Factors Impacting ICT Integration In Nigerian Public Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

Factors Impacting ICT Integration In Nigerian Public Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The world is not new to the employment of information communication technology in the classroom. In the early 1980s, the United States introduced information communication technology tools into schools, and they have been an integral element of education for decades to come (Bransford & Brown, 2000). Worldwide, the number of computers in secondary schools has expanded dramatically during the previous decade. The computer-to-student ratio grew from 1:9 in 1996 to 1:4 in 2001 in the United States. According to Market data Retrieval (2001), internet access increased from 70% in 1997 to 92% in 2001. In secondary schools in New Zealand, the computer to student ratio is 1:6 (Lari, Pratt, & Trewern, 2002), and 98 percent of all schools have internet access (Mallard, 2003). As a result, information communication technology is widely used as a tool for education teaching around the world. High levels of educational success are crucial for the transfer of technology and the adoption of significant changes in our society. Education attainment is one of the opportunities that will drive economic growth and strengthen the worldwide pattern of equality (United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2011). Education may be improved by giving students with opportunity to learn, operate, and be exposed to current technology. For the previous two decades, China’s higher education process has benefited significantly from information communication technology (Finger, et al 2007). It is widely used in distant education, depending on the executing agency, target students, and desired outcomes. The usage of ICT in general has increased in popularity over the last two decades as a result of the internet and the world wide web, with the internet being the world’s greatest repository of information (Parchler, 1999). Globally, information communication technology has altered the quality of education, and it is obvious that students are changing as a result of their use of ICT tools (Finger, et al 2007). ICT advancements have impacted every aspect of society, including education and its curricula. By integrating ICT into education, instructors’ teaching styles and pedagogical structures may be altered, hence improving students’ learning (Shear & Knobrel, 2003). It enables secondary school students to cultivate new ways of thinking, being, and acting in the world and to go on a journey of discovery (Khine & Fisher, 2003). Students can utilize ICTs to develop and create models, as well as use the internet to provide a new dimension to their learning. In Australia, a study of 6213 students’ computer abilities and knowledge examined four categories of activity related to ICT adoption (Thomas & Wise, 1999). These activities include creativity (50%) and information (70%) as well as communication and instructional programs (43% and 43%, respectively (43 percent ). ICT has also been employed in educational settings where educational technology has been used in place of ICT. Technological education is utilized to promote teaching, learning, and growth, as well as the effective use of computers for problem solving, classroom management, and leadership (Watson et-al, 2003). Thus, ICT in education and learning has the potential to impact changes in what and how learners learn, as well as to modify the organization and structure of schooling itself. ICT is impacting every element of human existence in Africa. It is prevalent in work environments, business, education, and entertainment. In Africa, information communication technology offers the ability to expand access and enhance the relevance and quality of education. It has aided in the acquisition and retention of information and bolstered educational systems (Fisseha, 2011).

The term “Information and Communication Technologies” refers to electronic technologies that are used to store and retrieve data. In recent years, information and communication technology (ICT) has been viewed as a critical instrument for assisting and enhancing education. Dawes (2001) believes that new technologies have the potential to assist education across the curriculum and to enable instructors and students to communicate effectively in ways not before feasible. ICT’s have clearly impacted the area of education, affecting teaching, learning, and research (Yusuf 2003). ICTS have the potential to accelerate, enhance, and deepen students’ abilities to motivate and engage them, to connect school experiences to work practices, to develop economic viability for tomorrow’s employees, and to strengthen teaching and assist schools in changing (Davis & Tearle 2009). According to Yelland (2001), conventional educational environments do not appear to be ideal for educating learners to operate and be productive in today’s society’s jobs. This means that organizations who do not incorporate new technology into their educational programs cannot credibly claim to be preparing students for life in the twenty-first century. Grimus (2000) stated that by teaching ICT skills in elementary schools, kids are better equipped to deal with future advancements. What we currently know about learning establishes critical parameters for how technology might be used to assist students and instructors in developing the competencies required for the twenty-first century (Bransford, Brown & Cocking 2001).

