Factors Hindering The Effective Teaching Of Vocational Courses In Nigerian Universities

Project and Seminar Material for Vocational Education

Factors Hindering The Effective Teaching Of Vocational Courses In Nigerian Universities


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the factors that hinder effective teaching and learning of vocational educational in Nigerian Universities using Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State and Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as case study. Specifically, the study was aimed at Identifying the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian Universities; Ascertain the availability and use of teaching aids in teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities; Identify the student and teacher factor that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities; Ascertain the effort being made by the government, teachers and parents towards enhancing the effective teaching and learning of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities.

The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 90 responses Comprising of 90 respondents comprising of 10 Lecturers and 80 Students in the two Universities in Ondo and Ekiti State respectively were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that teaching and learning of vocational education in Nigerian Universities will help to reduce the rate of unemployment in the country because the course will expose the students to acquiring skills that will make them to be self-independent. The study recommend Government should provide the necessary equipments, machines facilities and infrastructure needed in the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Vocational training is a type of education that prepares students for both professional and non-professional professions. However, we cannot deny that the true power of survival in all social groups is the ability of its members to self-regulate the operation of the company with common sense and competence; they offer quick remedies to difficulties. Technical education emphasises the application of scientific and mathematical principles to fields such as engineering, electronics, electrical, mechanical engineering, and the automobile industry, as well as the ability to use skills and knowledge of National Education, as well as ingenuity and economic performance. Vocational training prepares people in the workplace for resignation (a critical component in a man’s life). Historically, missionaries began vocational and technical education in Nigeria during the colonial period, but to achieve the results of these schools, there was a small white occupation that distinguished itself from the educated men of the time, but the truth is that we need technically minded people for the growth and development of all nations around the world. As a result, at the time, both students and parents, as well as national education and technology, were viewed as programmes for those who were unable to educate in the language. However, they were prepared for the work of the blue beard. a highly powerful mobile community. It was entirely based on the work of the university, a viewpoint that threatened to destroy mental and technical education across the country. The recommendation of the Phelps and Stokes Commission on African Education advocating skill-oriented curriculum for the natives resulted in the re-emergence of Vocational and Technical Education, because in 1925, the colonial government directed that the curriculum for the natives be adapted to the natives’ aptitude and occupations, while preserving the healthy aspects of their culture. The directive was developed in recognition of the fact that a meaningful and effective educational system should be based on existing cultural patterns and aimed at developing latent human potentials for total human growth and socio-cultural development. However, because the colonial government failed to establish industries to absorb graduates from vocational schools, this initiative failed (Fafunwa & Aisiku, 2013).

Since then, the Nigerian educational system has remained academic and literary, generating graduates with little practical experience. Macdonald’s efforts for institutional growth (such as the Southern Department of Agriculture in eighties and the Northern Department of Agriculture in early 90s at Samaru) failed to lay the groundwork for this vital and profitable instruction. Because research activities began with an emphasis on export crops, work on food crops and soil fertility maintenance was secondary (Ladipo 2013). This had denied us Nigerians early exposure to Science Education and its vocational implications. As stated by Watson (2015), Peacock (2016), and Graig (2016), France encountered a similar problem in her colonies: to address these problems, France introduced curricular [which were previously bookish in her colonies and were not suited to the needs of the local populace] to meet the need of local educational policy. Watson and Peacock claimed that ironically (situation revealing conflicting future): new foreign policies were emerging when the British and French Empires were restless. Stock (2015) and Oke (2015) argue that fierce rivalry resulted in new foreign educational programmes and reform in West African colonies, both in governmental activity and religious nationalism. Vocational and Technical Education subjects were taught in schools such as Bonny Boys High School in 1900, Hope Wadel Training Institute in Calabar, and Nasarawa School in 1909, as part of the reforms (Okorie 2016). The British Government eventually founded the Yaba Higher College (now Yaba College of Technology) in 1934 for Technical Training.

