Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)

Physics Education Project Material

Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)


Abstract


This study on factors affecting the effective teaching of physics set out to analyze the main factor – lack of staff motivation, and its implication of the academic performance of physics students of University of Abuja. The survey research method was adopted using questionnaire as instrument to elicit information from the respondents. Findings from the analysis of the data gathered showed that the staff of the selected institution in FCT is not well motivated and this inadequate staff motivation makes the teachers not to discharge their duties effectively.
Findings further revealed that the teachers who teach in the private universities are more motivated than those who teach in the public universities. Based on the above findings, the study concluded that the extent to which the staff of the selected school is motivated is minimal and this has in turn had negative implications on the performance of the students academically. Thus, the academic performance of the students is poor. It therefore recommended among others that, the management of all schools whether private or public should make conscious efforts to motivate their teachers at all times.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Societies all over the world have used education as an instrument for the achievement of their national interests and objectives. Education is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It fosters the worth and development of the individual, for the individual’s sake and for the general development of the society (National Policy on Education, 2004). All these call for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united country. Therefore, school programs need to be relevant, practical and comprehensive, while interest and ability should determine the individuals direction in education. It is only when these 2 factors come together that we can achieve the nations objectives.

In Nigeria, for example, in order to achieve the goals and objectives of education, the government set up 3 levels of education: primary education, secondary education and tertiary education (National Policy on Education, 2004), for the purpose of this research.

Tertiary education is the third level of education in Nigeria. According to National Policy on Education (2004), Tertiary education is the education children receive after secondary education. The goals of tertiary education are to prepare the individual for:

  • Useful living within the society.
  • Higher education.

The question which this research raised is: Is our tertiary education fulfilling these objectives for which it is set up? Again, how useful are those who pass through our tertiary education to themselves, their parents, their society, the state and the nation as a whole? Another question to is: how has our tertiary education prepared our youths for higher education?

On one hand, looking at the number of students that graduate from tertiary schools every year, one may say that tertiary education is trying to fulfill these obligations. But on the other hand, considering the quality of those students that graduate every year, it looks like secondary education is not realizing the goals and objectives for which it is set up. According to Uwadiae (2006), as long as there are still examination malpractices in tertiary schools, the goals and objectives of tertiary education are not being realized. Elaborating on this he says that, the percentage of reported cases of examination malpractice against abuja which is federal territory of Nigeria, for example, has been on the increase. The state was 18th in 2001, 17th in 2002, 9th in 2003, 7th in 2004 and has increased to be the 4th ranked state with cases of examination malpractice in 2005. This has cast some level of doubt on whether tertiary education fulfills its objectives and on the veracity of any good academic performance. If the number of reported cases of examination malpractice could be as high, how are we sure that the number of unreported cases, some of which formed part of the good performance, are not as high or even higher? If examination malpractice is increasing every year in tertiary education in abuja State of Nigeria, it implies that students are not being prepared well for higher institution. As Uwadiae (2006) said, the issue of examination malpractice in the secondary education should be a food for thought for all of us because it betrays the aim and goal of secondary education and reveals a lacuna in our secondary education. In the opinion of Awanbor (2005), this lacuna in our tertiary education among other things is lack of students motivation. It is the opinion of Rusillo and Arias (2004), that there is significant influence of academic motivation on learning physics at school. Awanbor (2005) holds that students, who lack sufficient level of academic motivation exhibit a weak drive towards the pursuit of academic goals. Such students manifest signs and symptoms of indifference and apathy towards school. Majority of such students, if not all, are those who are involved in examination malpractices.

Furthermore, Awanbor (2005) noted that because of poor motivation due to inadequate remuneration, poor teaching environment as a result of lack of basic teaching materials, listless and unmotivated learners in the classroom, among others, the teachers have become the endangered species in their own profession. They no long teach and the students in turn no longer learn. He suggested that students should be academically motivated as this will go a long way to solving most of the problems faced physics in education system and also increase students academic performance. He further remarked that motivating students will help them to be more responsible and have more interest in studies. He also holds that motivation of students will reduce, if not completely eliminate, tertiary institution dropout rates, low enrolment rates, truancy, etc. In the view of Renchler (1992), every educator needs to be concerned about motivation. It is a quality that students, teachers, parents, school administrators and other members of the community must have if our educational system is to prepare young people adequately for the challenges and demands of the coming century. Of course, the way these various groups of individuals generate and use motivation differs greatly. Students need motivation to learn, parents need it to track the educational progress of their sons and daughters, teachers need it to become better teachers and school administrators need it to ensure that every facet of the schools they manage continues to improve. How true is this claim that students are not academically motivated in Abuja of Nigeria? It is against this background that this study investigated the factors affecting the effective of physics and their implication on students academic performance in Abuja of Nigeria.


