Fabrication And Performance Evaluation Of Cold Storage System
A portable cold room storage was developed. The system was tested with different types of perishable crops under different temperatures. The system is made up of two units, one, the evaporating unit that is where the produce was stored; it is made up of steel material with 79mm by 45mm in length and breadth. While the second unit is the trolleys, the system consists of a control switch that is calibrated to suit any type of produce stored in the system. It contain a separate basement which consist of compress or, 1/6 cooling fan 1/6 connected together into the evaporating unit. This system was also constructed with lagging material which consists of A and B formula called polytherine. The ambient temperature was 35℃which have temperature range between℃-30℃. The electricity power requires running the cold room storage system is 220 to 250v. Hence, the system is effective for the storage of perishables at favourable conditions for every home.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Need for cold storage of Agricultural Products
- 1.2 Definition of storage
- 1.3 Flavour and Nutrition value of Agricultural products
- 1.4 Economics Important of cold Storage
- 1.5 Objectives of the Project
- 1.6 The Scope of the Project
- 1.7 Justification of the Project
2.0 Development of Cold Room Storage for Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.1 Harvest, Handling and Transport of Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.2.1 Harvesting Principle of Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.2.2 Handling of Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.2.3 Transport of Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.3 Storage Guidelines for Food and Vegetable
- 2.4 Conditions of Cold Storage for Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.5 Indoor Storage of Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.5.1 Temperature Management for Fruits and Vegetable
- 2.5.2 Chilling Injury for Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.5.3 Freezing Injury for Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.5.4 Storage Mix for Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.5.5 Operation and Maintenance for Fruits and Vegetables
- 2.6 Hygiene Procedure for Cold Storage Structures
3.0 Material and Method
- 3.1 Modified area on the cold storage
- 3.2 Description of the Cold Room Storage System.
- 3.3 Designed Consideration
- 3.3.1 Cold Storage system
- 3.3.3 Power Requirement for cold storage system
- 3.3.2 Capacity of the storage system
- 3.3.3 Power Requirement for cold storage system
- 3.4 Design Calculation and Analysis
- 3.4.1 Capacity of the Cooling Chamber
- 3.4.2 Heat transfer Analysis of the System
- 3.5 Materials Selection Consideration
- 3.5.1 Strength
- 3.5.2 Durability
- 3.5.3 Rigidity
- 3.5.4 Thermal Properties
- 3.5.5 Food safety
- 3.5.6 Availability of Materials
- 3.5.7 Gas Selection
- 3.6 Installation procedure and assemble
- 3.6.1 Application of the Installation
- 3.6.2 General Operation
- 3.7 Working Principle of Cold Storage System
- 3.8 Cost Analysis
- 3.8 Cost Analysis
- 3.8.1 Source of Material
- 3.8.2 Sample Preparation
- 3.8.3 Experimental Procedure
- 3.8. Output Parameter
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
- 4.2.1 Discussion on Average Weight and temperature of samples both in cold storage and at ambient condition
- 4.2.2 Discussion on Physiological weight loss of samples
- 4.2.3 Discussion on temperature against time interval in cold storage and ambient condition
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusions
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Need for Cold Storage of Agricultural Products
The term ‘cold storage ’refers to the storing of agricultural products in a refrigerated atmosphere. This means adequate amount of heat is removed from the storage container or room to help keep the item in often food fresh to delivery, long or short term storage.
Cold storage help prevent spoilage of food and other items meat for consumption, and it can be used in a variety of other setting such as in hospitals, warehouses, and any where else that stores product is in need of preservation .when transporting goods, refrigeration trucks are often used to keep items cold throughout the transportation process.
The room or compartment system in which items are stored for cold storage must be insulated properly for several reasons. The insulation helps maintain a particular temperature within the storage units. it help prevent cool air from escaping from the unit, which would otherwise lead to higher refrigeration costs and energy waste, and it help prevent the temperature outside the storage unit infiltrating into the storage.
In many cases, the temperature within a cold storage unit can be manipulated by adjusting a thermostat, a cooling unit and packing procedures should facilitate easy cooling of products being transported. This method is commonly used to transport perishable foods, flowers meats, and even human organs intended for transport blood is also refrigerated during transport so it can be used later for blood transfusion.
