Factors Hindering The Effective Teaching Of Vocational Courses In Nigerian Universities
This study was carried out to examine the factors that hinder effective teaching and learning of vocational educational in Nigerian Universities using Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State and Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as case study. Specifically, the study was aimed at Identifying the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian Universities; Ascertain the availability and use of teaching aids in teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities; Identify the student and teacher factor that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities; Ascertain the effort being made by the government, teachers and parents towards enhancing the effective teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities.
The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 90 responses Comprising of 90 respondents comprising of 10 Lecturers and 80 Students in the two Universities in Ondo and Ekiti State respectively were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that teaching and learning of vocational education in Nigerian Universities will help to reduce the rate of unemployment in the country because the course will expose the students to acquiring skills that will make them to be self-independent. The study recommend Government should provide the necessary equipments, machines facilities and infrastructure needed in the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education.
1.1 Background of the Study
Vocational training is a special form of education for both professional and professional careers. However, we cannot deny the statement that the real power of survival in all social groups is the self-regulation of its members in relation to the functioning of the company, with common sense and competence. -tsaina; they provide immediate solutions to problems. Technical education focuses more on science, emphasizing the application of scientific and mathematical principles to fields such as engineering, electronics, electrical, mechanical engineering and the automobile industry, and the ability to use skills and knowledge of National Education, as well as ingenuity and economic performance. good hope to solve the most effective economic problems facing individuals and the nation as a whole. Vocational training prepares people in the world of work for resignation (a very important element in a man’s life). Historically, missionaries began vocational and technical education in Nigeria during the colonial period, but to achieve the results of these schools there was a small white occupation, which distinguished itself from the educated men of the time, but if the truth is we need technically minded people. for the growth and development of all nations of the world. As a result, both students and parents at the time, as well as national education and technology, were still seen as programs for people who failed to teach in the language. but prepared them for the work of the blue beard. a very powerful mobile community. it relied solely on the work of the university, a view that had nearly undermined mental and technical education across the country. The recommendation of the Phelps and Stokes Commission on African Education advocating skill-oriented curriculum for the natives resulted in re-emergence of Vocational and Technical Education, for in 1925, the colonial government directed that the curriculum for the natives be adapted to the aptitude and occupations of the natives, and at the same time preserving the healthy aspects of their culture. The directive was in realization that Meaningful and productive educational system should be anchored on the existing cultural patterns, and aimed at developing latent human potentials for overall human growth and socio-cultural development. However, this initiative collapsed because the colonial government failed to establish industries to absorb graduates from Vocational schools (Fafunwa & Aisiku, 1982).
Ever since, the Nigerian educational system has remained academic, and literary, producing graduates without functional skills. These plans by Macdonald on institutional development (like the Southern Department of Agriculture in 1899 and the Northern Department of Agriculture in 1912 at Samaru) failed to put- up the background for this important and profitable education. Because the research activities were started with major emphasis on export crops while work on food crops and maintenance of soil fertility was of secondary importance (Ladipo 1985:231 – 245). This had deprived us Nigerians with early interaction with Science Education and its Vocational consequences. France encountered a similar problem in her colonies as stated by Watson (1981), Peacock (1980) and Graig (1966): to address these problems, France introduced curricular [which was earlier bookish in her colonies and were not suited to the need of local populace] to meet the need of local educational policy. Watson and Peacock stated that paradoxically (situation displaying contradictory future): When the British and French Empires were restless, new foreign policies were in emergence. A keen competition led to new foreign educational policies and reform in West African colonies – both in governmental activities and religious nationalism, Stock (1899:45) and Oke (1936).
