Factors Influencing Craftsman’s Productivity On Building Construction Site In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Factors Influencing Craftsman’s Productivity On Building Construction Site In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the factors influencing craftsman’s productivity on building construction site using Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria as a case study. The study was carried out to investigate the design and specification related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria, determine the construction technological related factors factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria, and determine the organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of craftsman in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the design and specification related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria includes: delay in preparation and delivery of drawings by consultant, incomplete and inaccurate drawings, incomplete and inaccurate design, and design change. Furthermore, the study revealed that the organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria includes: incompetence of labors deployed, cash flow and financial difficulties, poor resources management, and lack of craft men motivation in the enterprise. Therefore, it is recommended that the construction industry needs to give more emphasis on technological and organizational related factors to enhance Productivity of craft men in construction sites. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Range of construction sites is wide and divided into various segments usually residential buildings, commercial buildings, industrial buildings, road construction, utility construction etc. Construction involves various people, skills, organizations, technologies, contracting methods, financing arrangements and regulatory mechanisms and has different phases such as planning, designing and building, and then they are used, maintained, repaired, renovated and eventually demolished or replaced in their life cycle. This diversity of construction sites makes it difficult to manage. Now a big question is that how can we measure construction productivity considering all these segments, aspects and phases.

The construction industry remains one of the few most labor intensive industries in the developing countries. It is therefore very important to understand the concept of construction Productivity of craft men. In different researches it was argued that productivity measurement techniques could be perceived as theoretical, difficult and expensive for construction companies to adopt.

Good project management in construction must strongly measure and monitor productivity on construction site Chris (2017). Construction productivity has got increased attention from different construction researchers. Researchers and practitioners around the world have provided several contributions on areas related to construction work productivity. In addition, the result of different researches indicated that productivity is a complex issue as many factors influence productivity such as labor, capital, material, equipment, tools and equipment, poor communication or relationship between workers and management, disorganized projects, poor supervision, lack of cooperation and communication between different workers, and unfair workloads are the some of the factors that affect productivity. Technical problems like inadequate designs or incomplete engineering work can also lead to a decrease in construction productivity Dozzi (2016). The main findings of previous studies indicate that the critical areas influencing construction productivity were related to materials, tools, equipment availability, and the Workers‟ performance.

Increasing the construction work productivity benefits a contractor in several ways: projects can be completed more quickly, project cost will be lowered, the contractor can submit more competitive bids, the project becomes more profitable and in addition it makes the firm to be capable and also helps to have good will among different stakeholders. Therefore, measuring productivity, identifying factors influencing productivity and use productivity improving approaches should be a major and continual concern for construction contractors to increase the probability of projects to be completed as per the budgeted cost and specified time.

The purpose for which a construction enterprise is established is to engage in any construction activity mainly to satisfy the national defense construction and infrastructural development needs. Besides, to engage in the construction of roads, dams, irrigation infrastructure, Buildings and other construction related works in the country.
Henceforth its establishment, the enterprise had completed 18 roads, dam, irrigation, building and real estate projects which worth around birr 4.7 billion in the last seven years. Currently, there are 23 construction sites under construction which worth around 14.7 billion. The enterprise annual income turnover is around 1.7 billion on average for the last seven years.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the construction industry productivity loss is one of the greatest and severe problems. Previous researches shown that, from various project-costs a component such as labors, materials and equipment‟s, labor component is considered the most risk. Whereas others components (equipment and material) can be determined by the market price. Labor cost in construction industry is estimated to be about 33%- 50% of the entire project cost Hanna (2015). Because labor is more variable and unpredictable than other project-cost components, it becomes necessary to understand the effects of different factors on Productivity of craft men. Previous research confirms that productivity loss results from various factors, which includes but not limited to various variation in long hour of extra work, poor field management, and extreme climate conditions (Alarcon and Borcherding ,2011; Thomas and oloufa, 2011). There are many researches worldwide had been done on Productivity of craft men, which investigating factors that affect Productivity of craft men. But none of them address the factors that affect Productivity of craft men in Oredo Local Government Area building construction. The researcher is inspired to assess the factors related to the enterprise context and provide practical suggestion and recommendation aiming to upgrade the knowledge in order to improve the Productivity of craft men in building construction sites in Oredo Local Government Area. This study shall be identifying design and specification related factors, construction technological related factors, and organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.

