Factors Influencing The Acceptance Of Covid-19 Vaccine In Some Selected Rural Communities In Osun State.

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Factors Influencing The Acceptance Of Covid-19 Vaccine In Some Selected Rural Communities In Osun State.


Abstract


This study was carried out on the factors influencing the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in some selected rural communities in Osun State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of residents of Rural Communities in Osun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 113 respondents and 85 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypothesis were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State is high. The study also revealed that the attitude of residents toward covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State is negative. Furthermore, the study revealed that the extent at which resident accepts covid-19 vaccination in Rural Communities in Osun State is low. Therefore, it is recommended that to diminish the vaccine hesitancy and increase the uptake, the policymakers need to design a well-researched immunization strategy to remove the vaccination barriers. And to improve vaccine acceptance among people, false rumors and misconceptions about the COVID-19 vaccines must be dispelled (especially on the internet) and people must be exposed to the actual scientific facts. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The Covid-19 pandemic, which had a severe global impact, spurred the need for mitigation strategies to control the pandemic. The Corona virus illness (SARS-CoV-2) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 virus initially appeared in late 2019 in Wuhan (Hubei, China) and quickly became a global threat affecting nations worldwide. As of the 22nd of December, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in about 76.2 million illnesses and over 1.6 million fatalities globally (Sarah M. 2020). Most nations across the globe use non-pharmaceutical treatments (NPIs) to prevent disease transmission, such as enforcing mask policies, hand cleanliness, social distance, travel restrictions, school closures, and partial or total lockdowns. So far, NPIs have been able to halt the course of the disease, but the most promising method for containing the pandemic and offering hope for lower death and morbidity rates remains within medical technology’s capabilities. Antiviral medicines and vaccinations are examples of such medical technology. They are effective, safe, and inexpensive.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that induces active acquired immunity against a specific infectious illness. A vaccination usually comprises an agent that looks like a disease-causing bacterium and is frequently produced from weakened or dead versions of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. Vaccines are one of the most dependable and cost-effective public health treatments ever developed, saving millions of lives each year. Following the deciphering of the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020 and the declaration of the pandemic by WHO in March 2020, scientists and pharmaceutical companies were racing against time in efforts to develop vaccines. As of October 2020, at least 85 vaccines were under preclinical development in animals, and 63 were in clinical development in humans, with 43 in phase I, 21 in phase II, and 18 in phase III. 6 were authorized for early or limited use in late September 2020, 2 were approved for full use, and one vaccine was abandoned. Remdesivir was authorized as an emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2020 for extremely sick hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, the WHO advised against its use on November 22, 2020, and later that month, Pfizer-(BNT162b2) BioNTech’s and Moderna’s (mRNA-1273) mRNA vaccines were authorized for use internationally. (Piltch-Loeb Savoia Goldberg Hughes Verhey & Kayyem 2021).

Although vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions and a cornerstone for the prevention of communicable infectious diseases, to ensure progress on Covid-19 vaccination, public acceptance is required to maintain herd immunity, prevent outbreaks of vaccine illnesses, and ensure individuals do not hesitate to adopt novel vaccines. While the development of COVID-19 vaccines has been an extraordinary success, vaccinating most of the global population is an enormous challenge, one for which gaining and maintaining public trust in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination will be as essential as the effectiveness of the vaccines themselves.