The reforms saw the teaching of Vocational and Technical Education subject in schools like Bonny Boys High School, in 1900; Hope Wadel Training institute, Calabar as well as Nasarawa School in 1909, (Okorie 2001). Eventually, the Yaba Higher College (now Yaba College of Technology) by the British Government in 1934 was being established for Technical Training. Ma’aji (1984) noted that, the Technical Training presumed and promoted conformity; learning which had little to do with equipping student to lead a fuller life but conformist on a narrow sense. For example, in 1913 the two boarding schools at Warri and Bonny according to Kirk – Greene (1968:147-87) had 151 adult ‘apprentices’ and 187 boys (these adults were associated with small boys with bad result).
The systematic presentations made by Okorie, Okoro and Grace in their text in respect of the topic, Social discipline and modal development decision for Vocational and Technical Education courses point conclusively: The ill disciplined, the impulsive will seek quick or apparently ready-made solutions or fall a prey to grandiose – Large and imposing – but unpractical schemes. These observations can be observed in the 1998 National Policy on Education of the position of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria. It is being praised and set on a pedestrian level; world apart from the 1986 National Policy on Science and Technology on educational system with the demand of our 1999 National Constitution on “…independent industrial capabilities”. A French Sociologist named Le Bon Gustave (1841-1931) drew our attention on a serious note that “the balance members of any social group will see well ahead and will cautiously feel their way through the building up of solid but slowly changing body of tradition”. Land mark on Vocational and Technical Education on the first quarter by the twenty-first century these educational practices are synthesis of principle of effective competency teaching that has emerged from research and experience, from schools and private organizations. However, our discussions on this mentioned issue above should deal mainly with the fact that Vocational and Technical Education courses should not be taught for it selves. It is the vehicle of national values, but when taught they should be set in context, based on the real world, in favor of life, so as to give an ethical dimension to learning and to, the development of ‘learning to learn’, both on one’s own and with others. Evidently, we should focus our attention to the lack of infrastructures, the lack of teachers confronting many states with internal domestic problems to overcome for which support the nation essentially. Therefore, contents of Vocational and Technical Education curriculum in context should reflect organized effort. These to make sure the adolescent students are able to demonstrate their mastery of certain minimum skills (at university level) needed to perform task they will routinely confront in adult life.
The last time the curricula of Vocational and Technical Education courses were drafted, critique and printed out for use in schools is about 20 years ago with few adjustment that does not meet the yearning of Nigerian citizen. In between these twenty years of the outgoing Century: the uses of these curricula have been overridden by unprecedented technological advances (which have generated much progress and many benefits for humanity). These advances has also raised important moral, social and cultural challenges that makes the two curricula out of context on presents realities namely: Information Technology: The emergence of the new information and communication technology (representing a genuine revolution) is affecting all the fields of competence in Vocational and Technical Education programme. Comparing the information rich with the information poor states of the nation, there is no doubt that the digital divide exists. It would be indecent to ignore it as it has contributed to making the two curricula out of use. This gap not only exists between states, but also between towns within a state and between different social groups. A varied changes in the labor market, there are three economic trends currently occurring in the nation which are also evident in some states, reduction in the employment opportunities to satisfy the basic requirement of society in the art of Vocational and Technical Education programme, the growth in the great number of jobs available in the service sector, the growth of informal compared with formal employment. Taken together these three trends raised the urgent question of the identity of university education in Vocational and Technical Education programme.
