Factors Affecting The Use Of Field Trip In Teaching And Learning Of Biology In Secondary School
The research provides an appraisal of the factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school. It provides an analysis of the nature of field trip in teaching and learning and its significance. The research profers a methodology of learning and teaching of biology in secondary school but elucidate the factors affecting its use.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Biology is a core science subject offered in the senior secondary school in Nigeria. According to National Policy on Education NPE (2014), the objectives of biology education includes the preparation of students to acquire adequate laboratory and field skills in biology. In the pursuance of the stated objectives, the content and context of the curriculum place emphasis on field studies, guided discovery Laboratory techniques among others. Today, the Nigerian teachers have deviated from the stated objectives, rather than teaching biology in the natural settings, the talk and chalk approach to teaching have become a phenomenon in most schools in Nigeria, an approach to teaching where the teacher does the talking while the students are passive in the learning process. Their duties only include listening and answering questions from the teacher. Field trips are rich in educational possibilities as students learn from actual hands-on experience rather than by simply reading or hearing about something. The key to success in science is not just providing students with a science immersion experience, but also enabling them to conceptualize science as a creative process and of thinking other than a defined body of knowledge. According to Yusuf (2011), the most natural learning is realized through personal experience. Students involving in their work will make them learn and enjoy it. Field trips help students appreciate the relevance and importance of what they learn in the classroom.
According to Akubuilo (2010) field-trip is a method of teaching that involves taking the students on an excursion outside the classroom for the purpose of making relevant observation necessary for understanding of the topic under study. Often times such trips/excursions enable student to obtain scientific, technological and vocational information. Field trip offer students firsthand experience since they see and observe processes in natural life settings. Field trip enables students to discover and explore new information and also apply/organize previous knowledge by giving concrete examples. Field trips are aiding the teacher uses to arouse the interest of the learner thereby enabling the learner to gain direct experience (Ilori, 2010). According to Bitgood and Stephen (2009), Field trip is a trip by students to gain firsthand knowledge away from the classroom, as to a museum, factory, geological area, or environment of certain plants and animals. Field trip is a trip arranged by the school and undertaken for educational purpose in which the students go to places where the materials for instruction may be observed and studied directly in their natural setting. In field work, students assume active investigative roles, thinking like a scientist and doing real science. Direct experience with real objects and processes can give form and meaning to primary concepts. Nature plays an active role in effective learning. Environmental learning creates close association between the learner and the environment thereby granting the students (learner) the opportunity to involve the complete senses in the learning process.
Field-based approach to learning will create a platform for social learning amongst students. Field trips provide an opportunity to involve students, parents and the teachers in the instructional program. Students can select the place to be visited, developing questions to ask, writing reports or thank you letters after the trip, or evaluating the experiences. Since parents must give their permission, a letter sent home with the permission form explaining purpose of the trip is a good way to arouse their curiosity and encourage them to ask the student or teacher about the trip. The parent guides their child in order to make sure that they do not come to any harm. This role allows the parents and teachers to establish a much closer relationship. Science education in the field centers primarily on observational and experimental activities. The natural environment is the main source of information for learning activities. Pupils learn how to use the scientific methods for solving problem. They take and analyze samples, create hypothesis and plan experiments. Also, field trips offer a lot of meaningful and educative opportunities to students. These opportunities according to Wilson (2011) are as follows:
- Field trips provide real learning experience to students as it provides them with the opportunities to put what they learn through other method of teaching into practice.
- Field trips activities give students the opportunities to see the world. (Its cultures, diversities and realities) for themselves.
- Biology field trips give the students opportunities to gather real ecological data.
- As the students go out and study in groups during field trips, their interpersonal relationship improves as they learn to live and work with others, supporting each other during group learning activities.
- Field trips enhance student’s memory as the students have been found to remember what they learn in the trips for many years.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Considering the importance of biology and the number of students doing it, it is a disturbing situation to note that large number of students failed biology in the Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE). Statistics from the West African Examination Council for the past six years has revealed persistent poor performance in science subjects especially in biology (WAEC Chief Examiner’s reports for 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014 and 2015). Among the causative factors are Biology teachers’ widespread uses of ineffective lectures and inadequate materials or resources needed for effective teaching of biology. (Egbunonu and Ugbaja 2012). This may be due to the fact that emphasis is primarily on students’ poor acquisition. Thus, biology is presented to the students as a static body of knowledge rather than a dynamic growing field of discovery. There is need to investigate the use of more efficacious strategies in the study of biology. Therefore, the study is on the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools.
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the nature of field trips in teaching and learning?
- What is the significance of field trips in teaching and learning?
- What constitute the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school?
1.4 Objectives Of The Research
- To determine the nature of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school.
- To appraise the significance of field trip.
- To determine the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school.
1.5 Significance Of The Research
The research shall elucidate the nature of field trips in teaching and learning in biology in secondary school and analyse the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning. It shall also serve as a veritable source of information on issues of field trip in teaching and learning.
1.6 Statement Of The Hypothesis
- Ho: Teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is low
Hi: Teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is high
- Ho: The use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is low
Hi: The use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is high.
- Ho: The factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is low.
Hi: The factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school is high.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The study shall appraise the nature of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school and elucidate the factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Field Trip Defined
Concepts of Field Trip strategy was introduced in 1827 by George Shillibeer for a Quaker school at Abney Park in Stoke Newington, London, United Kingdom. A field trip is a visit to a place outside the regular classroom which is designed to achieve certain objectives, which cannot be achieved as well by using other means. For example if the lesson is on “making cheese”, and if there is no hand on experience it is very difficult to achieve the objectives. In such a lesson this strategy is required. Field trips give opportunity for a student to get out of the classroom and experience something new. The located place for field trip can be zoos, collages, museums, theater and schools.
The act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill. Knowledge or skill gained through schooling or study. Behavioral modification especially through experience or conditioning.
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