Factors Contributing To Effective School Administration In Public Secondary Schools In Enugu

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Factors Contributing To Effective School Administration In Public Secondary Schools In Enugu


Abstract


The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria. Four research objectives guided the study. The objectives sought to establish the influence of finances, human resources, infrastructure and community around the school on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu. The study adopted descriptive research survey design. The target population was 20 managements. The sample size was 20 respondents. Data was collected using questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that funds were not available. There was delay in disbursement. School did not have adequate facilities due to inadequate funds. Parents were not consistent in paying the required levies. It was also revealed that schools did not have adequate teachers and other support staff which hindered the running of the school. It was also revealed that school did not have adequate classrooms, well-equipped laboratories, text books and stationery and chairs and desks for students. It was lastly revealed that parents were not able to support the school financially and that the schools did not receive adequate support from the community. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that finances influenced effective school administration. Financial factors such as inadequate finances, delay in disbursement of funds, inadequate facilities due to inadequate funds, parents‘ poor payment of fees affected the managements in the running of schools. When the managements do not have the finances, they are not able to run the schools effectively. The study also concluded that the managements were not in a position to hire enough staff, both the teaching and non -teaching. It was also difficult for the schools to get staff. Inadequate of human resource is a hindrance to management‘s performance of administrative tasks. The study also concluded that infrastructure influenced effective school administration. Inadequate physical resources which include laboratories, libraries, classrooms and a host of other physical infrastructure and material resources that include textbooks, charts, maps among others affecting the running of schools by the managements affect how the managements run schools. The inadequacy of the resources affected effective school administration. The study further concluded that the community around the school affect effective school administration. The study recommended that the government should avail adequate funds in time for the running of schools. The Ministry of Education in conjunction with the TSC should avail adequate funds for recruitment and selection of staff. The school administrators to take up the responsibility of creating a mutual understanding and partnership between schools and the community which would help teachers, parents and all community members to identify areas in which they can work together for the benefit of the students.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Delimitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Assumptions of the Study
  • 1.10 Definition of Significant Terms
  • 1.11 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.3 Summary

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the Study
  • 3.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Result Presentation

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.3 Discussion and Interpretation of Findings

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the study

Education is widely recognized as key to national development (Republic of Nigeria [RoK], 2007). Nigeria‘s vision 2030 clearly focuses on education as a means of development and eradication of poverty. The Nigeria vision 2030 is the new country‘s development blueprint covering the period 2008 to 2030. It aims at making Nigeria a newly industrializing, middle income country, providing high quality life for all citizens by the year 2030 (RoK, 2007). The vision has been developed through an all-inclusive stakeholder consultative process involving Nigerians from all parts of the country. The vision is based on three pillars the economic pillar, the social pillar and the political pillar. The visions programme plan comes after the successful implementation of the Economic Recovery Strategies for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERSWEC) which has seen the country‘s economy back on the path to rapid growth since 2002 when Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew at 0.6% rising to 6.1% in 2006 (Republic of Nigeria, 2007).

The economic pillar aims at providing prosperity to all Nigerians through an economic development programme aimed at achieving an average GDP growth rate of 10% per annum in the next 25 years (RoK, 2007). The social pillar seeks to build a just and cohesive society with social equity in a clean and secure environment. The political pillar aims at realizing a democratic political system founded on issue-based politics that respects the rule of law and protects the rights and freedom of every individual in the Nigerian society. (Republic of Nigeria, 2007). Additionally, the World Bank has long acknowledged the vital relationship between education and economic development and the central importance for both in developing countries (Bryner, 2012). The Ministry of Education, being the custodian of the education sector curriculum, taps and uses the skills of school managements as key implementers of the curriculum and supervisors of the whole school program (Gichuru, 2009).

United Nations Educational Social and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) (2005) notes that educational administration is considered to be a field of study concerned with the management and operation of educational organizations whose history is replete with intellectual struggles and ferments as well as reflections over the nature, methodologies, purposes, boundaries and knowledge base of the field. Bush and Bell (2007) opines that management is the utilization of physical and human resources through cooperative efforts and it is accomplished by performing the function of planning, organizing, staffing directing and controlling. They further note that administration is concerned with the performance of executive duties, the carrying out of policies and decisions to fulfill a purpose, and the controlling of the day-to-day running of an organization. It is also the careful and systematic arrangement and use of resources (human and material), situations and opportunities for the achievement of the specified objectives of a given organization (Bell & Rhodes, 2008).

