Factors Affecting The Choice Of Career Amongst Vocational And Technical Education Students In Egor Local Government Area Of Edo State
This project work is designed to find out the factors that are affecting choice of career amongst vocational and technical school students in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State. In t he study some schools were selected in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State. About fifty students were randomly selected to participate with ten students from each of the schools. The instrument used for collecting data was the questionnaires. The responses were analyzed by the use of percentage calculation. The analysis of the data revealed that all hypotheses were correct that is;
- That there is no significant relationship between the prestige value of any occupation and the choice of career.
- There is no significant relationship between the occupation of parents and the choice of career of students.
- There is no significant relationship between the sex of students and choice of career of students.
- There is a significant relationship between the types of subjects offered in the school and the choice of career.
Based on the above findings, suggestions and recommendations were preferred. It was recommended among others, that relevant programmes should be made in the form of awareness for the students to make different careers available, thing involved in the occupations and qualifications needed to carry out further research on the student’s career choices.
1.1 Background of the Study
In those days when few people for various reasons could go to school and job were waiting for individuals to qualify and take, there little need for planning either in terms of what courses to take or in terms of what type of job to do in future as occupation. Today the old education system order has changed due to change in society. The present day society is too complex and changes at a much faster rate than it was before. This rate of change present a baffling situation for the young ones in the society who have no experience. The choice of demand that alternatively should be clear and the important aspect should be taken into consideration in order that the decision process would be easier.
According to Mankinde (1982), he observed that in a simple society with little diversified choice of career, it does not require much specialized assistance. Parents and friends and family could provide adequate advice to someone who has to make a choice between several familiar options. The restlessness common to youth today is indicative of the society is complex and diverse. They are trying to understand their relationship with this fact moving programme. As newsmen of at put “it is a genuine desire to come to give with the underlying question in all human enterprises. The meaning of life, what am here for, what can I do to justify my existence. The present system of education in Nigeria which is the 6-3-3-4 system is American in origin. This pattern of education was into our society with its different culture of life and values and this class of value has created immense problems in our effort to develop a system suitable for our society. The history of applied psychology has its roots in the rise of empirical science and the increasing influence of a commercial industrial social class beginning in the last 18th century. This development led to the need for a more democratically based school system to train qualified worker for the every-burgeoning industrial complex indeed, the demand for workers in Nigeria was done among those that take the skills and the need for personal to help channel these prospective workers into increasingly complex job. The two significant events which occur in the 20thcentury marked the expansion of vocational and technical guidance. The were the career in 1910 of the national conference on vocational guidance. Association (Whifey, 1984). This marked the beginning of vocational moment in Nigeria. However, vocational guidance counselling started in Nigeria as far back as 1961 with the inauguration of the Ibadan career council, which later formed the nucleus of what is known as the Nigeria career councils. The name Nigeria career council was later changed in the year 1967.
There was a general opinion amongst career counsellor that our youngsters need constant guidance in the choice of occupation and the relevant career choice it is common knowledge to find students choosing vocation or occupation for which they have no aptitude but interest, such students are likely to end up in failure and career frustration. Thus, we have to live in ambiguity, uncertainty and value confusion. In other words, the traditional road or signals of danger are all inadequate today. The fact that personal conflicts or some other external obstacles do constitute to these goals, how we handle these obstacles that they do not develop into problem, require experience. The fact that guidance scheme can over one tools such as knowledge of how to solve problems are brought to bear on problems situations, the ability to make appropriate choice and decision are increased to the utter satisfaction and happiness of the individual. It is noticeable that many students have gone through the years of school system without knowing and choosing the appropriate subject that can lead them into the professional job, further studies and career wrist to pursue. The question now is how can we solve these problem which are affecting our students in their choice of subject in the school system as the choice of subject leads to the choice of career which in turn leads to the world of work in the career which in turn lead to the world of work in the society and nation that will eventually lead to building the personality of the individuals.