According to Ma’aji (2015), Technical Training assumed and encouraged conformity; learning that had nothing to do with enabling students to lead a meaningful life but was conformist in a limited sense. According to Greene (2016), the two boarding schools at Warri and Bonny had 151 adult ‘apprentices’ and 187 boys in 1913 (these adults were linked with tiny boys with negative results). Okorie, Okoro, and Grace’s systematic presentations in their text on the topic, Social discipline and modal development decision for Vocational and Technical Education courses, point conclusively: The ill-disciplined, the impulsive will seek quick or seemingly ready-made solutions or fall prey to grandiose – Large and imposing – but unpractical schemes. These insights may be found in Nigeria’s 1998 National Policy on Education on the role of Vocational and Technical Education. It is commended and put on a pedestrian level; a world different from the 1986 National Policy on Science and Technology on educational systems and our 2015 National Constitution’s need for “…independent industrial capabilities.” On a serious note, a French Sociologist named Le Bon Gustave (1841-1931) stated that “the balance members of any social group will see well ahead and will cautiously feel their way through the building up of a solid but slowly changing body of tradition.” On the first quarter of the twenty-first century, these educational practises are a synthesis of the principles of effective competency teaching that have emerged from research and experience, from schools and private organisations. However, our discussions on the aforementioned issue should focus primarily on the fact that Vocational and Technical Education courses should not be taught in isolation. It is the vehicle for national values, but when taught, they should be placed in context, based on the actual world, and in favour of life, in order to provide an ethical component to learning and the development of ‘learning to learn’, both on one’s own and with others. Clearly, we should focus our attention on the lack of infrastructures and teachers that are confronting many states with internal domestic problems to overcome in order to support the nation. As a result, the substance of Vocational and Technical Education curriculum should represent organised effort. These are designed to ensure that adolescent students can demonstrate mastery of certain minimum skills (at the university level) required to perform tasks they will encounter on a regular basis in adulthood. The last time Vocational and Technical Education curriculum were created, critiqued, and printed for use in schools was roughly 20 years ago, with little changes that do not match the needs of Nigerian citizens. Between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, the uses of these curricula have been supplanted by unprecedented technological advances (which have resulted in much progress and many benefits for humanity). These advancements have also produced significant moral, social, and cultural difficulties, rendering the two curricula out of touch with current reality, namely: Information technologies: The introduction of new information and communication technologies (marking a true revolution) has an impact on all areas of competency in the Vocational and Technical Education course. There is little doubt that the digital gap exists when comparing the nation’s information rich and information poor states. It would be impolite to disregard it because it has led to the demise of the two curricula. This divide exists not only between states, but also between municipalities within a state and between various socioeconomic groupings.

There are three economic trends currently occurring in the nation that are also evident in some states: a reduction in employment opportunities to satisfy society’s basic needs in the art of Vocational and Technical Education programmes, an increase in the large number of jobs available in the service sector, and an increase in informal employment compared to formal employment. When these three tendencies are considered together, they highlight the serious question of the identity of university education in the Vocational and Technical Education curriculum. Some of its aspects are intended to train young people for job readiness, particularly technical job readiness, through a system of specialised options proposed initially at the age of 20 or 25 years. While Vocational is based solely on informative insight (non-measurable objectives) and appreciation of how the vehicle works. This is a worrisome tendency of developing non-functional teenage education for adult life. If we still believe in upholding insight and appreciative objectives, which, of course, the current Nigerian educational contents of most curricula are hung with the aim of instilling in the young: the stored knowledge already accumulated, as well as the values that have guided men (people) in the past.

However, the effect of global economic factors is confronting the nation with more reasonable educational goals – particularly “to nurture the process of discovery” (today in Nigeria). The reason for this is that modern Nigerians (people) are confronted with a circumstance that has never been presented before: there is an urgent need for a new educational aim. Learning how to learn, as well as engaging in the process of change and growth. As a result, process education has become one of the key goals of our educational system’s technical curriculum, which is appropriate for our current educational funding dispensation. Thus, the essence of this research work is the evaluation of factors influencing the effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

To flourish technologically, Nigeria must address the issues impacting the successful teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses at Nigerian universities (Ogbuke, 2013). Despite the importance of Vocational and Technical Education courses in the development of both individuals and society as a whole, little emphasis is placed on the Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities. Low student participation in Vocational and Technical Education courses has long been a source of worry for well-meaning individuals, institutions, and enterprises. at light of the foregoing, the current study was conducted to determine whether there are reasons responsible for the ineffective teaching and learning of vocational and technical education courses at Nigerian institutions.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to look at the depth Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational Education Courses in Nigerian Universities (a case study of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko Ondo State and Ekiti State University, Ekiti State).

Therefore, it is hope that the study would therefore unveil and expose some undesirable situation expected of lecturer, student, parents and government as a Means of actualizing the Vocational and Technical Education goals and objectives. Therefore, the purpose of the study is highlighted below;

  1. Identify the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
  2. Ascertain the availability and use of teaching aids in teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities.
  3. Identify the student and teacher factor that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities.
  4. Ascertain the effort being made by the government, teachers and parents towards enhancing the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities.

In conclusion, the study would consider some solutions that can be adopted for Meaningful and Effective Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Education.


1.4 Research Questions

Factors i.e. challenges plays significant role in the effectiveness of teaching and learning. This has been commonly accepted by the public as well as the professional educators. This study was set to answer the following questions;

  1. Does lack of students’ interest affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities?
  2. Do staff training and retention, staff situation and brain drain affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities?
  3. Do funding and facilities affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in the Mean responses of AAUA respondents and EKSU respondent, lack of students’ interest affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
  2. There is no significant difference in the Mean responses of AAUA respondents and EKSU respondent on staff training and retention, staff situation and brain drain affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.
  3. There is no significant difference in the Mean responses of AAUA respondents and EKSU respondent on funding and facilities affect the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.

1.6 Significant of the Study

This is relevant and importance to the Lecturers, Students, and Government in any way. Helping to expose and Evaluates some Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities. It helps to stimulated all financial and facilities support which before, how had been denied Vocational and Technical Education course in Nigerian Universities.

A major relevance was the likelihood of serving as guide to curriculum planners in selecting and organizing appropriate content materials and methodology, aids, and the scope of Vocational and Technical Education programmes for enhancing economic development of Nigeria.