Administration is a sub-set of management (Mutegi, 2008). Individuals in organizations are assigned particular roles in order to bring all the units to harmony with one another. If the goals are set in relevance with time, they become clear and successful. An organization such as a school operates on two crucial aspects; efficiency and human relations. These entail satisfaction in performance, motivation to the individual for example, good salaries, fringe benefits, in-service courses and other related allowances. Maximization of profits or the satisfaction of performance can thus be explained as efficiency. This can be attained through supervision. This is intervention to ascertain, maintain and improve the quality of work. It is a crucial element in the administrative set up (Onyango, 2011).

Access to secondary education has continued to gain more significance to all stakeholders in education including the government, parents, teachers and even learners themselves (World Bank, 2013). This is because secondary level education determines selection and admission to institutions of literary and higher education job preparation and is even regarded as a measure of social status. Due to high demand for secondary education, the government through the Ministry of Education (MoE) and Constituency Development Fund (CDF) has set up numerous secondary schools to cater for the large numbers of primary school leavers (Saavedra, 2012).

Leadership is generally regarded as the key factor in making a difference to the success of schools and in promoting the learning of the students (Ndana, 2010). With increasing pressure for a higher quality of secondary schools, the head teacher plays a vital role in creating an effective school environment (Odali, 2012). A number of United Kingdom (UK) researchers have focused on the idea that leadership is one of the most important aspects in determining whether an educational institution is successful or not (Wekesa, 2013). However, to my knowledge, other countries such as Saudi Arabia have a lack of theoretical and experiential literature namely school buildings, students, and parents. The reason for this could be that the Saudi educational context has failed to focus adequately on preparing head teachers, and the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has not placed enough emphasis on the head teacher‘s role. According to Alzaidi (2008) the context surrounding the headship position in Saudi Arabia has a number of features, such as a flat managerial structure and a centralised educational system. Therefore, the role of the head teacher could be considered more as that of an operational manager than that of an actual school leader.

This has an effect on how they deal with the challenges they encounter in their administrative tasks. In the years 2000 – 2011, many students have been enrolled for secondary school education. The biggest challenge is management of such schools due to lack of physical structures, unconducive physical and psychological learning environment, library facilities, adventurous play ground, furniture, enough classes and staffroom (Gichuru, 2009). To alleviate the shortage of secondary schools concerted efforts from the government, parents and donors both local and foreign have been focused in increasing the number of secondary schools. Such schools are especially developed through decentralized funds such as the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) and Local Government Transfer Fund (LATF). Faith Based Organizations (FBOs), Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) also invest in secondary schools and complement school construction by the Government.
The Free Primary School program of 2003 and the subsequent Free Secondary School program of 2008, have led to a surge in numbers of pupils seeking secondary education. In response different players have concertedly embarked in establishing new schools to accommodate the extra numbers. However, secondary schools are expensive to set up and maintain thus the resources available to the schools are far more limited than the demand. This has resulted in the emergence of small and unviable schools in some localities, many are still under construction and without qualified teachers or with limited number of teachers (Majanga, Masonga, & Sylvia, 2010).

The school management as the administrator of the school shoulders the responsibility of the success or failure of the school. However, the management must ensure that the multi-faceted problems facing the newly established secondary school do not hinder the efficient service delivery towards producing quality outputs. Given that newly established secondary schools have been set up to cater for the large number of primary school leavers, and the already existing ones have been expanded, the issue of administrative challenges faced by school managements has become a serious issue of concern (Atieno, 2010).

There are various challenges that educational administrators face in their day to day running of schools. These challenges determine the level and effectiveness of the management and administration of the school. In Columbia, according to Kharmes, (2013) the main problem, faced by school administration in secondary schools is inadequate educational facilities and access to education. In Africa, new managements face several challenges as they often work in poorly equipped buildings with inadequately trained staff. There is rarely any formal leadership training and managements are appointed on the basis of their teaching record rather than their leadership potential. A study done in six Sub-Saharan African countries namely, Ghana, Guinea, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda and Madagascar indicate that new managements face serious problems with students who cannot pay fees as parents are reluctant to do so, teacher shortage and inadequate teaching and learning resources (Leu & Bryen, 2011). According to Diete (2012) in his study on transforming schools with a focus on modeling in Botswana, some of the pertinent problems affecting management of secondary schools include lack of adequate finances, physical facilities, lack of adequate human resource among other challenges.

Adequate funding for provision and maintenance of infrastructure, provision of qualified human resources for innovative management and education delivery is urgently needed in the public secondary schools. In their survey on the relationship between corporate performance and human resource, Michie and Sheehan-Quinn (2011) established a significant correlation between corporate performance and proper management of human resource. They found that human resource practices when applied in a comprehensive package are likely to contribute in the competitive success of an organization.