Career plays a very fundamental and significant role in the life of the individual not only because they determine the pattern of income but also because they affect the individual personality and concepts in life. Career therefore is a choose pursuit, life work or success in one’s profession, it is the sequence of major position occupied by a person throughout his lifetime. In a nutshell, career is the totality of work one does in his life time and are person concerned. It is therefore a positive thing for one to think as far as possible as it is enduring. Career choice is something very hard to enter especially as ones life will depend on it.
Her (1973) thus indicate that career is the totality of experience through which one learn about and prepare to engage in work as part of his way of living. Pietropesa and Splete(1975) Stress career is an enjoying process that occurs over the life span and includes homes, schools and community. Every human being needs to do one job or the other to help contribute his quote to the development of the country.
However, career convention according to him is an instrument of career information. This occurs for a number of reasons, which includes:
- To stimulate career thinking and widen occupational horizon.
- To focus attention on particular jobs in order to help an individual crystallizes his preference.
- To create a situation in which parents can on one hand meet employers and discuss the opportunities they offer and on the other hand meat the career teachers oar career officers with whom they can exchange views.
Factor that may influence choice of career includes.
- Socio-economic factors
- Personal or family factors
- Cultural factors, which include schools, peer group, age group.
1.2 Statement of Problems
Students which undergo problem of career often make their choice of career or subject without adequate consideration of important factor such as ability want and interest. Disillusionment could be avoided if the students could be guided in their choice of careers. Guidance can only be possible if the guidance counsellor can understand the aptitude factors that the students choice of career.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the career aspiration of the selected students in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State. The study will also determine the factors affecting the choice of careers.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study is aimed at eradicating the problem of choice of career amongst students in the society. It would also give students a good direction their year of study. The right choice of students so discover on time whether the subjects they have chosen, and if they would be able to do them, can meet their aspirations. Also the study will give educator good understanding of the problems and it will enable them to help the students make the right choice of career in which they have the aptitude and ability. This will enable them to read just and cope with the requirement for such career.
This study will go a long way in making our policy make recognizance the need for training more careers guidance counsellor for our students in the society. Implementation of the recommendation which will be derived from the study will enable students to develop some skills early enough through vocational and technical training to enable the contribution to economy development. As specialization is a criterion to high productivity the nation would also benefit very much from the employment of the right individuals in the right careers because there would be increase in productivity, thus, the national manpower need would be satisfied.
1.5 Research Questions
- Are the students aware of what career they are going into?
- Are the students influenced by friends, parents, teachers, social status, prestige, socio-economic background?
- What role do parents play in their children choice of career?
- Whether a students ability in a particular subject aspect his choice of career?
- Are the school giving the children a proper or adequate guidance and counselling service for their choice of career?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The perception of students (positive and negative) is fact all over the nation. But this study restricted to selected schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This study was carried out to find the factors that affect the choice of career amongst vocational and technical students in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. For this research, attention was focused on the junior secondary school students in the selected schools because they are in the certificate year i.e. junior school career, the instrument used occupational questionnaires. It was designed to find out the educational attainment of the parents of the students specific care chosen by the students the subject chosen by the students and the factors they considered before they opted for the subject and the career.
Statistical analysis of the data collected showed among others, that prestige value of career is not important in students choice of careers, the educational level of parents may not be relevant in the students choice of career.
In this vein, the researcher suggest that further research to be carried out on the students career choice in the higher institutions in relation to the subject their students in vocational studies. And for the purpose of comparison, more researchers should carryout similar studies in pother state of the federation.
Having regard to the purposing the researcher recommends as follows;
- That the role of the career officer in school need to be given much more consideration, such person competence and value of partnership in career work would be widely recognized but their unfortunately part in the guidance and counselling system has not been defined in many schools, there is a wide spread demand from career teachers, for more regular visits by the career officers.
- And that career teacher need a more comprehensive system of in service training and more opportunity to exchange ideas with their colleagues locally regionally and nationally.
- The researcher strongly favours the setting up of an institution of guidance and counselling in order to equip researcher concerning matters of vocational and technical choice of undertake and coordinate training for career. Staff in school and colleges. It will also help to distribute information and idea among the various segments of the guidance services.
- The present educational system should be emphasized academic career and encourage more vocational studies this will help those who may not be able to cope with the academic careers to their own line of interest instead of dropping out of the system.
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