Factors Affecting Workers Productivity In Building Production Process

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Factors Affecting Workers Productivity In Building Production Process


Construction projects suffer various problems and complex factors such as cost, duration, quality and safety. Construction sector is diverse as it contains, contractors, consultants, designers, owners, and others. The aim of this paper is to identify factors affecting worker productivity at a building construction project.

A literature review and factors recommended by experts were considered to categorize the factors. 40 factors, categorized into 5 groups, were analyzed and ranked considering Relative Importance Index. The questionnaires were distributed to Project Manager, Project Engineer, Architecture, and Others (Scheduler, and Estimator).

It was concluded, final cost of the projects were higher than estimated cost. It’s recommended to develop human resources through proper and continuous training programs frame a strong assignment, vision and a planned approach to overcome the disturbances on the performance of the construction projects. The discussed factors are expected to assist in completing construction projects successfully.

Chapter One

1.0. Introduction

1.1 Introduction To The Study

Several studies related to worker productivity are performed for construction industry in past. Several of them were related to calculating the effect of productivity factors. Measurable calculations about the effects of those factors are required for several purposes, it includes estimation of the construction project, it’s planning and scheduling. However, past study shows that it is tough to calculate such an impact, and at present there are no universally accepted standards to measure factors causing worker productivity loss in construction industry. This lack of methods for measuring effects highlights the need to enhance measurable assessments for the factors affecting productivity in building construction, and this is supposed to be the topic of this research.

Achieving better worker productivity requires detailed studies of the actual worker cost. Various workers have different variables affecting their productivity levels. For every project, productivity, cost, quality, and time have been the main concern. Better productivity can be achieved if project management includes the skills of education and training, the work method, personal health, motivational factors, the type of tools, machines, required equipment and materials, personal skills, the workload to be executed, expected work quality, work location, the type of work to be done, and supervisory personnel (Rowlinson and Proctor, 1999).

In today’s era, one of the biggest concern for any organization is to improve their productivity, representing the effective and efficient conversion of resources into marketable products and determining business profitability (Wilcox et al., 2000). Consequently, considerable effort has been directed to understand the productivity concept with different approaches taken by researchers, resulting in a wide variety of productivity definitions (Lema and Samson,1995;

1.2. Statement of problem

In the construction industry productivity loss is one of the greatest and severe problems. Present construction contracts lack enough to classify recompense for productivity loss due to field factors (Construction Industry Institute [CII], 2000; National Electrical Contractors Association [NECA], 1989). Of various project-costs components such as workers materials and equipment’s, worker component is considered the most risk. Whereas others components (equipment and material) are determined by the market price and price and are, consequently, beyond the influence of project management. Worker cost in construction industry is estimated to be about 33%- 50% of the entire project cost (language Hanna et al., 2005). Because worker is more variable and unpredictable than other project-cost components, it becomes necessary to understand the effects of different factors on worker productivity.

An increase in productivity can reduce the worker cost in a direct proportion. It can either benefit or reduce a project’s profit, making it of vital interest to the construction industry for its success (Hanna et al., 2005).
Previous researches confirm that productivity loss results from various factors, which includes but not limited to various variation in drawings, long hours of extra work, poor field management, and extreme climatic conditions (Alarcon and Borcherding, 1991; Leonard, 1987; Sanders and Thomas, 1991; Thomas and Oloufa, 1995). In fact, these factors typically produce extra disturbances that affect productivity and are beyond the direct control of a contractor, resulting in productivity loss or extra work hours necessary to accomplish the task.

1.3. Objectives of study

The objective of this study focuses on views from the construction industry about various factors affecting worker productivity, analyzes factors affecting the worker productivity impact, and suggests appropriate measures that can be taken to improve worker productivity. The aim is supported by the objective stated below.

  1. Study and discuss various factors affecting worker productivity in construction industry.
  2. Analyze and calculate the Relative Important Index (RII) of those factors affecting worker productivity.
  3. To statistically analyze the factors affecting worker productivity.
  4. To make recommendations to improve worker productivity in construction

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the external causes of worker’s productivity in building?
  2. Does worker’s productivity affect the success of a building plan?

1.5 Significance of study

The research study investigates important factors affecting worker productivity in building construction. Understanding these factors is helpful for the construction professionals who work on the initial phases of construction planning in order to efficiently deliver the project plan.

The main goal of the research study is to provide essential information about factors affecting worker productivity to the project management teams who enable the project’s success. Generally, the factors which affect construction productivity are a lack of required materials, disputes between the major parties, weather, and changes during the construction, accidents, and others.