Onyango (2011) asserts that the head teacher is vested with the responsibility of all the administrative tasks. Mbaabu (2014), notes that the school managements have financial constraints especially in keeping the cash books and that inadequate funding hinders the school managements in carrying out their administrative duties. Muasya (2012), notes that the school management has a big role to play especially in coordinating Parents Teachers Association (PTA) to raise funds for school‘s development and the management is bound to assist in estimating the costs to be incurred while putting up new facilities. He continues to say that if the managements do not know their budget and how to collect money for the improvement of physical facilities and proper keeping of records, they will find themselves in big problems.

Mbaabu (2014) notes that, most of the schools lacked facilities like social halls, dining halls, dormitories and libraries which are attributed to lack of adequate funds, proper planning and enough support from the local leaders. Inadequate or lack of these facilities hinders the managements in carrying out their administrative tasks. Opondo (2008) on the other hand notes that school material and other physical facilities are some of the administrative areas highly affected by the problem of insufficient funds in educational institutions. All these impact negatively on the effective school administration.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Administration and management implies the arrangement of human and material resources available in education and using them systematically for the achievement of educational objectives. However, in doing so the management face challenges which hamper the performance of the tasks. A number of studies have been carried on management of public schools. These studies did not address the factors influencing effective school administration in Public secondary schools hence the gap in their studies. Data from the Enugu Director of Education (SCDE, 2016), show that the student enrolment in public secondary schools is quite low. For instance, form one enrolment in 2014 in three schools: Wingemi, Ngaani and Nyaani was 38, 30 and 25 students respectively. In 2015 the same schools registered 35, 26 and 20 students in that order. In 2016, the numbers reduced down to 28, 20 and 15 students (Enugu Annual statistics Report, 2014-2016). Due to the low numbers the schools receive inadequate funds from the government since the funding is based on enrolment.

The managements of Public secondary schools are therefore faced with challenges in the running of the schools in terms of inadequate funds, inadequate infrastructure, inadequate human resources and lack of support from the community. It is in this respect therefore, the researcher was motivated to investigate the factors influencing management ‘s performance of administrative duties in Public secondary schools in Enugu , Enugu State, Nigeria.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria.


1.4 Objectives of the Study

The study was guided by the following research objectives

  1. To establish the influence of finances on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu.
  2. To establish the influence of human resources on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu.
  3. To assess the influence of infrastructure on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu.
  4. To determine the influence of the community around the school on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu

1.5 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions

  1. What influence does finance have on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu
  2. To what extent does human resources influence effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu?
  3. What is the influence of infrastructure on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu?
  4. What influence does the community around the school have on effective school administration in public secondary schools in Enugu?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study findings may be significant in a number of ways. To the school managements, the findings may highlight the factors that hinder performance in their administrative tasks. This study may be of practical value in helping abate the challenges faced by the managements of the public secondary schools hence enhance high quality management. To the Ministry of Education, the study findings may be of importance in establishing the challenges facing the public secondary schools and hence come up with strategies for alleviating the challenges. The donors, financiers and well-wishers may use the findings of the study to identify areas they need to improve so that better mechanisms can be put in place to bettering education management and administration for effective running of the schools. To the Teachers Service Commission (TSC), the study findings may be important in making the commission aware of the human resource challenges and hence see the need of posting more teachers to such schools. To future researchers, the study may also be of great help to other researchers in the same field which may act as a resource material to facilitate their study. They could use it as a point of reference during their study as well as fill the gaps that have been left out. The study findings may also form a base for other students and researchers willing to carry out studies related to this one.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

There were some anticipated limitations of the study. First there was the likelihood of information derived from the schools being biased especially if the data collected was skewed towards favoring the respondent ‘s school. Sensitization was therefore required to the respondents to show how useful the study was to be to the individual schools. Getting the necessary data from different school managements was a challenge. This was because the school routine was unlikely to conform to the schedule of the researcher. This however required patience and time in order to consult the managements at their pace and in confidentiality.


1.8 Delimitations of the Study

The study delimited itself to specific administrative factors that had a direct impact on Management tasks. These included finances, human resources, infrastructure and the community around the school. They were deemed by the researcher to be important variables because they have an impact on the effective school administration. There was a possibility that there could be other factors which were likely to be found outside this scope. It was therefore worth noting that a general assumption should not be made that the findings can be applicable to all categories of secondary schools.


1.9 Assumptions of the Study

The following are some of the assumptions that the researcher posited

  1. The researcher assumed that managements in the public secondary schools encounter many administrative challenges in the areas of finances, human resources, infrastructure and issues surrounding the school community.
  2. The rapid establishment of new public secondary schools caters for the large numbers of primary school leavers accelerated by the free primary education and hence creates challenges to the managements in the performance of their administrative tasks.
  3. It was assumed that the respondents who were used in the research instrument gave true and honest responses.
  4. It was assumed that all respondents would co-operate and honestly respond to all questions.