The study helps the Lecturers to adopt better method of teaching so as to enhance the performance of students in their courses. It also helps the students to find meaning in studying Vocational and Technical Education courses and make them to more familiar with modern machinery. In the same way, this study helps the Government and Parents to know where it is wanting and enable them to supply the necessary infrastructure, materials and equipment for the success of Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities.

Conclusively, it exposed the parents to know the brilliancy and self-confidence of their children in school as one of the factors affecting learning opportunities in school.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko Ondo State and Ekiti State University, Ekiti State. In these schools, emphasis was placed on Lecturers-students relationship. Government – Head of Department relationship. In these schools, also, Lecturers-Finalist and Semi-finalist students was directly involved. Also, School-community relationship was also considered as one of the factors that help in improving effective teaching and learning in the institutions. Government was able to detect the problems that are affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses such as funding, facilities, staff training and retention, staff situation e.t.c and was help in improving the curriculum in order to carry out the innovation of the effective teaching and learning in the institution.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Vocational Education:

Is the ability to use one’s skills to gainfully and displays one’s intellectual and economic horizon well enough to be able to tackle very effectively many of economic problems confronting individuals and society at large.

Education:

It is the process of enabling individuals to live as useful and acceptable members of a society.

Technical Education:

Is more science-oriented with emphasis on the application of scientific and mathematics principle as applied in such fields as engineering, electronics, electrical, mechanical and automobile trades.

Institute:

An organization that has a particular purpose such as scientific or educational work, or where this organization is based.

ICT:

Information and Communication Technology

Teaching:

Is a way of guiding students in securing the amount of quality of experience which will provide the optimum development of their potential as human being.

Lecturer:

A lecturer is a person who impart knowledge to the less privilege one

Student:

A student is a person who receive knowledge from an experience person

Government:

The body with the power to make and or enforce laws to control a country, land area, people or organization

Learning:

An act in which something (quality of experience) is learned

VTE:

Vocational and Technical Education

ADB:

Asian Development Bank


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The researcher has tried to find out the Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching of Vocational Education courses in Nigerian universities, in Ondo and Ekiti State Universities respectively.

Chapter one introduced the problem and diagnosed while chapter two reviewed some relevant related literature on the project topic. In chapter three, structured questionnaire was designed to obtained data among the respondents in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti at the department of Vocational and Technical Education respectively.

Chapter four clearly shows the result of the data analysis which was done using Frequency; Percentage, Mean and Standard Deviation respectively with the interpretation of the data follow immediately to avoid ambiguity.
Chapter five discussed the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


5.2 Conclusion

The bedrock of technological advancement in any country lies in the effective implementation of educational policies. Therefore, government should emphasize technology‐transfer through its educational policies. Students in particular, should be enlightened on the importance and advantages of Vocational and Technical Education courses as a way of reducing the present high unemployment prevailing in the country.

Going through this paper, there is a great need to create an enabling environment for the teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical education in our various schools in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa. The fact that institutions are characterized by poor results due to poor teaching and learning environment cannot be overemphasized. This situations occasioned by a myriad of factors which include inadequate funding, poor supply of qualified and experienced staff, non-availability of adequate tools, machines, materials and equipment amongst others, for training and skills acquisition. The resultant effect of this is the creation of unproductive learning, which in turn gives rise to poor results and unskilled graduate. The immediate correction of the above weaknesses is very imperative in order to achieve the objectives of Vocational and Technical Education in our schools and in the lives of graduates of the program. Since Vocational and Technical Education is paramount in National developments, all those concern should make real effort to correct and effect all the factors as identified by the researcher ‘factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities’ considering the value of quality Vocational and Technical Education, the following recommendations have been proffered:


5.3 Recommendations

  1. Government should provide the necessary equipments, machines facilities and infrastructure needed in the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education.
  2. School administrators, government and all stakeholders should provide an enabling environment and stimulate the active participation of the private sector, communities, civil society, organizations, and development partners in Vocational and Technical Education development.
  3. Improve the competence, resourcefulness, and efficiency of Lecturers and other personnel through training, capacity building, and motivations.
  4. There should be adequate supply of qualified staff to teach in the program.
  5. The welfare of Lecturers should be taken seriously, their salaries, allowances promotions etc should be promptly attended to.
  6. Lecturers should adequately prepare for their lessons, employ real and concrete items as instructional materials.
  7. There should be proper administration and supervision of the schools and learning program to ensure that the desired goal is achieved also to promote hard-work and discipline in the University.
  8. Schools need to be adequately equipped with good teaching and learning environment, workshops, laboratories as well as good libraries, should be available to make teaching and learning easy and enjoyable.
  9. Improved esteem by the government and the general public to stimulate the interest of students in Vocational and Technical Education.

Finally, researcher recommends that skills and exercises selected by the TVE instructors to teach should be technologically relevant and at the same time Meaningful to the learners in reference to the needs of the community. It is evident that possession of proficient skill in ones career field is basic to motivation to learn and lack of knowledge of this skill kills interest on the part of students.


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