Factors That Influence School Dropout Among Geography Students In Some Selected Government Senior Secondary School In Mubi North LGA, Adamawa State

Geography Education Project And Seminar Material

Factors That Influence School Dropout Among Geography Students In Some Selected Government Senior Secondary School In Mubi North LGA, Adamawa State (Obong)


Abstract


This study was carried out an evaluation of the factors that influence school dropout among geography students in some selected government senior secondary school in Mubi north LGA, Adamawa state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students in secondary schools in Mubi north LGA, Adamawa state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents, 215 were received and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that; the causes of dropout among students in Mubi north LGA, Adamawa state include; poverty of parents/guardians, loss of parent/sponsor/guardians, poor secondary school preparation, constant failing of courses, insecurity in the school environment, high cost/fee, fear of unemployment in the country, and ill health of students. The findings further show that the effect of dropout among students include; higher rates of unemployment, higher rates of criminal behavior and incarceration, academic retardation of victims, inadequate human development, and low skilled manpower. Therefore it is recommended that the guidance/Counselors in schools should be more alive to their responsibilities, in particular, sensitize the students regularly, on the importance of education, as well as the consequences of dropout.

Keywords: dropout, students.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Dropping out of school is a well-documented social problem and often present daunting circumstances for adolescents. Dropping out is also associated with delinquency, and low school achievements. One of the major reasons for children being kept out of school was the lack of education of parents.

The issue of school dropout in Nigeria has been with us for a very long time. Fafunwa (2008) noted that dropout is one of the most serious problems that have continued to bedevil our educational system since independence in 1960 from the colonial administration. Even before our independence, the problem of dropout has already established its grip on our educational system. This can be buttressed with the remark made by Nuffied foundations in 1953 that in the West coast of Africa, a considerable proportion of student’s dropout of school each year. It was found that parents’ attitudes towards education have a major effect on education. It seems that when either of the parents is literate or especially when women are literate, they are more willing to send their children, especially girls, to the school.

“The huge dropout rates, however, indicate that children, girls more often than boys, are needed for other activities such as looking after other siblings, domestic work and help with farm work. Parents play a crucial role in keeping young people in school.

De Cos (2005), commenting on the importance of graduation from high school noted that with the economy changing from a dependence on manufacturing towards more reliance on technology, services, and a “knowledge economy”, the need for education beyond high school has grown. In Nigeria of today, Senior School Certificate is considered as the minimum required for most jobs and status positions. This development has serious implications for the economic well being of dropouts and the society at large. In this era of global economic meltdown and global economic competitiveness, Nigeria as a nation that has vision must make concerted efforts to raise the educational attainment of all its youths who are the leaders of tomorrow. The degree and nature of family support are determined by such factors as a stressful/unstable home life, socio-economic status, minority membership, siblings’ completion of high school, single parent household, poor education of parents and primary language other than English” (Horn, 2010). The girls who are denied educational opportunities disproportionately as compared to boys suggests a clear cut discrimination in household behaviour. Parental and social attitudes in most Indian cultural context tend to perpetuate the stereotypes of girls being transient members of families on their journey to marriage and boys being the mainstay of support to ageing parents.

Globally, reasons why students dropout from school can be categorized into four clusters. These include; School related, Job related, family related, and community related. Study by Frenden berg and RugIls (2007) identified twenty four factors under family cluster; three factors under community cluster and twelve factors under school cluster. The factors identified under family cluster include; low family socio economic status, racial or ethnic groups, male, special education status, low family support for education, low parental education, residential mobility, low social conformity, low acceptance of adult authority, high level of social isolation, disruptive behavior conduct, being held back in school, poor academic achievement, academic problems in early grades, not liking school, feelings of “not fitting in” and of not belonging, perceptions of unfair or harsh disciplines, feeling unsafe in school, not engaged in school, being suspended or expelled, conflicts between work and school, having to work and school, having to work or support family, substance use and pregnancy. In community cluster, the following factors were identified: living in a low income neighborhood, having peers with low educational aspirations and having friends or siblings who are dropouts. Under school related cluster, these factors were identified; low socioeconomic status of school population, high level of racial or ethnic segregation of students, high proportion of students of color in high school, high proportion of students enrolled in special education, location in central city, large school district, school safety and disciplinary policies, high-stakes testing, high student —to- teacher ratio, academic tracking, discrepancy between the racial or ethnic composition of students and faculty, and lack of programs and support for transition into high for 9th and 10th graders. While job related cluster entails: those students who could not work and school at the same time, those who had to do a job to survive and those who found job.

It must be stressed at this point that variables in each of the clusters are not all conclusive. The reasons why students drop out of school vary from one society to another, and from one country to another. For example, in Pakistan, Mohsin et al (2004) found weak primary education system, non-availability of trained teachers, and parent-teacher relationship as the major causes of dropouts.
Most of the researches on the causes of dropout in Nigeria isolated the following: Poor educational background of parents, inability of parents to pay their children school fees, failure in school examination, very poor state of facilities in schools, unemployment of graduates, broken homes, types of parents occupation, school discipline policies, teenage pregnancy, early marriage and very early ambition for self-business and employment.

According to sokare (2008) the emotional effect include depressing, sorry, dreadful etc. in the political dimension sokare (2012) noted that during election, opponents of the dropout use the issue of dropout to use society to incorporate socio-economic and political instability, unhealthy and stressful society.