Some of its aspect is designed to train young people for some kind of job readiness especially Technical, through a system of specialized options proposed initially at the age of 20 or 25 years. While that of Vocational is based purely on informative insight (which are non-measurable objectives) and appreciation of how vehicle functions. This is a dangerous trend of producing on the adolescent non-functional education for adults’ life. If we still believe in upholding to insight and appreciative objectives which of course the present Nigerian educational contents of most curricula are hung with the aim of inculcating in the young: the stored knowledge already accumulated, together with the values which have guided men (people) in the past. However, (today in Nigeria), the effect of global economical factors is facing the nation with a more reasonable aims of education – especially “to nurture the process of discovery”. The reason is that, the modern Nigerian (people) are face to face with a situation which has never presentation is that there is the urgent need for a new goal for education. Learning how to learn, getting ourselves in the process of change and development. Thus, process education becoming the primary aims of Technical curricula of our educational system fitted for our present dispensation of educational funds. Hence, evaluation of factors affecting the effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities is the essence of this research work.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
For Nigeria to excel technologically there is the need to find solution to the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities. In spite of the importance of Vocational and Technical Education courses to the development of both individual and society at large, there is no much emphasis placed on the Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities. The frequent occurrence of low students’ participation in Vocational and Technical Education courses has been a great concern to all-well-meaning individual, institution and industries. It is in the light of the above, that the present study was carried out to ascertain if there are factors responsible for the Non-effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigeria universities.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to look at the depth Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational Education Courses in Nigerian Universities (a case study of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko Ondo State and Ekiti State University, Ekiti State).
Therefore, it is hope that the study would therefore unveil and expose some undesirable situation expected of lecturer, student, parents and government as a Means of actualizing the Vocational and Technical Education goals and objectives. Therefore, the purpose of the study is highlighted below;
- Identify the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
- Ascertain the availability and use of teaching aids in teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities.
- Identify the student and teacher factor that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities.
- Ascertain the effort being made by the government, teachers and parents towards enhancing the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities.
In conclusion, the study would consider some solutions that can be adopted for Meaningful and Effective Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Education.
1.4 Research Questions
Factors i.e. challenges plays significant role in the effectiveness of teaching and learning. This has been commonly accepted by the public as well as the professional educators. This study was set to answer the following questions;
- Does lack of students’ interest affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities?
- Do staff training and retention, staff situation and brain drain affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities?
- Do funding and facilities affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant difference in the Mean responses of AAUA respondents and EKSU respondent, lack of students’ interest affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
- There is no significant difference in the Mean responses of AAUA respondents and EKSU respondent on staff training and retention, staff situation and brain drain affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
- There is no significant difference in the Mean responses of AAUA respondents and EKSU respondent on funding and facilities affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
1.6 Significant of the Study
This is relevant and importance to the Lecturers, Students, and Government in any way. Helping to expose and Evaluates some Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities. It helps to stimulated all financial and facilities support which before, how had been denied Vocational and Technical Education course in Nigerian Universities.
A major relevance was the likelihood of serving as guide to curriculum planners in selecting and organizing appropriate content materials and methodology, aids, and the scope of Vocational and Technical Education programmes for enhancing economic development of Nigeria.
The study helps the Lecturers to adopt better method of teaching so as to enhance the performance of students in their courses. It also helps the students to find meaning in studying Vocational and Technical Education courses and make them to more familiar with modern machinery. In the same way, this study helps the Government and Parents to know where it is wanting and enable them to supply the necessary infrastructure, materials and equipment for the success of Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
Conclusively, it exposed the parents to know the brilliancy and self-confidence of their children in school as one of the factors affecting learning opportunities in school.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko Ondo State and Ekiti State University, Ekiti State. In these schools, emphasis was placed on Lecturers-students relationship. Government – Head of Department relationship. In these schools, also, Lecturers-Finalist and Semi-finalist students was directly involved. Also, School-community relationship was also considered as one of the factors that help in improving effective teaching and learning in the institutions. Government was able to detect the problems that are affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses such as funding, facilities, staff training and retention, staff situation e.t.c and was help in improving the curriculum in order to carry out the innovation of the effective teaching and learning in the institution.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Is the ability to use one’s skills to gainfully and displays one’s intellectual and economic horizon well enough to be able to tackle very effectively many of economic problems confronting individuals and society at large.
It is the process of enabling individuals to live as useful and acceptable members of a society.
Is more science-oriented with emphasis on the application of scientific and mathematics principle as applied in such fields as engineering, electronics, electrical, mechanical and automobile trades.
An organization that has a particular purpose such as scientific or educational work, or where this organization is based.