However, in an information age where everyone has access to information and misinformation on the media, several facts and myths about the Covid-19 vaccine have been shared both on the social media and on the traditional media, thus arousing doubts, anxiety and hesitancy among the public about whether to take or not to take the vaccine.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent times, public health promotion is inevitable to increase the coverage rate of these vaccines. Vaccination acceptance is a continuous necessity of concern to public health promotions, especially regarding citizens´ willingness, perceptions, and attitudes to receive newly developed vaccines such as the COVID-19 vaccine.Although specialists believe the COVID-19 vaccine is required to properly contain the pandemic, as a result, public health scholars have turned to answer how many people in their countries are willing to accept the COVD-19 vaccination. According to Acerbi (2019) identify the determining factors across the general population which stimulate or inhibit the acceptance of vaccination, while previous experience with vaccines administration had often reported a low acceptance rate. To buttress further, Adelana (2020) averred that earlier in 2020, poor attitudes and perceptions about vaccine reception were speculated as a significant health promotion problem. Previous studies on readiness to receive COVID-19 vaccines have outlined such factors as beliefs about the threat of the disease, fears about vaccine safety, incorrect health beliefs, and physicians´ recommendations (Egbuniwe 2020). Maclean & Dahil (2020)used the health belief model to confirm that the risk perceptions of the disease, the perceptions of vaccine safety and efficacy, attitudes and vaccination convenience, and socio-demographic variables are all determinants for accepting a pandemic vaccine. In addition, the cost, location of the development, and perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccines may be big problems for people who want to get vaccinated. These issues should be taken into account in health campaigns. Following this terrain, reveals that there is still a strong need for the use of radio, Nigerian languages, and town criers to ensure that correct information about COVID-19 vaccination reaches people, irrespective of their location or literacy level, and the message on the radio should be persuasive enough to build trust among people towards vaccination acceptance. Therefore, it is upon the premise that this study seeks to examine the factors influencing the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in some selected Rural Communities In Osun State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the factors influencing the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in some selected Rural Communities In Osun State. Specifically the study seeks:

  1. To ascertain the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State.
  2. To determine the attitude of residents toward covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State.
  3. To investigate the extent at which resident accepts covid-19 vaccination in Rural Communities in Osun State.
  4. To establish factors affecting covid-19 vaccine acceptance in Rural Communities in Osun State.

1.4 Research Question

The research is guided by the following questions:

  1. What is the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State?
  2. What is the attitude of residents toward covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State?
  3. What is the extent at which resident accepts covid-19 vaccination in Rural Communities in Osun State?
  4. What are the factors affecting covid-19 vaccine acceptance in Rural Communities in Osun State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • HO1: The extent at which resident accepts covid-19 vaccination in Rural Communities in Osun State is Low.
  • H02: Resident has negative attitude towards the acceptance of covid-19 vaccination in Rural Communities in Osun State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of the study will be relevant to the rural people, Radio Stations, Public presenters, government agencies such as NCDC and as well be relevant for academic purposes. To Radio and media personnel, findings from the study will aid them to see the need as well recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize misinformation in Nigeria and as well persuade the audience to take the Covid-19 vaccination.Thus News and program content need to be carefully sourced and tailored to ensure that listeners in cities and at the grassroots, receive updated and accurate information about COVID-19 vaccination.To NCDC, findings from the study will compel the immediate need for them to sponsor more awareness on the Covid-19 vaccine as this will help the audience to take the message more serious. Finally the study will contribute empirically to the body of Knowledge and as well serve as a reference material for student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on knowledge, attitude and acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State. The study is however delimited to Rural Communities in Osun State, Taraba State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Acceptance:

The action of consenting to receive or undertake something offered.

Vaccine:

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.0 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State, determine the attitude of residents toward covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State, investigate the extent at which resident accepts covid-19 vaccination in Rural Communities in Osun State, and identify the factors that determine covid-19 vaccine acceptance in Rural Communities in Osun State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 85 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were residents of some selected Rural Communities in Osun State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State is high.
  2. The attitude of residents toward covid-19 vaccine in Rural Communities in Osun State is negative.
  3. The extent at which resident accepts covid-19 vaccination in Rural Communities in Osun State is low.
  4. The factors that determine covid-19 vaccine acceptance in Rural Communities in Osun State included; Belief, cost, privy to information, and literacy level.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. To diminish the vaccine hesitancy and increase the uptake, the policymakers need to design a well-researched immunization strategy to remove the vaccination barriers.
  2. To improve vaccine acceptance among people, false rumors and misconceptions about the COVID-19 vaccines must be dispelled (especially on the internet) and people must be exposed to the actual scientific facts.
  3. Since low acceptance was detected, awareness campaigns are required to spread reliable knowledge about COVID-19 vaccines.

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