For building construction, extra care must be taken when developing the project time schedule, which is possible only with prior knowledge of factor causes. The research study aims to provide knowledge of building construction-related factors that affect the project’s success.

1.6 Organization of study

This research consists of five chapters and appendices (IRB Approval and Web-Survey Questionnaire).

  • Chapter 1 discusses the background, various definitions, measurement, Problem Statement, misconceptions, and facts related to productivity.
  • Chapter 2 discusses previous studies for construction worker productivity found in professional journals and texts. It also lists various factors affecting productivity and further identifies the possible factors affecting productivity in the construction industry.
  • Chapter 3 discusses the research methodology used, including a discussion of the survey approach.
  • Chapter 4 discusses the analysis method and Statistical Method utilized for the study as well as the results obtained from the web survey.
  • Chapter 5 discuses conclusions, Recommendations, and suggestions for future research. Figure 1.1 shows the flow-chart describing various stages in research and its structure.

Chapter Five

Recommendations And Conclusion

5.1. Recommendations

Construction tasks are expensive and frequently cause in arguments and claims, which generally affects progress of construction projects. The environment of construction organizations should be suitable to implement projects with successful completion. In the construction industry, it is necessary to find the weaknesses of particular task in order to solve and overcome them. Mentioned below are the recommendations which were found to be important factors for improving worker productivity in the construction industry.

  1. A detail schedule of material supply schedule for each project should be provided by the contractors. It should contain the time required to supply materials and the availability of the local market to furnish the required materials in time. Extra attention is required on quality of construction materials and tools used in their projects because using suitable materials and tools reduces both the time taken to finish the work and wastage of materials. Using suitable materials and tools also has a positive effect on the task and thus, better worker productivity can be achieved.
  2. Organizations should make sure there is enough lighting present at the construction sites which can indirectly reduce the number of accidents. Continuous safety training and meetings should be arranged to achieve better performance in worker productivity.
  3. Purchased material should be stored at appropriate location and should be easily accessible and close to constructed buildings to avoid wasting worker time for multiple- handling materials.
  4. Recruiting manager and project managers should recruit appropriate candidate to particular task. Friendly relations should be maintained with workers and made aware of their importance to the organization. To achieve desired results, time required to implement change orders and to make corrections in drawings and specifications should be estimated and scheduled without affecting the project-time completion. Regular meetings should be arranged with the project authorities.
  5. Various external and natural factor risk should be considered in the budget estimation to minimize delays due to closures and material shortages. There should be suitable emergency budget to cover cost of increased material.
  6. A financial incentive in the form of best employee of the year should be implemented to create competition among the employees, thus achieving better productivity.
  7. Strict drug and alcohol tests should be implemented on a surprise basis and strict action should be taken with the employees who test positive.
  8. Complex design and incomplete drawings should be avoided and care should be taken to avoid confusion among the various construction agencies.
  9. If the construction sites are present in remote geographical locations where public or employees’ own transportation facilities cannot be made available, appropriate organized transportation should be given to the employees.
  10. Change orders and design error should be avoided as much as possible. These factors can be costly and time consuming if the work has been done. Work sequences can also be affected due to rework.
  11. Absenteeism at work site can be reduced with inclusion of appropriate paid time off and vacations to all employees.

5.2. Conclusion

In today’s world, the construction industry is rated as one of the key industry. It helps in developing and achieving the goal of society. Study and knowledge of construction productivity are very important because they cause losses to the governing agencies and also influence the economics of the construction industry. Prior knowledge of worker productivity during construction can save money and time. Investments for these projects are very high and because of the complexity in construction, various factors can highly affect overall productivity, thus the project can end up adding even more time and money in order to be completed. This research is intended to identify the causes of probable factors affecting worker productivity in building construction. This study investigates all possible factors through a structured questionnaire administered all over Nigeria. The survey results are subjected to analysis, and the ranking of factors is calculated using the Relative Important Index. The basic ideas of the research is to study various factors affecting worker productivity on construction.

Forty factors considered for the study were categorized in five different groups’ manpower, external, communication, resources, and miscellaneous groups. The target groups in this study were construction professionals. Total of 255 questionnaires were distributed, and 28 questionnaires (11.00% response rate) were returned. Because project engineers, project managers have vast experience in construction, their adequate experiences were a proper suggestion to study about the various construction factors affecting worker productivity.

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