Extraction Of Oil From African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum Africanum) Seed Using Solvent Extraction

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Extraction Of Oil From African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum Africanum) Seed Using Solvent Extraction


Abstract


Oil is extracted from locally purchased African Star apple using Sochlet extractor. Knowledge and information regarding the elemental composition of the fruits are very essential both to the human nutritionist and the horticulturist since minerals play vital roles in the life of both the human being and plants.


Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum Africanum), locally called “Udala” by the Ibos and “Agbalumo” by the Yorubas is found mostly in African Countries. Its distribution extend from Sierra Leone to the Congo region and Angola, found in rain forest and transitional formations, often planted for its edible fruits. Its distribution also extends to Sierra Leone to Spain, Guinea, extending to Sudan, Uganda, Kenya and Nyasaiano. It is also found in countries like Southern Nigeria, Cameroons, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone. Chrysophyllum Africanum is of the family “Sapotacea”. Its habitat is usually on riverside in closed forest, and often planted in villages. Chrysophyllum Africanum has different species, but Chrysophyllum Africamum and Chrysophyllum Albidum bear the same common name in Nigeria “UDALA”. (Okafor 1981).

A medium sized, evergreen three usually 70ft to 100ft high; bole straight, flitted, bark gray and riddget, slash thin, cale brown, darkening to orange, Heartwood whitish when first felled, turning a pink buff to an olive yellow and finally a yellowish brown, not demarcated from the sapwood.

Texture fine to medium, grain straight to occasionally interlocked, luster rather low; wood contains a pale brown gum. Chrysophyllum africanum bears edible fruits with large berries containing five large flattened seeds. It is greenish in colour when unripe and pale orange when ripe. It is pointed at both ends. The fruits are large and more than 4cm wide, shaped like orange or apple, it is often cultivated for its edible fruits and the pulp having a pleasant acid taste (Nwadinigwe, 1982).

Chrysophyllum africanum (African Star apple propagation is by seed either by encouraging natural regeneration or plantation traditionally. The sapwood is pale yellow and takes a good polish. It is fine grained, hard and tough polishes well.

It is used in carving and tourney. The seeds yield edible oil, which is sometimes used in Ashanti for making soap. The latex is used as birdlime, the back is also used medically, often sold in the market and the tree is usually grown for this purpose.

In parts of Anambra and Imo States, this tree (African Star Apple) forms the focal point or venue for a fertility rite, in which young girls, childless wives celebrates a festivity – eating, singing and dancing for the sole purpose of praying to the gods of birth, this is a gesture of charity, since children are freely entertained without discrimination or distinction. The African Star Apples are valuable sources of minerals such as protein, fats and oil, carbohydrates etc. (Okigbo, 1989).


1.2 Aim and Objective of the Study

The objective and aim of this Project is to extract the oil of African Star Apply (Chrysophyllumafricanum) seed using sochlet extraction and to evaluate its potential as a raw material in cosmetic and paint industry.


1.3 Statement of Problems

The demand for vegetable oil both for consumption and industrial application is vast, and common sources like palm oil and palm kernel oil are far stretched that the need for alternative sources is invariable. This has prompted us to ascertain the quantity, quality and the utilizability of the oil of Chrysophyllum africanum in industrial and domestic processes.


1.4 Significance of the Study

The justification of this research study is to ensure that the oil extracted from African Star Apple is circulated or sold. It is also carried out on the basic of making soap, paint, cosmetics, it is also used in curing jaundice to avoid any sort of suffering from Jaundice.


1.5 Limitation of Study

In a research project like this, it is always difficult to complete the work without going through a number of challenges, which constitute impediments. The time to get information from the library, and time for the purchasing of raw materials, industrial machines etc. finance is another constraint a lot of money was needed for transport, typing, browsing and practical work.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary / Discussion

So far, an attempt has been made to determine the quantity and quality of African Star Apple, that is the oil extracted from it. The African Star Apple, which belongs to the family sopotacea is found in different parts of the world. It habitat is usually on riverside in closed forest, and often planted in villages. It is a medium sized, evergreen tree that bears edible fruits.

The seed of African Star Apple is usually propagated. It is used in making soap both solid and liquid. It is also used in carving and turnery. The bark and latex are used as birdlime and medically. The oil of ChrysophyllumAfricanum is usually extracted through solvent extraction, and in order for the oil to be plentiful even in the time of scarcity, some storage techniques and utilization has been developed. Investigation shows that it can be carried out into bottling the fresh fruits in syrup and in the form of Jams and fellios, so “Udala” jam can be obtain, made from chrysophyllumafricanum.

Economic prospects of the African star apple have increased tremendously as a result of the recent discovery by “Anazonwu” that they are excellent for jam production.


5.1 Conclusion

In conclusion, chrysophyllum africanum is an invaluable and priceless seed. It is fine-grained, hard and polishes well. It is edible and sometimes used for making soap. The back is a medically petent drug. The method of extraction comprises the chemical and the physical, which shows that alternative methods of extraction are available.

In the methodology of extraction, we require few materials. Due to its small quantity produced when small quantity of the seed is used we require many tons of the seed because its oil has diverse uses.

Conclusively, we can say that oil from African Star Apple may not be used efficiently as a raw material.


5.2 Recommendations

It should be of note that the prospects of the African star apple have increased tremendously as a result of recent discovery by (Anazonwu, 1981). This has gone a long way to show that they are good for raw material production but only in large quantities. On the other hand, it is also recommended that other resources should be diversified. Other sources of extraction should be gotten and used. These include palm oil, palm kernel etc.


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