1.10 Definition of Significant Terms

Administrative Tasks

Administrative tasks refers to the administrative duties that the management performs in the school to ensure smooth running of the school

Community Around the School

Community around the school refers to the physical community that neighbors the school and the Parent Teachers Association (PTA) and the Board of Management (BOM)

Public Day Schools

Public day schools refer to those schools established, developed and maintained through public funds and efforts, where students attend tuition in the morning and return to their homes in the evening.

Financial Resources

Financial resources refers to the monies that the school management needs for the running of the school

Human Resources

Human resources refers to the teachers and support staff in the school

Public Schools

Public schools refers to all the schools which are established, developed and maintained through public funds and efforts. They include National, Extra-county, County and Sub-county schools.

School Facilities

School facilities refers to the infrastructure, both physical buildings and learning/teaching equipment.


1.11 Organisation of the Study

The study is organized into five chapters; chapter one highlights the background and statement of the problem, general objectives, objectives, research questions , significance, limitations, delimitations, assumptions ,definitions of significant terms and organization of the study. Chapter two focuses on literature review. Chapter three describes the research methodology used which included the following: research design, target population, sampling techniques and sample size, research instruments, validity and reliability of instruments, data collecting procedures, data analysis techniques and ethical considerations. Chapter four presents the results, chapter five will have conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further research.


Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations


5.2 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that finances influenced effective school administration. Financial factors such as inadequate finances, delay in disbursement of funds, inadequate facilities due to inadequate funds, parents‘ poor payment of fees affected the managements in the running of schools. The managements could not effectively run schools without finances. This is because financial resource has been recognized as a major resource in the development of any education system. When the resources are not adequate or are not released in time, managements will have challenges in performing their administrative duties. When the managements do not have the finances, they are not able to run the school effectively.

The study also concluded that human resources influenced effective school administration. The managements reported that schools were not in a position to hire enough support staff, the schools did not have adequate teachers and adequate support staff, schools experienced high turnover of support staff. They also reported that inadequate support staff and teachers staff was a major challenge in the public secondary schools. It was also difficult for the schools to get staff. Human resource is paramount to the performance of an organization.
Inadequacy of human resource is therefore a hindrance to management‘s performance of administrative tasks.

The study also concluded that infrastructure influenced effective school administration. The managements reported that their schools did not have adequate and well equipped laboratories and computer labs. schools did not have adequate text books and stationery, most schools did not have administrative blocks, most schools lacked adequate chairs and tables for teachers and further most did not have adequate houses for teachers and support staff. The data implies that inadequate infrastructure affected effective school administration. Lack or inadequate physical resources which include laboratories, libraries, classrooms and a host of other physical infrastructure and material resources that include textbooks, charts, maps among others affect how the managements run schools. The inadequacy of the resources affected effective school administration.

The study further concluded that the community around the school has influence on effective school administration. From the findings, managements rated themselves highly as having good school community relations. However, the managements denied that the community around the school contributes to indiscipline of the school. They also denied that the community was not concerned with the school and further indicated that the school had not received adequate support from the community. Effective school-community relations raise student persistence and achievement.


5.3 Recommendations

This section provides recommendations in relation to the findings and conclusions from the study.

  1. The government should avail adequate funds in time for the running of schools. The Free Secondary Education funds should be released in time to enable the managements effectively run the schools.
  2. On human resource, the Ministry of Education in conjunction with the TSC should avail adequate funds for recruitment and selection of staff. The funds should be used during the selection process to help advertise the job vacancies, hold a workshop for recruiting panel and possibly an induction program. In addition, the managements should use the alternative methods to motivate their staff in cases where the resources are not enough.
  3. The researcher recommends regular workshops and short courses to help managements keep abreast with trends in performance of administrative tasks. Forums such as Nigeria Secondary School Heads Association meetings could be very useful in this regard.
  4. The study recommends to the government to establish a proper model of deliberately involving the community in affairs of the school. School administrators to take up the responsibility of creating a mutual understanding and partnership between schools and the community which would help teachers, parents and all community members to identify areas in which they can work together for the benefit of the students.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies

Taking the limitations and delimitations of the study, the following areas were suggested for further research

  1. A study on how managements‘ involvement of BOM in school management affects performance of their administrative tasks.
  2. A study on how managements‘ involvement of teachers in school management affects performance of their administrative tasks.
  3. A study on how managements‘ delegation of tasks affects performance of their administrative tasks.
  4. A study on the influence of managements‘ personal characteristics on performance of administrative tasks.

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