Factors Influencing Some Schools On Academic Achievement In A Selected Pre-Primary School

Project and Seminar Material for Child and Basic Education

Factors Influencing Some Schools On Academic Achievement In A Selected Pre-Primary School

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Classrooms, teaching methods, teacher quality, school administration, and classmates are only a few of the aspects that influence a student’s academic achievement (Oluchukwu, 2000). As a result, school elements remain an important component that should be well researched and handled in order to improve students’ academic achievement. Parents, teachers, and school administrators in Nigeria have been concerned about the impact of school factors on pre-primary school students’ academic achievement. The quality of education is determined not only by the teachers’ performance in their jobs, but also by the school administration’s good coordination (Ajayi, 2001). In the teaching-learning process, school aspects such as teaching spaces planning, administrative space planning, circulation space planning for conveniences planning, accessories planning, teachers, and students themselves are all important. The degree to which a student’s learning may be improved is determined by their placement within the school grounds, the organization of their classroom, and the availability of teaching materials and equipment. It is considered that a well-planned education would set up intended educational results that will promote excellent social, political, and economic emancipation, affect teaching and learning processes, and affect students’ academic achievement (Davis, 2001). According to Marsden (2005), a safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional spaces) as well as school facilities (accessories) have a substantial impact on students’ academic achievement. The three researchers also cited Glassman (1994), who claimed that, among other things, a warm and caring environment contributed to improve students’ academic performance. Teachers, students, and the learning process are all affected by the physical characteristics of the school. Teaching and learning are made more difficult by inadequate illumination, noise, excessive levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and stable temperatures (Turner, 2008). Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems result in low health among students and instructors, resulting in poor performance and greater absenteeism rates (Ostendorf, 2001). These variables can have a negative impact on students’ behavior, leading to increased instructor irritation and a bad learning attitude among students. Beyond the direct effects of poor facilities on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an unpleasant and uninviting workplace for teachers, and frustrating behavior by students, such as poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers (Frazier, 2002). Because stress and work unhappiness are typical precursors to decreased teacher enthusiasm, it’s probable that the aforementioned school facility qualities have an impact on students’ academic achievement. Previous research has looked into the link between a poor school environment, which includes issues such as student-teacher ratios, school location, student population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistency in classroom temperature, and students’ health, behavior, and achievement (Smaldino, 2000). To supplement existing studies, the current study will look at how the aforementioned aspects of the school environment affect the performance of pre-primary school students in Nigerian schools.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Oluchukwu (2000) argued that the school environment is a basic component that affects students’ academic achievement, highlighting the relevance and effect of various school characteristics on students’ academic achievement. He went on to say that “much teaching and learning may not take place unless schools are properly matched, buildings are suitably created, and equipment is adequately employed and maintained.” Where instructional space, such as classrooms and the school environment, is physically deficient, high levels of student academic success may not be assured (Lysons, 2001). However, in a metropolitan area like Kaduna State, little is known about the impact of the variables on students’ academic achievement. As a result, the purpose of this study is to look at the impact of various school characteristics on academic achievement in chosen pre-primary schools (such as school location, availability, and suitable classroom class size).

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To investigate the link between the school environment and the academic performance of students.
  2. To investigate the influence of school amenities on the performance of pre-primary school students.
  3. To investigate if factors such as class size are thought to enhance or impede pulps learning in the academic process of pre-primary school students.
  4. To determine the impact of school location on pre-primary school students’ academic progress.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How can the link between the school environment and the academic achievement of students be determined?
  2. What is the influence of school amenities on the achievement of pre-primary school students?
  3. How can factors such as class size enhance or impede pulps learning in the academic process of pre-primary school students?
  4. What are the impacts of school location on pre-primary school students’ academic achievement?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research is intended to give information to parents, educators, and school officials on numerous aspects that aid students in reaching their academic objectives. As a result, they may look into the prospect of bringing such elements to their schools and children, which might lead to improved educational outcomes for students in schools. Aside from the fact that this research is done in private schools, it has a lot in common with many other studies. In this sense, this study serves as a significant resource for other schools (both public and private) in terms of the school characteristics that influence pre-primary students’ academic achievement. The outcomes of this study will also serve as a guide to the government as to which school amenities and components of the school environment should be supplied in order to improve pre-primary school academic achievement of students.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study examines the impact of school characteristics on pre-primary school academic achievement in a few chosen schools in Kaduna State’s Kataf Local Government Area. However, the scope of this study is confined to five private elementary schools in the local government area.

1.7 Definition of Terms


A school is an educational institution in which students are taught by teachers.

School Factors:

Include the equipment and materials used to help in the teaching and learning process. Illustrations of teaching materials.

Private School:

Is one that is privately owned and operated and is financed by endowment and tuition.

Teacher Quality:

A teacher’s abilities and competences during the teaching and learning process are defined by their credentials, experience, and style of delivery.

Academic Achievement:

Assessment of a student’s academic performance and advancement. This would be assessed in this study by the students’ results on the researcher-created accomplishment exam.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the factors that affect academic performance?

When these problems become severe, then academic performance is regarded as the major factor that gets affected in a negative manner. Individuals have to in completing their assignments or preparing for the tests. the performance of household chores.

What are the factors that affect promotion in school?

Schools promotion to next class usually depends upon the results of the final examinations. memory of the individuals. When an individual is not confident and is fearful, then even if he is well-prepared, he is unable to render an effective performance. Fear of examinations results in low academic achievement.

How to improve the academic performance of secondary school students?

For the secondary school students, it is important to get engaged in extra- skills. It is essential for the students to create a balance between all the tasks and activities. can be spent on the activities that are less important. to generate appropriate academic outcomes.

Is academic achievement an indicator of school effectiveness?

As one of the criteria of the quality of education, students’ academic achievement was investigated because it is most often cited as an indicator of school effectiveness by school authorities and educationists. 


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