Factors Hindering The Effective Teaching Of Technical Courses In Technical South East Universities

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Factors Hindering The Effective Teaching Of Technical Courses In Technical South East Universities


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the factors hindering the effective teaching of technical courses in technical South East Universities. The study was carried out to know if inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources is affecting the teaching and learning of technical education, identify the material resources related factors that affects the effective teaching of technical courses in South East Universities, examine the human resources related factors that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of technical courses in South East Universities and examine the probable solution to the factors which are affecting the teaching and learning of technical education.The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of technical courses lecturers in some selected technical South East Universities, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool.The result of the findings reveals that inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources impede the effective teaching and learning of technical education. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that the material resource related factors that affects the effective teaching of technical coursesin South East Universities includes: inadequate funding, lack of textbooks and other instructional materials, lack of tools and equipment, poor electricity supply and high difficulty level of the textbooks introduced in the new curriculum.Therefore, it is recommended that school administrators, government and all stakeholders should provide an enabling environment and stimulate the active participation of the private sector, communities, civil society, organizations, and development partners in Vocational and Technical Education development. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Technical and vocational education is used as a comprehensive term in the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational education as all those experiences whereby an individual learns to carry on successfully any useful occupation. These experiences may be organized and institutionalized or unorganized and haphazard. The statement explains that all education is vocational in so that the individual may serve happily and far as it prepares for satisfactory living. In the views of Thompson (2002), vocational education aims at the development of human abilities in terms of knowledge, skills and understanding so efficiently in carrying on the activities in the vocational pursuits of his choice.

Technical and vocational education is used as a comprehensive term in the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding, and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. Vocational education is all those experiences whereby an individual learns to carry on successfully in any useful occupation. These experiences may be organized and institutionalized or unorganized and haphazard. The statement explains that all education is vocational so that the individual may serve happily and as long as they prepare for a satisfactory living. In the view of Thompson (2002), vocational education aims at the development of human abilities in terms of knowledge, skills, and understanding so that they can carry on activities efficiently in the vocational pursuits of their choice.

There has been a growing awareness of the significant role that acquisition of vocational skills can play in both personal and national development. This is in response to the ever-escalating level of chronic youth unemployment experienced in many countries across the globe coupled with the resulting high level of social unrest. Ayonmike (2010) posited that empowering youths with appropriate practical skills is very imperative in view of the increasing rate of social ills and other negative consequences associated with joblessness. Indeed, according to Odu (2010), it is generally believed that the acquisition of the requisite skills is a means of increasing the productive power of a nation. Hence, every citizen should be equipped with practical skills to contribute effectively to the economic growth of the country. This, according to UNESCO-UNEVOC (2006), is because the development of relevant skills can open doors to economically and socially rewarding jobs and can help the development of small informal-sector businesses, allow the re-insertion of displaced workers and migrants, and support the transition from school to work for school drop-outs and graduates. It added that developing job-related competencies among the poor, the youth and the vulnerable is recognized as crucial to progress in reducing poverty. This explains why the development of job-related skills is, therefore, not only part of many countries’ human resource strategies but also of their economic-growth and poverty-reduction strategies.

However, for vocational education to be self-reliant and productive, it needs not be operated in a vacuum. It has to be linked to factors that will help learners and all stakeholders in vocational technical education to be practical and not only theoretical in their approach to making vocational technical education meaningful and life-long. Agreeably, the increasing importance that is now being attached to the acquisition of vocational and entrepreneurial skills is reflected in the increasing trend in vocationalization of all levels of education, which cannot happen in a vacuum without proper vocational education policy implementation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

For Nigeria to excel technologically there is the need to find solution to the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian Universities. In spite of the importance of Vocational and Technical Education courses to the development of both individual and society at large, there is no much emphasis placed on the Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigerian universities. The frequent occurrence of low students’ participation in Vocational and Technical Education courses has been a great concern to all-well-meaning individual, institution and industries. And it has been ascertained that facilities, staff, finance etc are either lacking or not sufficiently provided to achieve the expected desires. Although many technical schools and other skill acquisition centre like college of education, polytechnics are available for the above purposes what is not clear now is that to what extent is “vocational education helping in peace development ”.however,several factors have been identified as the problem of teaching and learning of technical education such as, but not limited to , getting qualified teachers to teach technical education has been somewhat difficult as , the government is not employing teachers for the subject, even so , its no longer on the academic curriculum, most technical education facilities are dilapidated, there are no instructional materials to teach the subject, students do not find it interesting as it used to be, student are no longer interested in learning technical education, there is no motivation for teachers who teach technical education etc. It is in the light of the above, that the present study was carried out to ascertain if there are factors responsible for the Non-effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in Nigeria universities.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The objective of study is to investigate factors hindering the effective teaching of technical courses in technical South East universities. It is also to investigate the following specific objectives;

