.

Role:

This is the action and activities assigned to or expected of a person, it is a function that is to be carried out as a part of one’s obligation as a head or being ordered to.

School:

A school is an institution where instruction is given especially to a person to acquire skills and learning.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors militating against effective administration in secondary school, Imo State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the factors militating against effective administration in secondary school, Imo State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo State and investigating if the strategies that can be adopted to deal with the factors militating against effective administration of secondary schools in Imo state.

And one null hypothesis that states that there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the factors militating against effective administrating of secondary schools in Imo State

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 600 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are principals and teachers of secondary schools in Imo state.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

Effective administration of secondary schools is pivotal to quality education delivery in these schools. This is due to the fact that it is through effective and efficient administration of secondary school that effective teaching and learning can be guaranteed in these schools. However, the research findings have shown that there are challenges to effective administration of secondary schools in Imo state as well as strategies that can be used to tackle these challenges. It is, therefore, necessary that the secondary school principals should employ these strategies in dealing with the multifarious challenges facing their administrative endeavours so as to enable them realize their educational goals maximally.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. There should be increased funding of secondary schools in order to enable them have sufficient funds at their disposal for effective administration of their schools.
  2. There should be adequate provision of physical facilities, equipment and instructional materials to secondary schools.
  3. Quality staff should be adequately provided in secondary schools.
  4. The secondary schools staff should be adequately motivated to enable them perform maximally.
  5. Secondary school principals should ensure that they adopt good leadership style in their leadership roles.
  6. There should be strict enforcement of discipline among staff and students of secondary schools.
  7. Finally, the ministries of education and educational policymakers should discard the idea of making frequent changes in educational policies so as to avoid the confusion and chaos that go with it.

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