Home refrigerators can be considered cold storage units as well .refrigerators are used to prolong the life of food to be eaten, and they prevent spoilage of perishable food, in the past ;ice boxes were used instead to keep food cold, but this method was inefficient as regulating the temperature of school structure was often difficult, some types of ship features cold storage units in which temperature can be regulated, in the past fish that were cold were stored in container filled with ice, and the ship[would have to return to port before he ice could melt and allow the fish to spoil
1.2 Definition of Storage
According to ajiboye define storage as the process of keeping parts of the crop produced during the season of abundant production to ensure its availability during the off production period.
Storage is the act of storing product for future use. And also storage can be defined as the maintenance or retention of retrievable data on a computer or refrigerator and other electronic system. Perhaps the most domestic’s item of food .storage is the fridge or freezer in which a wide variety of foodstuffs are contained and preserved throughout the use of low temperature. Storage is where products are being held safe and in good condition [farlex depart 2003-2012] .
1.3 Flavor and Nutrition Value of Agricultural Products
Freezing is one of the eldest and most widely used methods of food,-preservation of taste texture, and other method. Freezing also retains the quality of agricultural products, overlong storage products like fruits, vegetables and other nutrition properties, the process involves lowering the product temperature generally to 18℃.the physical, state of food materials is changed when energy is removed by cooling below freezing temperature, the extreme cold simply retards the growths o micro-organism and slow down the chemical changes that affect quality or cause food to spoil [fennema et al. 2010]
1.4 Economics Importance of Cold Storage
Cold storage are carefully designed to meet the clients need and purposes from project management to the final construction of the facility, every little details is taken care of until the whole facility is completed. Cold storage is actually know how much of the food we eat is kept fresh before, during and after transit without it, meats, fish, vegetables and fruits would spoil quite quickly.
Cold storage helps to prolong the shelf life of fresh goods they are also effective in reducing the amount of waste and lengthening the time fame per marketing these foods. It is importance to retain adequate circulation of the air within a store and around the produce to ensure efficient cooling.
The main important factor in cold storage is ambient temperature. as a rule the temperature in cold storage is higher than1-2℃ ,which is the freezing point temperature of stored fruits and vegetables .stored products must not be freezing n the cold storage [cemeroglu and acar 2009]ozkolreported that there is heat transfer during the process. Tashtoush  investigated process of heat and mass transfer during cold storage of fruits and vegetables and determined a mathematical model for presenting these processes. Equations are solved for different cold storage conditions.
1.5 Aims and Objectives of the Project
The objectives of the project are
- To construct a cold storage structure for perishable products
- To fabricate .a cold storage structure for perishable products
- To assemble and install a cold storage structure for perishable products
- To develop a portable storage system for perishable products
- To evaluate the portable storage system using perishable products
1.6 The Scope of The Project
To further improve cold storage system interim of storing perishable products, its efficiency and capacity using local available material and at a affordable cost to the small scale farmers.
1.7 Justification of the Project
A portable cold storage system reduce deterioration or spoilage of perishable products, during transportation to where its needed
Portable storage system helps in making of the produced available in every part and corners of the community.
Portable storage system helps the small scale farmers and traders of perishable products in terms of transportation cost.
It ensure good quality of the products
The products are not exposed to chilling injury during transportation, marketing, distribution.
Portable storage system helps in maintaining high relative humidity of the produce to the final consumer of the produce.
Conclusion and Recommendation
A cold storage system was modified for performance and the following conclusions were drawn from the evaluation conducted.
The percentage weight loss (PWL) varied between 0.06 – 61.57% . Maximum weight loss was found in ambient condition where as minimum (0.06%) was found in the cold storage system. The percentage weight loss was found increased with increase in storage period for both cold storage system and ambient condition,
The minimum temperature of 1.40c was recorded in the cold storage system when average ambient temperature was 27.7. the temperature drops from 29 to 1.40c was found in case of cold storage system throughout the storage period
The relative humidity of 85% was recorded in the cold storage system
Cold storage system proved to be the best for prolonging and extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables in it.
Cold storage system research would help innovative farmers who yearn for modern storage methods by storing quality produce to enable them to have access to various market opportunities.
In recommendation to the result, the following are hereby recommended for further improvement on the cold storage structure.
Increase in insulation thickness in order to increase the thermal resistance of the wall to the flow of outside heart which may result in lowering the fooling of cold storage.
Provision of adequate power supply should be encouraged in order to achieve effective result of the cold storage system.
The concrete floor of the cold room should be lagged and covered with stainless steel for the concrete may serve as a source of leakage.
A drain should be provided outside the cold room to ease flow of defrosts water. If this space is provides, it may also serves as a vent for taking indoor temperature record without frequent opening of door which can thus increase the performance of the cold room storage structure.
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