  1. To know if inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources is affecting the teaching and learning of technical education.
  2. Identify the material resources related factors that affects the effective teaching of technical courses in South East Universities.
  3. Examine the human resources related factors that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of technical courses in South East Universities
  4. To Examine the probable solution to the factors which are affecting the teaching and learning of technical education.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were asked for the purpose for the attainment of the above.

  1. Does inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources impede the effective teaching and learning of technical education?
  2. What are the material resource related factors that affects the effective teaching of technical coursesin South East Universities?
  3. What are the human resources related factors that might inhibit the effectiveteaching and learning of technical courses in South East Universities?
  4. Are there probable solution to the factors which are affecting the teaching and learning of technical education?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

HO: Inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources does not hinder the teaching and learning of technical courses in South East Universities

Ha: Inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources hinders the teaching and learning of technical courses in South East Universities.


1.6 Significance of Study

This study will be of great importance to this development of new and old vocational and technical education schools in Benin Local Government Area. The study will also contribute immensely to the exploration of the vocation education in Benin Local Government Area and suggest possible solution to the problems identified.Also, it will be significant to heads and director of the existing vocation and technical education schools because it will expose other unnecessary roles and problems that led to the total collapse of subsequent vocational and technical schools in order to avoid them and ensure efficiency and maximum prosperity.


1.7 Scope of Study

The scope of this study borders on factors hindering the effective teaching of technical courses in technical South East universities. The study will take a collosal look at the infrastructural facilities and human factors that hinder the teaching and learning of technical education in South East Universities.


1.8 Imitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study. Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors hindering the effective teaching of technical courses in technical South East Universities. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the factors hindering the effective teaching of technical courses in technical South East Universities. The study is was specifically focused to know if inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources is affecting the teaching and learning of technical education, identify the material resources related factors that affects the effective teaching of technical courses in South East Universities, examine the human resources related factors that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of technical courses in South East Universities and examine the probable solution to the factors which are affecting the teaching and learning of technical education.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are technical courses lecturers in some selected technical South East Universities.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Inadequate infrastructural facilities and human resources impede the effective teaching and learning of technical education.
  2. The material resource related factors that affects the effective teaching of technical courses in South East Universities includes: inadequate funding, lack of textbooks and other instructional materials, lack of tools and equipment, poor electricity supply and high difficulty level of the textbooks introduced in the new curriculum.
  3. The human resources related factors that might inhibit the effective teaching and learning of technical courses in South East Universities includes: lack of co‐operation from parents, lack of professional and experienced teachers, lack of in service training and poor condition of service, poor attitude of the students toward technical courses and poor communication skills and understanding of some basic concept by the students.
  4. There are probable solution to the factors which are affecting the teaching and learning of technical education.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Government should provide the necessary equipments, machines facilities and infrastructure needed in the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education.
  2. School administrators, government and all stakeholders should provide an enabling environment and stimulate the active participation of the private sector, communities, civil society, organizations, and development partners in Vocational and Technical Education development.
  3. Improve the competence, resourcefulness, and efficiency of Lecturers and other personnel through training, capacity building, and motivations.
  4. There should be adequate supply of qualified staff to teach in the program.
  5. The welfare of Lecturers should be taken seriously, their salaries, allowances promotions etc should be promptly attended to.
  6. Lecturers should adequately prepare for their lessons, employ real and concrete items as instructional materials.
  7. There should be proper administration and supervision of the schools and learning program to ensure that the desired goal is achieved also to promote hard-work and discipline in the University.
  8. Schools need to be adequately equipped with good teaching and learning environment, workshops, laboratories as well as good libraries, should be available to make teaching and learning easy and enjoyable.
  9. Improved esteem by the government and the general public to stimulate the interest of students in Vocational and Technical Education.

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