1.1 Background to the Study

Teaching of physics profession in the olden days was a career which almost all members of the society cherished. The physics teachers then were highly motivated. Also, the immediate community motivated them; and teaching was an occupation which was regarded as most refined and most decent in those days. The teachers were encouraged because the noble profession as seen as a job meant or preserved for the elite. It was a profession with such dignity and prestige. Entry into the occupation as very tasking, exist was simple but few withdrew from the career voluntarily because the teachers had everything that motivated them.

Interestingly, the morale of the teachers were boasted in those days because on their point, they were the mirror image of what decency, humility, gentility and honesty could portray. Teachers were zealous and very determined in imparting knowledge to their students and as such they performed their duties without looking back. The teachers work seriously and equally performed creditably in their various areas of specialization. Teachers were induced, encouraged, and highly motivated; they never compromised their work no matter the hurdles.

In the same vein, they were the people who laid the foundation of the modern Nigerian society and partook in every aspect of the economy. Is there any area in our modern society that was not brought up and strengthened or fostered by teachers? Is there any profession in the modern society that progressed without teachers? Which professionals in this modern society were not trained by teachers? The teachers here encompass tertiary teachers who among the elite in the society could claim correctly that he/she became what he/she is today without passing through various teachers at various levels of education? Teaching profession was never an occupation of mockery in those days. But regrettably, this salient and outstanding profession in the recent time has totally been neglected by almost all the citizens. The profession now has lost its glory. It is now seen as a career for dropouts or the frustrated members of the society. The profession by all indications is sick and almost dead – going by what is happening in our schools today.

The goal of personnel management in any organisation is the production of satisfied employees who will remain on the job to contribute their best toward achieving the organisation’s objectives at minimum cost. The executive officer of an organisation therefore is highly concerned with motivating his subordinates for organizational goal attainment.

Teachers’ motivation is the impetus that propels any school system toward maximum attainment of set goals. The rate of staff turnover in schools and the seeming falling standard of education have bearing on inadequate teachers’ motivation in the school system and thereby affecting academic performance and effectiveness in the school system.

Furthermore, Awanbor (2005) noted that because of poor motivation due to inadequate remuneration, poor teaching environment as a result of lack of basic teaching materials, listless and unmotivated learners in the classroom, among others, the teachers have become the endangered species in their own profession. They no long teach and the students in turn no longer learn. He suggested that teachers should be academically motivated as this will go a long way to solving most of the problems faced in education system and also increase students’ academic performance. He further remarked that motivating teachers will help them to be more responsible and have more interest in the profession. He also holds that motivation of teachers will reduce, if not completely eliminate, high school dropout rates, low enrolment rates, truancy, etc. In the view of Renchler (1992), every educator needs to be concerned about motivation. It is a quality that students, teachers, parents, school administrators and other members of the community must have if our educational system is to prepare young people adequately for the challenges and demands of the coming century. Of course, the way these various groups of individuals generate and use motivation differs greatly. Students need motivation to learn, parents need it to track the educational progress of their sons and daughters, teachers need it to become better teachers and school administrators need it to ensure that every facet of the schools they manage continues to improve.

Thus, there is need to motivate teachers to enhance job performance. This has been emphasized by researchers (Abraham Maslow’s, 1943, 1970; Hertzberg, 1959), that teachers must be motivated at work for many nations to be self-reliant and free in their educational development, this can be achieved when the teachers are motivated so that they can be more committed to their job and enhance school effectiveness. Hellriegel and Slocum (1996) submitted that motivation is the factor that bring out, directs and sustains people’s goal directed behaviour in any organisation. Stressing further they said, how motivated a workforce is determines to a large extent, how goal bound an organisation is. Thus, motivation is the impetus that propels any organisation towards maximum accomplishment of set goals. Despite the poor pay of teachers in years back only teachers were treated like royalty by the community especially in the rural area. This is no longer the situation due to a variety of factor prominent among which is the increasing civilizing influences among the generality of the citizen.

