Fabrication Of Briquette Stove

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Fabrication Of Briquette Stove


Abstract


This project is an equipment which been fabricated for the principle purpose of producing heat energy for commercial use by burning solid fuel like briquette. The project which is the fabrication of briquette stove was made from preferentially selected engineering materials like mild steels of different gauge member and metallic rod.

These metallic materials posses some mechanical properties like malleability, ductility, static strength and have the capability of with standing high tensile stress which can be noted in the area of filming of the materials used in the fabrication.

During fabrication, the follow sequence of operation was undergone. This includes design-material selection-fabrication evolution-and possible redesign and or modification. Screw design was found to be an area requiring major design improvement. Several experiments were conducted with different screw design, and an optimum design was arrived at. Problems concerning screw life was studied to enhance operating life of screws. Prototype briquetting machines were also fabricated after adaptive research in early day when briquette stove fabrication and construction.

The fabrication process of the metallic materials (briquette stove) include measuring out, marking out, cutting, filing, welding and painting as finishing touches. The materials used in the fabrication of this equipment are selected in order to withstanding the service environment like corrosion due to external agent; air, moisture and also due to continuous production of flame and heat especially on the reflector, gauze and top plate of the equipment stove.

The technology did not attract enough attention until recent time when the consumption of energy escalated to a greater height; an attempt was made to introduce this technology to Nigeria to alleviate the problem of energy and cooking equipment.

After the fabrication of the project, the efficiency of the briquette stove fabricated was tested and raised to be 89% effective, which shows and vindicates that the aim of the fabrication was achieved.

At the end of the fabrication, the cost of materials, labour and overhead costs were calculated on analytical bases, to ensure accuracy of the fabrication and its general usage.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 the meaning of stove and briquette
  • 2.2 Assessment of raw materials for briquetting
  • 2.3 Components of stove
  • 2.4 The cooking cup
  • 2.5 The heat exchanger
  • 2.6 The stove
  • 2.7 The fue canister
  • 2.8 Types of stove
  • 2.9 Domestic stove
  • 2.10 Camping stoves
  • 2.11 Industrial stove
  • 2.12 Rocket stove
  • 2.13 Satellite stove
  • 2.14 Sustainable energy sources
  • 2.15 Fuel wood
  • 2.16 Char coal
  • 2.17 Animal dung
  • 2.18 Agriculture residue
  • 2.19 Kerosene
  • 2.20 Electricity
  • 2.21 Liquefied petroleum gas
  • 2.22 Briquette manufacturing process
  • 2.23 The charring drum
  • 2.24 The grinder
  • 2.25 The mould
  • 2.26 Sawdust briquettes
  • 2.27 Briquetting of charcoal
  • 2.28 Charcoal briquetting processes

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Fabrication processes and care of the stove
  • 3.1 Selection of material for fabrication
  • 3.2 Fabrication procedure
  • 3.3 Measurements
  • 3.4 Marking
  • 3.5 Cutting
  • 3.6 Filing
  • 3.7 Welding
  • 3.8 Painting
  • 3.9 Materials used for fabrication
  • 3.10 Analysis of the fabrication product
  • 3.11 The briquette stove
  • 3.12 Analysis of the product
  • 3.13 Brief description of component of the briquette stove
  • 3.14 Top plate
  • 3.15 Reflector
  • 3.16 The guaze
  • 3.17 The ashtray
  • 3.18 Stove maintenance
  • 3.19 Operation of the equipment

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Material cost
  • 4.1 Labour cost

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Discussion
  • 5.1 Conclusion / recommendation
  • Bibliography

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

About fifty percent of the ten million rural household lack access to electricity. To improve this situation, the government approved in 1996 a plan to electrify sixty percent of the households by 2000 and seventy percent by 2010. Despite an aggressive grid bases rural electrification program, there will remain over 3million rural household having no access to electricity in 2010.

Nigeria is well endowed with renewable energy resources. Which could be used to generate electricity to serve rural communities and the national grid in an effective, economic and environmentally way. Hydropower potential for small-scale generation (under 10 mw/site) is estimated at about 2,000 mw. With sugar and rice production expanding rapidly, opportunities exist for economic power generation using bagasse and rice husk. Solar radiation levels are good in the southern and central regions (with an average sunshine duration of 2,750 hours/year). Wind speeds are adequate to good in the coastal arrears and offshore islands. Over the past two decades many pilot projects have been undertaken in Vietnam to demonstrate the technical feasibility of renewable energy technologies for remote power supply. These demonstration projects have built indigenous technical capacity in small hydro, solar PV and small wind turbine.

The infrastructure facilities in Vietnam are adequate to manufacture heated-die screw-press briquetting machines based on adaptation and modification of foreign briquetting technologies. With this background, the sida-funded project attempted to develop a market for briquette and briquetting machines in the country.

To gather expertise in the technology, institute of energy of Vietnam sent researchers to AIT as well as to Bangladesh institute of technology (BIT) Khulna. The researchers gained hand-on exercise in the operation and maintenance of briquetting machines.