Preparing students to operate and be effective in today’s jobs. This means that organizations who do not incorporate new technology into their educational programs cannot credibly claim to be preparing students for life in the twenty-first century. Grimus (2000) stated that by teaching ICT skills in elementary schools, kids are better equipped to deal with future advancements. What we currently know about learning establishes critical parameters for how technology might be used to assist students and instructors in developing the competencies required for the twenty-first century (Bransford, Brown & Cocking 2001).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers can boost students’ learning in any topic by engaging their thinking, decision-making, problem-solving, and reasoning activities through the use of information communication technology (Grabe, 2001). ICT in education connects students and instructors to a huge variety of global information, resulting in high-quality education, alternate forms of income, and, eventually, a better way of life. The Nigerian government’s policy is to integrate ICT into teaching and learning (NI3C, 2010 – MOE). A national ICT policy was adopted in 2006 with the goal of enhancing Nigerians’ livelihoods by assuring the availability, accessibility, efficiency, reliability, and affordability of ICT services and integrating ICT into secondary school teaching and learning. Due to the scarcity of computer-equipped schools in public schools, there is no established benchmark for what constitutes efficient computer-based teaching and learning. Although the majority of secondary schools in Nigeria have ICT facilities, the extent to which they are used effectively for instructional purposes has not been established empirically. Additionally, no explicit research on the factors that promote ICT integration in teaching and learning in public secondary schools has been conducted. There is a need to do research on the various degrees of ICT integration in order to ascertain the elements that influence this process. The goal of this study was to determine the factors impacting ICT integration in secondary schools in public schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this is to assess the factors impacting ICT integration in Nigerian public schools. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of the study are:

  1. To determine the extent ICT tools are used in Nigerian public schools.
  2. To examine the different ICT tools used in Nigerian public schools.
  3. To find out the effects of ICT integration in Nigerian public schools.
  4. To examine the challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools.
  5. To examine the solutions to these challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:

  1. To what extent are ICT tools used in Nigerian public schools?
  2. What are the different ICT tools used in Nigerian public schools?
  3. What are the effects of ICT integration in Nigerian public schools?
  4. To examine the challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools.
  5. What are the solutions to these challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to all the stakeholders in the education sector as the findings of this study will reveal the importance of ICT integration in Nigerian public schools, thus motivating the policy makers to create effective policies that will successfully implement the use of ICT in Nigerian public schools.

This study will also be significant to the school administrators and teachers as the results of this study will reveal the effects of the use of ICT in schools and how beneficial it is for the students.

Finally, this study will also be highly significant to researchers and scholars as it will serve as an existing material for further studies and future research.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on the factors impacting ICT integration in Nigerian public schools. Specifically, it will focus on determining the extent ICT tools are used in Nigerian public schools, examining the different ICT tools used in Nigerian public schools, finding out the effects of ICT integration in Nigerian public schools, examining the challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools and examining the solutions to these challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools.

Teachers and students of selected public schools in Benin, Edo State will serve as respondents for the survey of this study.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study will be limited to the factors impacting ICT integration in Nigerian public schools. Specifically, it will be limited to determining the extent ICT tools are used in Nigerian public schools, examining the different ICT tools used in Nigerian public schools, finding out the effects of ICT integration in Nigerian public schools, examining the challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools and examining the solutions to these challenges of integrating ICT in Nigerian public schools.

Teachers and students of selected public schools in Benin, Edo State will serve as respondents for the survey of this study, thus the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Factors:

A circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result.

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Information and Communication Technology:

Used to refer to the convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, and management. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device, encompassing radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and appliances with them such as video conferencing and distance learning. ICT also includes analog technology, such as paper communication, and any mode that transmits communication.


Factors Impacting ICT Integration In Nigerian Public Schools


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Factors Impacting ICT Integration In Nigerian Public Schools


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Frequently Asked Questions


What factors influence the implementation of ICT in schools?

Specific factors found to influence the implementation of ICT in schools include, the schools’ infrastructure; the implementation and maintenance costs of computers; the role of the computer coordinator; the role of parents, teachers,…

How can ICT be integrated into the education system?

The effective integration of ICT into the educational system is a complex, multifaceted process that involves not just technology-indeed, given enough initial capital, getting the technology is the easiest part-but also curriculum and pedagogy, institutional readiness, teacher competencies, and long-term financing, among others.

Why is there a lack of ICT in schools in Kenya?

Many schools lack fixed telephone networks, which is important for connectivity. While many countries have achieved up to 41% implementation of ICT in schools, the percentage remains considerably small in Kenya. Implementation aims at utilizing ICT to support teaching and learning in school in order to achieve enhanced education outcomes.

How can we improve ICT implementation in South Africa?

In order to provide resources for schools to implement ICT, the government needs to cooperate with both the public and the private sector to ensure that more schools are equipped with modern technology for the improvement of education in South Africa ( Palak, D. and Walls, R. T. 2009). 

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