The late sixties up to the early eighties can really be regarded as the golden-age of teachers in Nigeria with the peak period in the seventies. During that period, student-teachers enjoyed bursary awards, scholarships and other different forms of financial assistance from the government. Teaching then was an available and very attractive profession. Consequently, teachers’ per-service and in-service training opportunities are no longer enjoyed by many classroom teachers the fact that study-leave with pay is no longer enjoyed by most classroom teachers. It is even sad to note that in some states, teachers are not given the opportunities to be promoted to another level or given the privilege to go on a study leave with or without pay. To actualize the national objectives of Nigeria education as contained in the National Policy of Education (NPE, 2004), there is the need for teachers to the motivated.
When incessant strike goes on in school system, there is no way one can achieve school effectiveness. Leadership of the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) on Wednesday, June 11, 2008; directed all teachers in secondary schools across the country to proceed on the three-day warning strike from Wednesday, June 11, 2008. The reason for this development is the federal government’s failure to implement the new salary structure for teachers across the country (Nigerian Compass News, June 9, 2008).

Thus teachers’ motivation is a prime factor in the national socio-political and economic advancement. The current trend in the teaching industry, which includes nationwide or state strike actions, as a result of poor conditions of services point to the fact that teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs (Gabadeen, 2007).

Different rewards can be used to motivate Nigerian teachers on the job in terms of quality of output. Amongst such are monetary rewards, salary increase, housing allowance, national honours, seminars, material gifts and a host of others. Each of the aforementioned rewards has varying degree of strengths vis-à-vis their capacity to motivate goal-directed behaviour for an excellent performance in teaching and learning, due to variation in the value individual teachers attach to each reward (Weenbergaud Gonld, 1995).

Furthermore, different rewards which can be generally classified as either financial or non-financial reward serve as effective motivation to the teachers. Motivation in educational organisations due to their association with such reinforces as food, housing, clothing as well their contribution to higher level needs in Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Robbins and Couttler, 1996).


1.2 Objective of the Project

The objectives of the project are:

  1. To determine the relationship between teacher qualification and student academic achievement.
  2. To investigate the relationship between physics teachers’ experience (years of teaching, attendance of in-service courses and setting and marking of national examinations) and students’ academic performance in physics.
  3. To determine the extent to which staff moral affect the performance of physics students in the selected higher institution.
  4. To ascertain the extent to which the staff of the selected institution are motivated.
  5. To determine if there are factors that hinder the effective staff motivation in the selected school.
  6. To contribute to the reservoir of knowledge existing in the field of education.
  7. To make recommendations based on the findings.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

The teachers’ motivation and academic performance of physics students is of great concern to education in Nigeria. There is gradual and steady decline in the standard of physics education in Nigeria. The need to improve the quality of our school through effective motivation is of great concern for stakeholders in education. The gradual and steady decline in the standard of education in Nigeria can be attributed to the low level of motivation among the teachers as opined by some authors like Durosaro (2002) and Ifinendo (2003).

The teachers’ argument is in line with Adam’s (1963), opinion on equity theory of motivation. Adam’s equity theory calls for balance to be struck between employees’ inputs (e.g. hard works, communication and involvement in decision making, teachers’ salary scales, teachers’ allowances, and promotion of teachers). According to the theory’s finding, a fair balance serves to ensure a strong and productive relationship with employee, with the overall result being satisfied, thus motivated employee. The theory is built-on the belief that employees become de-motivated, both in relation to their job and their employer, if they feel as though their inputs are greater than the outputs.
Poor academic quality on the part of the teachers: The poor academic standard of some teachers are too low to impact on student. Example is a ordinary national diploma; student being employ as a lecturers in a school, nothing is expected of such because his or her academic quality is poor.

Lack of communication and involvement in decision making on the part of the school administrator: When there is deficiency in communication things will not be properly done by the lecturer and students, even when there are rules and regulations guiding and directing the activities of the school.