Other specific objectives are to:

  1. Investigate the design and specification related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.
  2. Determine the construction technological related factors factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.
  3. Determine the organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The research will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the design and specification related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria?
    1. Delay in Preparation and delivery of drawings by consultant,
    2. Incomplete and inaccurate drawings,
    3. Incomplete and inaccurate design,
    4. Design change
  2. What are the construction technological related factors factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria?
    1. Lack of construction equipment and tools,
    2. Lack of technological advancements for machineries,
    3. Lack of adequate technological knowledge,
    4. Poor maintenance of available technological equipment
  3. What are the organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria?
    1. Incompetence of labors deployed,
    2. Cash flow and financial difficulties,
    3. Poor resources management,
    4. Lack of craft men motivation in the enterprise.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There are no significant factors influencing craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.
  • Ha: There are significant factors influencing craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Productivity has a great significance in the construction industry. Productivity of craft men a significant part of production input for construction sites. In the construction industry, many external and internal factors are never constant and are difficult to anticipate. This factor leads to a continuous variation in Productivity of craft men. It is necessary to bear in mind that a reduction in productivity affects the schedule of the work and causes delays. The consequences of these delays could result in serious money losses.

Increased productivity in the construction industry benefits the two Contracting; the Client and the Contractor of the project. From the Clients‟ perspective, increased productivity lowers costs, shortens construction schedules and achieves better returns on investments. From the contractor‟s perspective, increased productivity leads to a more satisfied customer, leads to faster turnover and increased profits.

The conclusions that will be drawn from this study will be used by the construction practitioners in Oredo Local Government Area to take account of these factors at an early stage in order to minimize the time and cost overrun. Besides, the investigated factors can serve as a checklist for construction practitioners to give attention to enhance the productivity of labors so as to make the project to be completed as per the plan.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the factors influencing craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria. The study will by delimited to design and specification related factors, construction technological related factors, and organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria. Geographically, this study will be carried out in Oredo Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Construction Project

The organized effort to construct a building or structure.

Craftsmen:

A construction worker who practices a trade, for example, carpentry trade.

Productivity:

The quantity of work produced per man-hour, equipment-hour, or crew-hour.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors influencing craftsman’s productivity on building construction site using Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the factors influencing craftsman’s productivity on building construction site using Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to investigate the design and specification related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria, determine the construction technological related factors factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria, and determine the organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are craftsman in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The design and specification related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria includes: delay in preparation and delivery of drawings by consultant, incomplete and inaccurate drawings, incomplete and inaccurate design, and design change.
  2. The construction technological related factors factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria includes: lack of construction equipment and tools, lack of technological advancements for machineries, lack of adequate technological knowledge, and poor maintenance of available technological equipment.
  3. The organizational related factors which influences craftsman’s productivity on building construction site in Nigeria includes: incompetence of labors deployed, cash flow and financial difficulties, poor resources management, and lack of craft men motivation in the enterprise.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The construction industry needs to give more emphasis on technological and organizational related factors to enhance Productivity of craft men in construction sites.
  2. The level of supervision and level of skills of craftsmen particularly have to be improved. Contractors should focus on improving these areas by giving refresher courses, rewarding on the basis of skill and output, and participating in structured training on workers in the construction industry.
  3. The construction industry should deploy the labor of skilled craftsmen, and the training of the existing ones is paramount to enable the craftsmen keep up with the level of technological advancements.
  4. The construction industry has to improve its equipment management system and also need to avoid a carelessness attitude of its workers in handling and improve lack of proper maintenance.
  5. The construction industry needs to use advance payment properly to avoid the cash flow and financial problems.

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