Factors Affecting The Performances Of Basic Technology Students In Upper Basic Education (A Case Study Of Umuahia North Local Government Area Of Abia State)
This study was designed to identify factors affecting students’ performance in basic technology Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination in. Four research questions were raised to guide the study. The population of the study consisted of three thousand one hundred and twenty six (3126) basic technology teachers and students. A sample of three hundred (300) was selected through random sampling. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using mean. Findings among others revealed that students has low interest in studying basic technology, teachers’ methods of teaching also effect students’ performance, insufficient number of qualified staff, poor training materials, poor administration and supervision of schools affects students’ performance in basic technology. Based on the findings of the study, some practical recommendations were made.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is the totality of life experience that people acquire and which enables them to cope with and drive satisfaction from living in the world. This is because it enables them to achieve social competence and optimum individual development. It is on this premise that it is believed that the quality of a nation’s education is proportional to the level of its prosperity Aduwa and Unwameiye (2006). From the beginning of time, man has strived to improve his way and quality of life. The Caveman discovered how to make and use tools, developed logical sequence for activities and evolved processes that added to his life, the totality of the use and application of his knowledge, skills tools and materials constitute what we today describe as technology. Technology comes from Greek word, – Technologia; techne-an art, skill or craft and “logia’- the study of something or the branch of knowledge of discipline (Egbogah, 2007).
Basic technology is a phase of general education designed to introduce the leaner to/and acquaint him/her with the basic process, material and product of the industries (National Policy on Education, 2004). The first National policy on Education in 1977 divided the existing five-year Secondary School into six – year Junior Secondary School system consisting of three – year Junior Secondary School and three year Senior Secondary School in the 6-3-3 year system of education. In the three-year of Junior Secondary School (JSS) in Nigeria, almost all technical subjects are integrated together and called Basic Technology. At the Junior Secondary School level, every student is expected to develop positive attitude toward the study of Basic Technology since it is the first time students are introduced to technical subjects.
However, there is no way every student in a group can have the same or similar performance towards a subject, some may have high performance while others have low. These differences in performance may be caused by various factors. Some of the factors that may affect student’s performance in examination include: – interest, training materials, influence of qualified teachers, management andparental attitude, teaching method, availability of laboratory and workshops, tools, equipotent, teacher incentives etc. Ogwa (2002) in a study on the causes of poor performance of students in Basic Technology emphasized that some teachers did not major in Basic Technology yet, they teach the subject. He further observed that many teach the subject with secondary school qualification. It is based on this background that the researcher investigated the extent some of the aforementioned factors affects students’ performance in Basic Technology.
Basic technology which is the only core subject among the per-vocational subjects of the junior secondary school Nigeria, involves the academic practical study of materials and sources of energy with the ultimate intention of applying study knowledge from the study to provide a comfortable environment for man (Uwameiye, 1999). The basic technology was planned or designed to reduce ignorance about technology education. To attain this, the subject has three main objectives as was stated by federal republic of Nigeria (NPE 2004);
- To provide pre-vocational orientation for further training in technology (ii) To provide basic technological literacy for everyday living and
- To stimulate creativity. In order to realize the objectives of technology, the curriculum content has been fully structured to accommodate the two major concepts of creativity and workmanship.