Delay in implementing lecturers’ salary scales. This is paramount in our society when government fails to implement salary scale in accordance with the agreement, that is, implementation is just on the paper.
Delay in paying lecturers’ salary and allowances affect their motivation and disposition of duties.
Lack of promotion of lecturers. Lecturers are being deny of promotion as when due.


1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to examine:

  1. Examine factors effecting the effective teaching of physics and their implication on students’ academic performance.
  2. Find out the effect of teachers’ job satisfaction on their disposition of duties in the lecture room
  3. Investigate the impact of teachers` fringe benefit on students’ learning habit.
  4. Ascertain the condition of service of physics teachers on students’ academic performance

1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered during the course of the study:

  1. How effective is physics teachers’ motivation on students’ academic performance?
  2. How does teachers’ job satisfaction after their disposition of duties in the classroom?
  3. How does teachers` fringe benefit affect students’ learning habit?
  4. What effect does teachers’ condition of service have on students’ academic performance?
  5. To what extent are the staffs motivated?
  6. What are the factors that hinder effective staff motivation?
  7. What is the level of academic performance of the students of the selected schools?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

The following hypothetical statements serve as a direction on which the work will be premised:

HO1: There is no significant relationship between physics lecturers’ motivation and students’ academic performance.

HO2: There is no significant relationship between physics lecturers’ job satisfaction and disposition of duties in the classroom.

HO3: There is no significant relationship between physics teachers` fringe benefit and students’ learning habit.

HO4: There is no significant relationship between lecturers’ condition of service and students’ academic performance.


1.7 Significance of the Study

The study will be a benefit to all those who are responsible for management of education in Nigeria. This will at the end contribute to existing literature on teachers’ motivation and school effectiveness. Data generated from the study could be used for further studies, such as in the area of school management.

Furthermore, it will enlighten the Ministry of Education and school management on the need for teachers’ motivation as a means of ensuring effectiveness in the school system in Nigeria. It is also anticipated that this study will help educators see the need for adjustments and flexibility in school administration.

Lastly, it will serve as a contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In this regard, it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.


1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Under normal circumstances, a social research of this nature is expected to cover a large area like the entire nation so that the generalization could be reliable and valid. However, there is some limitation which would not make that to be possible. These limitations include financial and time constraints. This study will be restricted to university of Abuja. The research is focused on the relationship between teachers’ motivation and academic performance of some students.


1.9 Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined as they are used in this study:

Teachers’ Motivation:

Teacher motivation naturally has to do with teachers’ attitude to work. It has to do with teachers desire to participate in the pedagogical processes within the school environment. It has to do with teachers’ interest in student discipline and control particularly in the classroom.

Academic Performance:

Academic performance is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important — procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts.

Job Satisfaction:

Job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.

Fringe Benefit:

A collection of various benefits provided by an employer, which are exempt from taxation as long as certain conditions are met.

Teacher:

A teacher is someone who has the requisite training and who is saddled with the responsibility of creating the desirable changes in the behaviours of his or her pupils. The teacher is someone who helps others to acquire skills, attitudes, knowledge, ideas, techniques etc. The teacher is therefore seen as someone who possesses knowledge and methods of imparting it into the children.

Teaching:

Teaching is described as the process and system of transferring ideas, attitudes, skills, techniques etc to other individuals for the purpose of bringing about positive behavioural change. It is the interaction that takes place between a teacher and student under the responsibility of the teacher with the principal aim of bringing about the expected change in the student’s behaviour.

Staff Motivation:

Staff motivation is simply described as a driving or moving force that makes an individual to strive hard to achieve aims and objectives that have been set.

Role:

It is simply seen as function. The function played by something.

Student:

A student is anyone who is still undergoing any form of training. That is, anyone who is still undergoing learning is regarded as a student.

Education:

Education is simply described as the process of providing information to an inexperienced person for him or her to develop physically, mentally, socially, emotionally, spiritually, politically and economically. Education is the process through which individuals are made functional members of their society. It is a process through which the young acquires knowledge and realizes her potentialities and uses them for self-actualization, to be useful to her and others. Education is a means of preserving, transmitting and improving the culture of the society.