Study by Frendenberg and Ruglls (2007) identified twenty four factors under family cluster; three factors under community cluster and twelve factors under school cluster. The factors identified under family cluster include; low family socioeconomic status, racial or ethnic groups, male, special education status, low family support for education, low parental education, residential mobility, low social conformity, low acceptance of adult authority, high level of social isolation, disruptive behaviour conduct, being held back in school, poor academic achievement, academic problems in early grades, not liking school, feelings of “not fitting in” and of not belonging, perceptions of unfair or harsh disciplines, feeling unsafe in school, not engaged in school, being suspended or expelled, conflicts between work and school, having to work and school, having to work or support family, substance use and pregnancy. In community cluster, the following factors were indentified: living in a low income neighborhood, having peers with low educational aspirations and having friends or siblings who are dropouts. Under school related cluster, these factors were identified; low socioeconomic status of school population, high level of racial or ethnic segregation of students, high proportion of students of colour in school, high proportion of students enrolled in special education, location in central city, large school district, school safety and disciplinary policies, high-stakes testing, high student –to- teacher ratio, academic tracking, discrepancy between the racial or ethnic composition of students and faculty, and lack of programmes and support for transition into next level. While job related cluster entails: those students who could not work and school at the same time, those who had to do a job to survive and those who found job.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Most of the researches on dropout have been centered on causes, effects and remedies. Most if not all the researches in Nigeria on the same subject matter followed the same pattern. No studies to my knowledge in Nigeria studied dropout problems using the parameter “pattern of dropout” under the influences of school type and environment.The inability of students to attain their academic achievement is as a result of certain motivation, socio-economic background, (Fombo 2008). Another problem is because the female children began their domestic function at their early age as expected by their parent, the females at that stage combine both the domestic functions and educational responsibilities, which result to poor academic achievement.The dropout of students from schools is due to a complex interplay of socio-cultural, economic and structural factors. UNICEF (2004) report indicates that some 121 million children are out of school for various and 65 million of them are girls. With the educational rights of 65 million girls unmet, something should be done to ensure that they complete their education. The same report indicates that Nigeria is one of the 25 developing countries of the world with low enrolment rates for girls, gender gap of more than 10% in primary education and with more than 1 million girls out of school.

This study was carried out to correct the imbalance in research efforts on our knowledge of school dropout. Most of the researches on dropout have been centered on causes, effects and remedies. Most if not all the researches in Nigeria on the same subject matter followed the same pattern with case studies on primary and secondary school.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is examine the factors that influence school dropout among geography students in some selected government senior secondary school in Mubi north LGA, Adamawa state. The following are the specific objectives of this study:

  1. To determine the prevalence of dropout among students in Mubi north LGA.
  2. To examine the actors that influence school dropout among students in Mubi north LGA.
  3. To examine the effects of drop out among students in Mubi north LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the prevalence of dropout among students in Mubi north LGA?
  2. What are the actors that influence school dropout among students in Mubi north LGA?
  3. What are the effects of drop out among students in Mubi north LGA?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following formulated hypotheses will be tested in the course of the study;

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between school dropout rate and academic performance of secondary school students.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between school dropout rate and academic performance of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this study:

The results from this study will educate the students and the general public on the causes and effects of drop out among students. This study will also reveal the solutions to the issues of drop out among students.

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the factors that influence school dropout among geography students in some selected government senior secondary school in Mubi north LGA, Adamawa state. The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area

This study will cover the factors that influence school dropout among geography students in Mubi north LGA. It will also cover the solutions to the menace of school drop-out in Mubi north LGA.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Drop Out:

This means leaving high school, college, university or another group for practical reasons, necessities, inability, or disillusionment with the system from which the individual in question leaves.

Adult Education Programs:

Adult education programmes focus on training teachers who can provide instruction to adult students looking to advance their general knowledge, gain credentials or seeking a career change or advancement.


1.10 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the evaluation of the factors that influence school dropout among geography students in some selected government senior secondary school in Mubi North LGA, Adamawa state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on evaluation of the the factors that influence school dropout among among students in secondary schools using public secondary school in Mubi north LGA. The study is was specifically carried out to determine whether prevalence of dropout among students in Mubi north LGA, examine the causes of drop out among students in Mubi north LGA, and examine the effects of drop out among students in Mubi north LGA.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students in secondary schools in Mubi north LGA.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of dropout among students in Mubi north LGA is high.
  2. The causes of dropout among students in Mubi north LGA include; poverty of parents/guardians, loss of parent/sponsor/guardians, poor secondary school preparation, constant failing of courses, insecurity in the school environment, high cost/fee, fear of unemployment in the country, and ill health of students.
  3. The effect of dropout among students include; higher rates of unemployment, higher rates of criminal behavior and incarceration, academic retardation of victims, inadequate human development, and low skilled manpower.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Guidance/Counselors in schools should be more alive to their responsibilities, in particular, sensitize the students regularly, on the importance of education, as well as the consequences of dropout.
  2. Various media, such as newspapers, radio and television should be used by government to campaign and enlighten the parents about the importance of education and the evils inherent in dropout.
  3. Educational Administrators, Planners and Policymakers should assist the government in making policies that will prevent dropout syndrome; and increase the allocation to education, to be able to tackle its challenges, that are tied to finance.

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