Sequel to that, the document is the result of a mission to Lukla/mosi (8,000ft./2634m) and Khumjing (11,8000ft,3882m) in the klaumbu region and contains observations about the use of the beehive charcoal briquette stove for cooking and space heating. The beehive charcoal briquette stove has the potential to become a practical source of renewable energy (RE) for domestic use, hotel owners and trekkers in high altitude camping grounds. A currently large amount of kerosene is being brought into the region to satisfy the need for cooking energy and for use in Everest base camp. The observations in this report are related to the potential use of biomass charcoal briquettes and improved briquette stoves at high altitude in Nepal. With proper application of the available technology, biomass briquettes can be a means of providing a convenient source of energy for cooking and space heating, substituting the need for kerosene which is a no-renewable energy source for busijised by the Nepalese government. The need to improve the locally manufactured biomass charcoal briquettes has been also identified by WWF Nepal programme. The same problems in the supply of energy exist in similar high mountain regions; such as the conservation areas managed by the WWF-Nepal programme and the king mahendra trust for nature conservation. The charcoal briquettes are manufactured from agricultural residue and forest waste products. High firewood consumption for domestic cooking and heating purposes is depleting forest reserves because at the high altitudes, where tree growth is considerably slower than at the lower altitudes such as in the terai, regeneration of firewood cannot meet the demand.

Energy availability and efficient supply make up the engine of economic development. Fortunately, Nigeria is blessed with abundant energy resources; oil, gas, coal wood, biomass geothermal, solar, wind nuclear (radio-active) and hydropower. Unfortunately, only the gas and oil resources have been developed to the stage of over dependence for the countryโ€™s industrialization process at the negligence of the other abundant energy resources such as coal, in spite of this, the country has continued to suffer from indeciduate and irregular supply of us able energy for industrial, agricultural and domestic applications. Moreover commercial energy in Nigeria is produced and delivered at a cost most Nigerians can ill afford. As a result, a greater percentage of the growing population have resorted to dependence on the countryโ€™s forest resources as a source of fuel for agricultural, domestic and small scale industrial activities in semi-urban and rural areas. This in turn has given rise to deforestation with its attendant environmental degradation of desertification in the Northern parts of the country and soil erosion and loss of topsoil fertility in the south.

Of all the available energy resources in the country, coal and coal derivatives such as smokeless coal Briquettes have been shown to have the highest potential for use as suitable alternative to fuel wood (firewood) and there fore will serve as the most direct and effective method of combating deforestation in the country.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discusion

Briquette stove has been found to be one of the simplest equipment used in the production of heat energy for solid fuel, especially for domestic use and space heating due to its portability and advantageous nature, it has becomes the most cheapest and smokeless used coking and commercial purposes.

The briquette stove constitute of various components like. The plate the reflector, the igniter or tray pan and the glaze. All this was considered inevitable as parts of the stove before an efficient functioning of the stove.

During the fabrication of these components suitable engineering materials were studied and selected to suit the equipments requirements for service environment static strength corrosion resistance operational efficiency durability, cost and availability of the material used in the fabrication. Although the selection of the materials used was based strictly on cost and availability of the material, the various condition outlined above was the neglected. Like in the fabrication of the reflector mild steel with gauge number 16 was used since it was considered not attackable by briquette and can sustain a high temperature rage moreover, seen to serve as a good reservoir of briquette.

In the fabrication of the igniter pan the mild steel with gauge number 10 was selected as these can with stand the temperature of the buring wool to ignite the briquette and can further resist corrosion due to unburnt carbon (co) particles and other unsuitable environment. Unlike other heating generating equipment, the briquette stove utilize properties like pressure of air or steam as can be in most atomizing burners, the stove does not make use of the capillary action. The equipment make use of atomizing the fuel particles to provide a thorough mixing of the fuel and the oxidizer; the volatilization of fuel by the heat from the flame causing a fuel oxidizer mixture at the point of ignition. Also in the fabrication of, no much problems was uncounted although most of the fabrication steps taken was manual and is not expected to be too accurate relative to the one fabricated by a specially designed machine for the particular equipment.

Finally, for rigidity all through, the two plate and the stand were welded to gather with the stack cashing by the method of are welding. After assembling the components, it was pointed using enamel oil paint to resist corrosion, and because of the durability ease in transfer cheap fuel consumption and lots of advantages of the briquette stove it is very worthy to give it place a high priority on the stove.


5.1 Conclusion / Recommendation

The energy stored as chemical energy in solid fuel like briquette, fine wood etc can be harnessed in a form, which can be easily utilized in our domestic homes and commercial purposes for coking, in high attitudes for space heating and chemical process industries for steam generation process. This energy is converted into heat energy by means of equipment know as stove. The equipment incorporate the igniter pan which is an equipment used to enhance briquette stove can be fabricated from mild and hard steel and engineering material with different gauge numbers made to combust coal efficiently to produce heat.

The energy storage systems considered here are at varying levels of development. According, some of the economic evaluations projected for this system represent hardly more them speculation.

It should be obvious from the material in the fabrication that the development of practical energy storage systems required more or less advantage in a broad range of technical energy areas; solution of the problem now limiting these devices will require multidisciplinary approaches and development teams. If the world is to solve the long- range energy problem, it must make use of all available practical sources.

Specification where made for the type of fuel that should be used in the stove. Example, coal, charcoal, sarodust briquette is recommended, since some liquid and solid fuel gives a smoky flame and heat.

To prevent atmospheric pollution, the briquette in how sulphur content is equally recommend. Recommendation is also made for low content of non-volatile components. A minimum flash point of 1000f (380c )is desired to reduce explosion hazard and for the briquette to satisfactory produce the heat energy. The flash point and fire point of the fuel is recommended for fire and safety regulations.

In order to ignite the briquette, only matches and lighters are recommend. Electric spark can equally be recommended, since their end point is to ignite the briquette. The use of briquette stove is recommended to every home, laboratories and industries for use in their various operation since it is smokeless. The briquette is also recommended to high altitude space heating. Finally it is recommended for use in bakeries and baking industries.


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