1.10 Delimitation of the Study

The study is restricted to the role of teacher’s moral on higher institution students’ performance, with a focus on university of Abuja. Geographically, the study is delimited to other Private institution and government owned higher institution in FCT.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction:

It is the hope of this researcher that conclusions, recommendations as well as the suggestions made in this study will be implemented by authorities concerned.


5.2 Summary

In the course of the study, four objectives were raised, which include the following:

  1. Determine the relationship between teachers qualification/certification and students’ academic achievement in Physics.
  2. Establish the relationship between teacher years of teaching experience and students’ academic achievement in Physics.
  3. Establish the relationship between teachers knowledge of subject matter and students performance in Physics.
  4. Examine how teachers teaching methods influence student academic achievement in Physics in the University of Abuja.

Four research questions were raised and four research hypotheses formulated and tested at 0.05.TwentyUniversity of Abuja were selected to represent the sample in the study area. 250 Students from SSII classes were randomly selected across the sampled schools. On the other hand, all the seventy-five (75) Physics teachers were selected from the University. Forty (40) item questionnaires were administered to teachers and retrieved with the help of research assistants, after few days. The questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. Data gathered were analyzed at 0.05 level of significance.

The results from the data collected were analyzed, interpreted and discussed, and the following findings were revealed:

  1. Teachers’ qualification/certificate has no significant relationship with students’ academic achievement
  2. Teachers’ years of teaching experience has no positive relationship with a students’ academic achievement
  3. Teachers’ knowledge of subject matter was found to establish a strong relationship with students’ academic achievement.
  4. Teachers’ use of pedagogical skills has no relationship also with students’ academic achievement in Physics.

5.3 Conclusion

The study was aimed at finding out the relationship between teachers quality and students’ academic achievement in Physics in University of Abuja, Ibadan. The result of the study indicated that hypotheses 1, 2 and 4 were all accepted and hypothesis 3 was rejected and this led to the conclusion that teacher’s quality has no significant relationship with student’s academic achievement. And teacher’s knowledge of subject matter played a significant role in the academic achievement of students. From the findings these conclusions were drawn.

  1. Physics teachers are encouraged to further their studies so as to increase their knowledge and experience in their subject field or area of specialization.
  2. Physics teachers should be well committed to their duty
  3. Science teachers were encourage to use different teaching methods to make their students learn better.
  4. Science teachers should know their subject matter very well so that they could help their student to learn better.

5.4 Recommendations:

The National Policy on Education postulated that “No Education could rise above the quality of its teachers”. The student’s performance depend upon the quality of the teachers. Therefore, poor performance of students in Nigeria was also attributed to lack of quality teachers in our schools. Based on the proceedings conclusion, the following recommendations were made.

  1. Teachers of Physics should be encouraged to go for both long term and short term training to boost their quality in teaching and learning in University of Abuja. This is because by so doing, their power of knowledge and command of experience would be greatly enhanced or boosted and this serves importance to both the teachers and students.
  2. Government should ensure the adequate recruitment of dedicated, qualified teachers to teach in all University of Abuja in the study area in particular and the country in general.
  3. Teachers should be encouraged to use different teaching method during teaching.
  4. Teachers should also attend seminars, workshops to keep abreast of new teaching approaches.
  5. Teachers with long years of experience should be encouraged and motivated to stay in teaching profession as the length of service/ experience significantly affects the students’ performance in Physics.
  6. Teachers’ Registration Council should introduce tests and examinations for teachers at regular intervals.
  7. That government should find all possible means to retain veteran and experienced teachers who are still willing to serve so that they can contribute their wealth of experience to improving the system.

Conclusively, teachers of Physics were expected to use instructional materials from time to time as the need arises to develop interest in learning of Physics to their students.


5.5 Contribution to Knowledge

The study of the perception of the relationship between teachers’ quality and students’ academic achievement in Physics has revealed that:

  1. Teachers’ quality improved students’ academic achievement to a great extent.
  2. The use of pedagogical skills by teachers improves students’ academic achievement.

5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies

Similar research should be undertaken in the Junior School Certificate Examination in Physics. Similarly, research can also be extended to other schools in Oyo state. The study can also be carried out in other subject areas.


Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)


Disclaimer

This research material “Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Factors Affecting The Effective Teaching Of Physics And Their Implication On Students’ Academic Achievement (A Case Study Of University Of Abuja)” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.