Information and Communication Technology
Is a way of guiding students in securing the amount of quality of experience which will provide the optimum development of their potential as human being.
A lecturer is a person who impart knowledge to the less privilege one
A student is a person who receive knowledge from an experience person
The body with the power to make and or enforce laws to control a country, land area, people or organization
An act in which something (quality of experience) is learned
Vocational and Technical Education
Asian Development Bank
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The researcher has tried to find out the Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities, in Ondo and Ekiti State Universities respectively.
Chapter one introduced the problem and diagnosed while chapter two reviewed some relevant related literature on the project topic. In chapter three, structured questionnaire was designed to obtained data among the respondents in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti at the department of Vocational and Technical Education respectively.
Chapter four clearly shows the result of the data analysis which was done using Frequency; Percentage, Mean and Standard Deviation respectively with the interpretation of the data follow immediately to avoid ambiguity.
Chapter five discussed the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
The bedrock of technological advancement in any country lies in the effective implementation of educational policies. Therefore, government should emphasize technology‐transfer through its educational policies. Students in particular, should be enlightened on the importance and advantages of Vocational and Technical Education courses as a way of reducing the present high unemployment prevailing in the country.
Going through this paper, there is a great need to create an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical education in our various schools in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa. The fact that institutions are characterized by poor results due to poor teaching and learning environment cannot be overemphasized. This situations occasioned by a myriad of factors which include inadequate funding, poor supply of qualified and experienced staff, non-availability of adequate tools, machines, materials and equipment amongst others, for training and skills acquisition. The resultant effect of this is the creation of unproductive learning, which in turn gives rise to poor results and unskilled graduate. The immediate correction of the above weaknesses is very imperative in order to achieve the objectives of Vocational and Technical Education in our schools and in the lives of graduates of the program. Since Vocational and Technical Education is paramount in National developments, all those concern should make real effort to correct and effect all the factors as identified by the researcher ‘factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities’ considering the value of quality Vocational and Technical Education, the following recommendations have been proffered:
- Government should provide the necessary equipments, machines facilities and infrastructure needed in the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education.
- School administrators, government and all stakeholders should provide an enabling environment and stimulate the active participation of the private sector, communities, civil society, organizations, and development partners in Vocational and Technical Education development.
- Improve the competence, resourcefulness, and efficiency of Lecturers and other personnel through training, capacity building, and motivations.
- There should be adequate supply of qualified staff to teach in the program.
- The welfare of Lecturers should be taken seriously, their salaries, allowances promotions etc should be promptly attended to.
- Lecturers should adequately prepare for their lessons, employ real and concrete items as instructional materials.
- There should be proper administration and supervision of the schools and learning program to ensure that the desired goal is achieved also to promote hard-work and discipline in the University.
- Schools need to be adequately equipped with good teaching and learning environment, workshops, laboratories as well as good libraries, should be available to make teaching and learning easy and enjoyable.
- Improved esteem by the government and the general public to stimulate the interest of students in Vocational and Technical Education.
Finally, researcher recommends that skills and exercises selected by the TVE instructors to teach should be technologically relevant and at the same time Meaningful to the learners in reference to the needs of the community. It is evident that possession of proficient skill in ones career field is basic to motivation to learn and lack of knowledge of this skill kills interest on the part of students.
How To Get The Complete Material For Factors Hindering The Effective Teaching Of Vocational Courses In Nigerian Universities
The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps
Quick & Simple…
Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦3,000 to Any of the Account Below
|Acc No: 0811003731|
|Acc No: 1225513212|
|Acc No: 8143831497|
Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card
|FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA|
|CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)|
|FOR GHANIAN CLIENTS|
|Make Payment of 80 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Osabutey | MTN MoMo|
Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment
- Payment Details
- Email Address
- Factors Hindering The Effective Teaching Of Vocational Courses In Nigerian Universities
The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your Email Address After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply