Factors Affecting Effective Spoken English Among Secondary School Students

Project and Seminar Material for English Education

Factors Affecting Effective Spoken English Among Secondary School Students


Abstract


The study investigated the factors affecting effective spoken English among secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba state. Specifically, the study sought to identify the problems that students of Jalingo metropolis encounter when they get to speak English, determine the factors that affect spoken English among the students and to determine the extent the frequent use of English affects spoken English among secondary school students in the study area. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Also, general observations was recorded.

Target population for the study consisted of all the senior secondary two (SS2) students and teachers, which was 16032 students and 325 teachers from 62 Government approved secondary schools in Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba State. Therefore, 402 respondents (390 students and 12 teachers) were selected from 6 different secondary schools within Jalingo metropolis making up a total of 67 respondents taken from each secondary school to form the sample size. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data collected in order to answer the research questions while chi-square was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance.

The result showed that old methods in teaching made the learning process dull and not interesting, so students feel bored and lack interest, students perceived English language as difficult to learn, lack of English background knowledge, students’ lack of confidence to use the language and teachers’ inability to communicate English enough were the factors found to affecting effective spoken English in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba state.

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that students should be motivated to acquire confidence whenever they make mistakes in language classrooms, parents should try to encourage their children to actively involved in learning the English language at home and schools and the curriculum designers should think about the learners’ needs in language learning when they plan to design curriculum.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Scope and Delimitation of Study
  • 1.7 Significance of Study
  • 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Review of Related Literature
  • 2.2 The Problem of Model
  • 2.3 The Problem of Teaching Techniques
  • 2.4 The Problem of Non–Availability Of Specialists
  • 2.5 The Problem of Poor Teaching Procedures
  • 2.6 Appraisal of Literature
  • 2.7 Summary of the Review

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population, Sample And Sampling Technique
  • 3.3 Research Instrument
  • 3.4 Validity of Research Instrument
  • 3.5 Reliability of Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Data Collection Procedure
  • 3.7 Data Analysis Techniques

Chapter Four

Analysis and Discussion

  • 4.1 Data Analysis
  • 4.2 Hypothesis Testing
  • 4.3 Findings

Chapter Five

Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Speaking seems to be the most important skills of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) because people who know a language are usually referred to as speakers of that language (Ur, 1996; Tuan and Mai, 2015).

In Nigeria, English remains the undisputed language of school instruction, governance, administration, legislation, judiciary, international relations, unification of the country‘s numerous ethnic constituents, social prestige, and so on (Adio, 2010). Spoken language production is often considered one of the most difficult aspects of language learning (Brown and Yule, 1983; Tuan and Mai, 2015).

English language is taught as a subject and at the same time it is a medium of instruction for other subjects in the Nigeria education curriculum. The aim and objectives of teaching oral skills in English being taught in the Nigeria education curriculum is to make the student communicate effectively and intelligently in English. It also helps the student to develop confidence in his ability to express himself in English as fluently as possible and provides an opportunity for the correction of mistakes in spoken English (Babu, 2010).

The major goal of all English language teaching should be to give learners the ability to use English effectively, accurately in communication. However, not all language learners after many years studying English can communicate fluently and accurately because they lack necessary knowledge (Tuan and Mai, 2015).

A good approach to oral language instruction will develop the reading, writing and speaking skills of the student thereby making the learning of English language more effective and the learning experiences of the learners in other subjects being taught in Secondary Schools more concrete and more enjoyable (Yichu, 2013).

In reality, many language learners find it difficult to express themselves in spoken language in the target language. Each student has their own problems. Determining the causal factors is the focus of this study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There are several of determinants and problems that affects the effective spoken English as a foreign or second language in a diverse-native speaking country as Nigeria. Those factors may derive from many components including social environmental issues, the difference of culture, social economic extension, and etc.

These issues cause students to have poor performance in language learning, particularly in a vast populated countries such as Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to investigate the speaking problems of the secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study was to determine the speaking problems of the students of Jalingo metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Identify the problems that students of Jalingo metropolis encounter when they learn to speak English
  2. Determine the factors that affect spoken English among secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis
  3. Determine the extent the frequent use of English affects spoken English among secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis

1.4 Research Questions

For the purpose of this study, the following research questions were raised:

  1. What are the problems that the students of Jalingo metropolis encounter when they learn to speak English?
  2. What are the factors that affect spoken English among secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis?
  3. How does the frequent use of English affect spoken English among secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between the frequent use of English and effective speaking of English among secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis.
  • Ho: There is a significant relationship between the frequent use of English and effective speaking of English among secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study would provide information to the curriculum planners, teachers and school administrators on the factors affecting the spoken English amongst secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the factors affecting the effective spoken English among senior secondary school students in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba state. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba state. However, six public secondary schools will be used as case study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Factors:

Things or circumstances contributing to result.

Affecting:

Produce effect on or to bring about.

English:

The language, originally of England, now spoken in many countries and used as a language of international communication throughout the world.

Language:

Use of words in agreed way as means of human communication.

Spoken English:

An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face.

Students:

A school pupil or a person studying at a place of higher education

Secondary School:

Level of education that comes after the basic or results from the primary education.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion

5.0 Introduction

The study has investigated the factors affecting Spoken English instruction in Secondary Schools in Jalingo metropolis of Taraba State and the concluding part will be discussed further below;


5.1 Summary of Findings

The aim of this research work was to identify the problems militating against the teaching of Spoken English in Secondary Schools in Jalingo metropolis of Taraba State, and to provide ways of eliminating such problems.
Teachers of Spoken English in ten different Secondary Schools in Jalingo metropolis of Taraba State were used as the sampled population. And, to obtain information for this research, the researcher consulted library materials like textbooks, journals and the internet; and relied on responses from the questionnaire administered to teachers of Spoken English in Secondary Schools in Jalingo metropolis.

The data collected from the respondents were put into tables showing the number of respondents and percentages. From the table, it was discovered that there was: unnecessary emphasis and preference for the British accent; a lack of language laboratories in Secondary Schools in Jalingo metropolis; not enough skills required of the teacher who teaches Spoken English; and the problem of mother tongue interference among teachers of Spoken English.
From the data collected, it is obvious that the major problem confronting the teaching of Spoken English in Jalingo metropolis of Taraba State is the lack of language laboratories.


5.2 Conclusion

The findings reveal that mother tongue influences the students’ poor performance in Spoken English in Secondary School and that there are other factors affecting Spoken English Instruction in Secondary Schools in Jalingo Local Government of Taraba State. Some of this factors are listed below

  1. Interference of mother tongue.
  2. Unqualified teachers, poor teaching methodology
  3. Lack of constant practice on the part of teachers as well as students,
  4. Inadequate or total lack of relevant books as well as standard facilities for practical orientation.
  5. Teachers low level of competence in the subject, and his or her mastery of the techniques of imparting knowledge in it.

The study raises some issues which deserve further consideration for the government, policy makers and schools. More effort should be placed to improve the quality of Spoken English Instruction mainly because English Language is currently the official language of instruction used in secondary schools. Therefore, practical measures need to be taken by the government to ensure that the teaching and learning of English language is enhanced in order to improve students’ academic achievement.

Some of the solutions to be considered should include supplying secondary schools with adequate teaching and learning material for Spoken English, training programs that will enhance teachers’ language skills as well as pedagogy skills, and ensuring rural secondary schools have adequate and well qualified teachers. Since most schools do not have physical facilities for Spoken English instruction such as language laboratories and well stocked libraries the government should put these into consideration.


5.3 Recommendations

Teachers of English are admonished to appreciate the components of the oral forms that helps teachers to improve reading, writing and speaking skills for the learners. The study holds the view that oral language approaches towards developing reading, writing and speaking skills provides basic principles of instruction which if applied consistently can make the learning of English language more effective and the learning experiences of the learners in other subjects being taught in Secondary Schools more concrete and more enjoyable.

Speaking fluently will help improve writing skills if the English language is used consistently. However, more emphasis should be put on speaking and writing because they serve as end product of learning experiences.
In the light of the knowledge of the result gathered from the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The model of Spoken English to be taught in Secondary Schools in Jalingo metropolis of Taraba State and in Nigeria at large should be that which is spoken by the highly educated Nigerian, and not that of the British.
  2. The Ministry of Education at the State and Federal levels should prevail on Secondary School proprietors (and the government in the case of Government Schools) to set up functional language laboratories.
  3. Only teachers who have the required skills to teach Spoken English should be hired to do so.
  4. Teachers who have personal difficulties and mother tongue interference must go for training and re-training.

5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies

From the discussion it is realized that in practice, many teachers do not effectively utilize the appropriate methodology, contents and learning experiences for effective use of oral language approaches. The information obtained can provide data for those concerned with English Language, teaching, researchers and educationists. In order to obtain more information on the use of oral language in Nigeria Secondary Schools the following are suggestions for areas of further research:

  • The impact of early childhood education on performance in oral and writing skills in English subject.
  • Integration of oral approaches and other English approaches and their effects on reading, writing and speaking skills.

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