Students are therefore trained to acquire the art of creativity in their basic technology lessons which will help them acquire their occupational skills (Achebe in Nwobasi 2010). It is also crucial that in the junior secondary classes, students should acquire a preliminary knowledge, skill and awareness in technology that could serve as eye opener for choosing a career in the world of work (Uzoagulu 1995). Uzoagulu also assert that Basic Technology is an exploratory and expository subject. In view of this, the organization of selected topics and contents into a teaching sequence were achieved by the technical committee on Basic Technology curriculum planning. He further stressed that the curriculum committee suggested that a periodic testing or continues assessment of students disposition to the subject be embarked upon.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is surprising that despite the efforts of government, individuals and non-government agencies in enhancing the educational development in Nigeria, the Imo State Post-primary School Management Board (PPSMB) report (2010) has shown that the general academic performance of students in Basic Technology has declined greatly. It was also observed that poor performance of students in basic technology has been so high in many Nigerian public schools in the recent years. If this is not checkmated, our Science and Technology related subjects graduates from the post-primary schools may not be employable and those who may further in their University Education may experience difficulties because of their background. Consequently, our educational system will not attain its objective of producing qualified and competent product in technology education; industries will lack technicians who would help in the maintenance and production process in our local industry.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to examine the factors affecting the performances of basic technology students in upper basic education (A Case Study Of Umuahia North Local Government Area Of Abia State). Specifically, the study tends to:-
- Identify students’ interest in learning Basic Technology.
- Identify teacher factors on students’ performance in Basic Technology.
- Ascertain the extent of availability of training materials, equipment, tools in teaching Basic Technology.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent does students interest in learning Basic Technology affects their performance?
- What are the teacher’s factors on students, performance in Basic Technology?
- What is the extent availability of training materials, equipment; tools in teaching Basic Technology affects students’ performance?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study are likely to provide information to the stakeholders on the importance of carrying out research in other districts on social-cultural factors especially in those areas that are densely populated. The study should also be extended to private institutions Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia State with a view of comparing the outcome from the two settings so as to uplift the low academic performance experienced in Abia State.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research worker covers the factors affecting the performances of basic technology students in upper basic education (A Case Study of Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia State). The study also encapsulates the extent does students interest in learning Basic Technology affects their performance, the teacher’s factors on students, performance in Basic Technology and the extent availability of training materials, equipment; tools in teaching Basic Technology affects students’ performance.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
According Best and Khan (1998) limitations are conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restriction on the conclusion of the study and their application to other situations. The limitations that were encountered by the researcher included lack of cooperation on the part of the respondents on suspicion that the information sought may be used to victimize them. Another limitation related to the area of study is that, the area is not large enough to capture the findings that would be generalized to cover the whole country.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.
Students’ Academic Performance:
The outcomes of the teaching and learning process in terms of knowledge and skills in students acquire from schools as measured by scores obtained in Certificate for Secondary Examinations (CSEE).
Refers to achievement in standardized tests or examinations shown by a student. According to Niebuhr (1995) Academic performance of students is typically assessed by the use of teacher’s ratings, tests, and examinations.
This refers to a process that uses the safety of a special relationship between the counselor and the counselee together explore the thoughts, feelings and counselor attitudes of the counselee with the objective of tapping the resources within the counselee to effect healing and change.
Refers to all activities rendered by educational institutions, which are primarily concerned with assisting individual students understand themselves, thus their needs, interest abilities and potentials.
Teaching and Learning Materials:
In this study teaching and learning materials mean all materials that facilitate the teaching and learning in secondary schools. They include laboratories with its chemical and equipment, text books used for teaching by the teachers and those used by the students for reference. Other materials are projectors, classrooms, desks, libraries as well as syllabus. Big charts, wall maps, photographs are also teaching and learning materials (Mbunda, 2006).
To perform is to take a complex series of actions that integrate skills and knowledge to produce a valuable result.
1.9 Organisations of the Study
This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
- Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
Findings in this study showed that all of the items were accepted by the respondents. According to the data analysis, basic technology teachers primarily instruct without the use of teaching materials and don’t frequently use a variety of teaching techniques. This is consistent with Ogwa’s (2002) assertion that teachers are occasionally to blame for pupils’ subpar exam results. Since teaching the populace is one of the most significant jobs facing contemporary society, the necessity for high-quality teacher education is more critical than ever.According to Ogwa (2002), the best way for learners to learn the necessary knowledge and skills at the end of the class is through the use of effective teaching methods to communicate the lesson’s objectives. If a teaching strategy can’t keep students’ interest or attention, it will never be effective. He added that a poor teaching approach tends to undermine students’ motivation for open-ended exploration, creativity, and individual goals. To accomplish its goal, Basic Technology instruction must follow a specific methodology.In most of our secondary schools, the approach used in teaching the subject in classes is the traditional method, which is the method whereby teachers teach by coping notes on the blackboard, drawing on chalk boards without demonstration of full explanation of fundamental principles.
The study also revealed that most Basic Technology teachers are not professionally trained to teach the subject and this is always seen in Private Secondary Schools. The study agreed that there are few Basic Technology teachers and sometimes one teacher is allowed to teach class 1-3; this affects the teacher’s teaching strength as well as teaching methods. Most a times, the teacher handling all these classes are not encouraged by the school management as this will enable the teacher make extra efforts towards imparting knowledge and skills in the students. Encouragement is one of the major factors that affect the academic performance of students in our secondary schools. Eresimadu (1998) opined that in every formal organization, for the goal to be achieved, the members must be motivated. It is an integral part in the schools system if students should perform well. Sometimes, governments neglect the physiological and physical needs of the students in the school system which will make the productivity of teachers to be low. Teachers may exempt themselves from work and even when they are present, the spent most time in the staffroom chatting and discussing other than what they are employed to do.
Ukeje (2001) went further to say that teacher chances for advancement either in rank or salary are limited and usually required him to leave the classroom, where he is badly needed to enter administration which has a shortage of qualified men. Olomoliya (2010) in his study, stated that poor and irregular payment of salary, housing, no hope of owning a car, no other sources of income and low prestige in society are some of the major factors that affects teachers, he is denied of his entitlement for instance the withdrawal of teachers allowance and other incentives. He is deprived of opportunity to further training and education and is expected to lobby before he is selected to attend training, workshop, conference and seminar. Therefore, the opinion of the researchers is that teachers of Basic Technology should use modern teaching aids, varieties of methods in teaching and make their textbooks available for student. The government/school proprietors should also employ more qualified teachers to teach Basic Technology.
The poor performance of students in Basic Technology has been a very big to the society and Nation at large. The factors affecting students’ performance has been identified such as interest of students to leaning, teachers attitude and methods of teaching, inadequate instructional materials, equipment and facilities, and management poor funding and supervision of schools. Therefore, efforts should be made by the school administrators/ proprietors, teachers and government at all level to improve students’ poor performance in Basic Technology. It is hoped that the findings of this study will be of importance to curriculum planners, teachers, students, society and parents. The curriculum planners will make use of these findings during innovation. It will help them understand how their set objectives have been achieved in Basic Technology and seek for improvement where necessary. The findings from the study would also help teachers of Basic Technology to teach more effectively. It will equally save parents the waste of paying school fees for repeat of examination. Students offering Basic Technology will benefit from the study because human material resources may be adequately provided as suggested by the study. This will make them have good education and also help them to learn better skill. Furthermore, the nation/society will benefit from the study if they pay more attention to Basic Technology, improvement in technological subjects, and courses in Secondary and Tertiary Institution respectively will boast of country’s technology. Finally, the study will also provide vital information with regards to the qualification of Basic Technology teachers and indicate their training and retraining needs
In spite of the importance of the study to the individuals as well as to government and corporate bodies, the researcher made the following recommendations based on the findings of the study, personal experiences, and observation.
- The Government/school proprietor should provide modern teaching facilities for effective teaching and learning of Basic Technology in Secondary Schools.
- Provide incentives to Basic Technology teachers and students.
- The size of secondary school classes should be reduced from 50 to 35.
- Selections of candidates into all the programmes of secondary school should be based primarily on the result of entrance examination conducted to test the candidate’s attitudes towards learning and their intellectual capacities.
- Provide sufficient classrooms and instructional materials for students.
- Proper funding and timely release of fund for educational activities by government should be encouraged.
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